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was once a long and a wide estate-- were covered others sought it, too, for there was not a sleeping with weeds, like the wilderness, for John Inglis, eye in our place on that Sabbath morning ; but we the gardener, had lost heart among them; but this had made nothing when the sun rose, and when season everything was put to rights for some occu- nine o'clock came, and no word had been beard, pier, and John Robb had been working there with except that she left Blinkbonnie a little after seven others, when his wife was taken with the fever, in the evening, and nothing had been seen, mapy and although he was an outspoken man, as in the got wearied, and went to their houses; but at this matter of the limestone, yet the Robbs were well time, Mr. Smith, of the Rackets, came down to liked, and after Mrs. Robb got the turn, sorry Blinkbonnie; and he asked at the Inglis's whether were all their neighbours, and wae for the children, the lady went up the water by the north or the who had a good father, that he fell past, and never south side. They had, as was natural, taken no grew better, but always worse; until one day I thought to look; and when he went down to the heard the neighbours say that he was at a rest. steps, he saw that they had never been covered,

So Miss Nancy followed her way in such sorrow, but one was carried out of its place in the row; and was always sending to the widow, and think and so he bade us search the deep Drover's Pot, ing for the small and helpless children, who might nearly two hundred yards down; and we all be said in a certain sense to have none but the searched,—not that I could do more than be in framed to mind them.

It was on a Saturday the way. evening, and the sun shone sweetly after the heavy The Drover's Pot was deep, and the water was rain, that hung upon the leaves like very diamonds drumlie, and nothing came of the search for a time; and pearls, as I supposed, who had never seen pre- but at last—at last we were cast down with very cious stones, except the red ruby in Dr. More's ring, grief to the lowest—as she was laid carefully on and perhaps it was not a ruby. Our garden shone the bank, and old, hard featured men, wept like full of them in the sun, and the burn was noisy as myself, and the other children. it ran to the water, and the water was more than The face was wan and white ; but very pleasant full.

to look at, if it had not been for death; and the John Robb's house was a half mile from ours, hair hung over the brow from beneath the bonnet, and it was not in the way to Blinkbonnie ; and I and the little basket was in one hand, and a root was called out of the garden to speak Miss of grass in the other, which made us all sadder Nancy—and ran gladly. She was saying that I still

, because it was so clear that she had been was too young to carry it so far, but that objec- near the bank once, unless it was a waif floating tion was over-ruled, and I promised to go fast on the swirl—and her little grey cloak hung over with the basket to the widow and her children. her, without being much soiled, except the crimson And I always remembered liow that when I was silk, and there was mud on it. By-and-bye, Mr. cleaned and combed, she took off her gloves, and Smith said to Dr. Groom that they might look for tied my neckerchief in a bonnie knot, and bade her watch, and they took it from the riband round me be kind to little Johnnie Robb, who was her neck. It pointed to twenty past seven-a ther under my age, and kissed me-a thing she little before the gloamin. A small picture, in a had never done before--and promised to take me yellow frame, was close to the watch, like a penny, down with her to Blinkbonnie next week, if I had or little more, in size; and Dr. More, who came my lessons well for next day. And I was very up faster then than I ever saw him walk before, proud, and went my errand well

, and played a said that it was the likeness of her mother, who little while with Johnnie Robb, for boys soon for- died so long ago, when the black letters came. get their sorrow and turn to their play again. And then they began to carry her on a board to Also I learned my lessons well, and said them over the manse, and the doctor was to place her in the before going to sleep on the night before our chaise; but the neighbours did not wish that, and cheerful Sunday--for we had all grown cheerful so, when all was ready, and we looked at the white, since we went so often to Miss Nancy's.

white lips, that would speak to us no more for It was in the dead silence of the night that I ever, it seemed as if our very hearts would break; wakened up, and, heard my father say he would and I bowed down and kissed them, which I could be down in five minutes ; but it was not two, do, because I was so very sma!!, and they were when I heard his foot upon the stair very fast like, cold, cold, but I minded upon the last night, and and then other steps came up light and quick, and my leave taking, or I would not have done that ; I knew the voice, and crept to the door when one and when I looked up, and they were going away, of the Miss Douglasses, as we called them, though and she was lifted away, there was Mr. Green, so they were far from rich, was telling that Miss weak and woeful, that I took his hand, for he could Nancy bad not been at the manse, nor Dr. More's, scarcely walk; and he spoke ont of his Bible, as and the doctor had driven into the town, while the he could for sobbing, that “all flesh is grass, and minister was nearly distracted.

the goodliness thereof like the flower of the field,” And it was then that Sandy, who was beside me, and other words like these. This was out of all and was older and wiser, said in a whisper, " the compare the saddest gathering that we ever had water.” So we hurried on our clothes, and sought on a Sabbath at Kirklowe, as we went up to the the water-side, up and down, by ourselves; although I manse by the nearest way, past the back of Dr,

ra.

GLEANINGS AND FRAGYENTS.

53

More's; but I rent not in then, for there were so many children, and they all had loved her so well.

Why now should these hours of sorrow be recalled, seeing there are so many in the world, and Nancy Rose has been dead so long ? Because she

is not dead. She never died, as useless ladies die, to be forgotten. She lived, and lives yet, guiding our thoughts in some manner, and keeping her watch over more hearts than two or three, as we may see afterwards.

[To be Continued.)

GLEANINGS AND FRAGMENTS.

BESSEMER'S PATENT MAY BE A FAILURE. immersion in cold water. The writer of this paper Since the month of August last, almost every has tried many experiments, and has found results newspaper and periodical has contained some which possibly would have been as marvellous as notice of Bessemer's discovery in the manufacture those of Mr. Bessemer, but cosmopolitan principles of iron and steel. Praise is due to Mr. Bessemer must prevail. It is of no consequence what a for his attention to a matter of such general man might gain by the introduction of a system if interest, it being known that the consumption of it were injurious to a very large community. iron and steel constitutes a very important item in "The history of the manufacture of iron and the commercial affairs of this country; but after so

steel is of no consequence for the present much adulation it becomes necessary to make a argument, the fact that we have them and cannot practical investigation of the merits of a system do without them is self evident; yet whether there which is closely connected with the prosperity of can be any plan introduced successfully to displace the nation. The writer of this paper is totally operations which have been for years in practice unacquainted with Mr. Bessemer; it is no matter remains to be proved. To every person acquainted of consequence to him as an individual if the with iron and steel, the term baving " a body in it” system be a source of pecuniary profit or not; he is quite understood, but to the uninitiated some can only say that for twenty years he was practi- explanation is required. Iron stone is known as a cally engaged in the iron and steel business, and common produce of many parts of this country; it will never forget the lesson he was obliged to is not combustible, but, to produce pig iron, a learn. It is well known that the present large furnace is prepared, and into its mouth is consumption of iron and steel is attributable to continually poured the iron stone along with coal the increase of railway traffic and other means of and coke; a blast is worked by steam or other communication, and if the patent be made profitable power, and the iron runs from an aperture into it will probably be applied to iron for rails, springs, moulds, called pigs, in which they are moulded ; and arles ; and should it be introduced to Birming- before they have cooled, they are as brittle as glass, ham and Wolverhampton, where chains, cables, and but if they are annealed—that is, covered from anchors are made, the consequences will be still external air till perfectly cold—they will acquire a more important. The circumstance must not be degree of almost incredible resistance or toughness. overlooked, that between facts and theories there These principles of practice will not apply to Mr. is a remarkable difference; and when an experiment Bessemer's patent. Should any one be inclined to has succeeded once it is by no-means certain that try an experiment generally known on a piecc of iron it will always be satisfactory. To the chemist and and steel, take a smith’s bellows, the moveable the philosopher it is well known that the same pipe preferred; heat the iron and apply the blast ; results are not always produced by the repetition the iro:1 will not cool, but will consume, and of similar operations. If the Bessemer discovery instead of being improved will be destroyed. A were confined to certain classes of manufacture, it circumstance will often occur in the experience of would be useful; but if it become general, it may men who are accustomed to forge the blades of be attended with very dangerous consequences.

knives, &c. If the small piece of steel is longer in There are many things—such as ornaments for contact with the blast, it Ioses its nature, and will fire-stoves, and buttons, chiefly made in Birming either fall to pieces under the workman's hammer, ham, which will not polish unless they receive a or will pass through its stages, and break in the hard surface, and to obtain it they are generally servant's hand on being cleaned. The objections placed in an iron box with bones, and when offered to the common process of making iron are heated are plunged into cold water. This process the best guarantees for its quality; and every one gives them a steel surface which will receive a high acquainted with it is well aware that English iron polish. The axles of common carriages are never ought to be any worse than what it is. sometimes made of iron, and a steel surface welded There are circumstances plainly illustrative of this on them to prevent their speedy wear by constant in the accidents arising from a broken axle, or friction ; but if the iron were brought to a white coupling chain, or tier of a railway carriage wheel. heat, and were then rubbed over with prussite of To show that brit:le or badly wrought iron would potass, the steel surface would be obtained from / be attended with consequences too disastrous for

54

BESSEMER'S PATENT MAY BE A FAILURE.

detail, a table knife of a superior kind may be, make the finest edged razor. A man single-handed bent nearly double, but it will not break if made can break any part of this bar. Submit the ingot from good sheer steel— like an unbent bow, it will to the tilt-hammer, reduce it from three inches in return to its former straightness. The cause of diameter to one inch, and twice the force will not this elasticity is found in the very process Mr. Bes break it. In former times all iron and steel were semer seeks to destroy-it is the consequence forged or tilted to the sizes required for the articles of operations which, though old, cannot be super. which were to be mamufactured from it; and those seded. A brief explanation of this process will be who have had experience in the hardware trade sufficient to convince those who are not acquainted will always give the preference to the articles with the manufacture of iron and steel that no made from tilted rather than rolled iron or steel. other plan can be attended with success. Iron, it The reason is plain. The hammer closes the pores, has been said, is at first brittle, and its general and removes the oxyde of earth which clings to the usefulness consists in its being malleable. In its substance through every process, and the more it first state in the stone it can serve no practical is wrought the more flexible, pure and serviceable purpose. In its second state only a few purposes. it will always be. If any person will refer to In its third condition it is generally useful; and “Parkes' Chemical Catechism,” it will be seen then from it the rails are made on which thousands what importance is attached to "repeated hammerventure their lives, and through which the com- | ing.” Of late years a trial respecting a patent for merce of the country is conducted. In the fourth the manufacture of cast steel has enjoyed public it is steel, which constitutes the springs of carriages; attention. The proposal was to make cast or reand in the fifth it is used for the mannfacture of files fined steel from iron scrap, which was an almost and tools, and is called cast steel. In the second valueless article. The process consisted of the state of the iron stone it has been puddled. The addition of manganese in the crucible; but it was a pigs have been placed in a furnace and moved about failure, and, as those engaged in the practical part with iron bars in a ball. The mass is then passed of the business said, “If you want a good article through a pair of rollers, and afterwards put under from the melting pot, you must put good metal a forge hammer and wrought into bars. The third in.” So far is it certain that the Bessemer patent stage arises from what is called a converting pro- must be a failure, that the practice of years and cess. There are proportions of charcoal used for the general experience, though quickened by the purpose of making it harder or kinder. This sharpest competition at home and the greatest is called a high or a low heat--the former pro- rivalry abroad, bave not been able to produce a duces cast steel, being for files and many pur- workable and passable iron or steel on any other poses; the latter for railway springs and other plan than that which has now been explained. objects. After all this we find there are accidents; The friends of the Bessemer system we may supand every one acquainted with the trade knows pose say everything in support of the patent, that what care in each process is required to produce can be advanced with truth; but they confess that a quality which is necessary for public safety. In “if the iron remains in the furnace a few minutes making sheer steel the bars of iron from the cou longer than the time required, its character as iron verting furnace are selected, and are drawn under or steel is annihilated, and a mass of very brittle a forge hammer. They are then welded and crystalline iron will be left as the result." There drawn again to a certain size, to obtain double is a good degree of truth in that statement, and, if sheer steel -as that of a table knife, just named. the regular course of experience is to be followed,

The fact will now appear that iron and steel are it is sure to be the case. only rendered valuable by being submitted to the Supposing the new process, as an experiment, process of the hammer; and Mr. Bessemer, by dis were to answer under the management of a skilful peusing with that, as a slow process, will give us chemist, which undoubtedly Mr. Bessemer is, the a substitute for iron, which if malleable at all will manufacture of the iron and steel could not always have neither body nor quality to sustain the pres- be conducted by practical chemists; consequently, sure which will come upon it. We have heard from the ignorance or inattention of the workmen, much of the decrease of our popularity in manu- the large iron manufacturers might lose considerably facture. Its truth or untruth is not the pre- more from failures in operations than they would sent question ; but if anything will ruin the hard-evergain by the time Mr. Bessemer professes to save. ware trade of England, it will be the introduction To the public the question is one of vital conseof a bad, spurious material, which is of far more quence—is this new iron, as the advocates of the importance in the quality of tools than even the system say, to become “a substitute for timber" workmanship employed in their preparation. One and“ a benefit to the whole world ?" But who is to fact may be further added to show that the pre-examine its quality before the people trust themsent plan of submitting iron and steel to the am-selves to its agency? It is more than probable mer, which Mr. Bessemer would principally that it will under heavy pressure give no notice of dispense with, is : Take a bar, or as it is called an a catastrophe, like ordinary iron, by bending, but ingot, of cast steel which has gone through the like what it still is, cast metal partially purified, it stages of good bar iron; it has been converted, and will doubtless break, and, under circumstances little melted in a crucible, and is of a quality which will | anticipated, will be attended with very disastrous

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results. If Mr. Bessemer's iron is to be tested any other light than as the most commonplace city properly, let it be made from the iron stone in the world. But now, standing on the roof of principally found in England, let it be submitted! Notre Dame, and taking somewhat such a view of to the forge hammer ; for it may pass through the Paris as I should take of London trom the balcony rollers and seem to have a malleable body, when, if of St. Paul's, I could better realise the wonder, brought to the proper test, it will be found tender, and even admiration, with which many foreigners brittle, and consequently unfit for mechanical regard enormous London. purposes. Mr. Bessemer's plan is soon explained. There was the regret, to begin with, at the He has a receiver for the liquid iron as derived difference of atmosphere—the size of Paris (being, from the iron stone, and he supplies a blast which as a lively French friend remarked a city that produces a violent motion of the metal, which might dance in London)—the wood fires—the afterwards is considered iron or steel.

people, living so much abroad that the separate Mr. Bessemer is worthy of credit for his desire fires burning in almost every room in London are to introduce an improvement in this department of not necessary-and the absence of factories, all mauufacture. He is no doubt thoroughly sincere, contribute to that clearness of the air which, to and bas acted perfectly right in securing to himself my mind, is not the least charm of a large city. the benefits of his discovery in a pecuniary view, Thinking of Notre Dame, by comparison with but inasmuch as public interests have to be res- Westminster Abbey, I must, generally, prefer the pected, it is right to intimate that the philosopher latter; although the elaborate western front of the frequently fails for want of practical experience, French Cathedral is, undoubtedly, very fine. But and that fact is the absolute and only reason why the interior is cold and barren, and wants variety. these remarks have been made.

It does not impress me, in the same manner as our own ancient pile, with the feelings of Milton's glorious lines in the Penseroso. We Londoners, too, seem to have an affectionate reverence for the

Abbey, very different from that of the Parisians for PARIS AND LONDON.

Notre Dame; for, undoubtedly, the most fashionable WANDERING some weeks ago in the neighbourhood place of worship is the Madeleine — a superb of Notre Dame, and passing by the front of the building, indeed, but one where I cannot consider ancient pile, I perceived the door leading to one of the Roman Catholic ceremonies appear to the best the towers was left open. Some workmen were advantage. But it was not originally intended as engaged in slight repairs on the roof, and I was a place of worship ; indeed, it was at one time suddenly siezed with a desire to witness from one destined by Napoleon for a Temple of Victory, in of the towers the beautiful sunset that was coming which to deposit the trophies he had collected in on. I therefore mounted the narrow stairs, and his different campaigns. To the stay-at-home was soon lost in a flood of associations, connected reader (if such there be in these travelling days) not only with the building on which I stood, but we can best give an idea of the Madeleine by with the beautiful city that was outstretched like likening it to our own Royal Exchange. There is a map beneath.

The pen of Victor Hugo bad a fine bold altarpiece in the Madeleine, which, invested the grand old edifice with an almost however defective in some minor points, is certainly magical charm, for in a dim imaginative haze the more in keeping (not a little merit methinks) with vivid situations of his striking novel rose before the general appearance of the building, than the me. In the sweet calm of the autumn evening, and dull, inharmonious masses of marble that seem to the silence of the street below, I could only for a fill up the odd corners of St. Paul's. There is time think of the meditative Claude Frollom another contrast between St. Paul's and the absorbed in study upon the spot where I was now Madeleine worth mentioning. The vault-like apstanding-or, looking downward from the height, pearance of the central portion of our London see his struggling form about to be dashed to atoms Cathedral, unrelieved by pictures, statuary, or even on the stones below. One carving, indeed, in my groups of worshippers scattered about on the forgetfulness of present objects, seemed to assume Sabbath-the few who come, partly to hear the a grotesque physiognomy, that was quite a study anthem, partly to see the building, shut up between for the face of Quasimodo. Gradually my thoughts barricades, that must remind many of Drury Lane reverted to recent events, that had achieved their Theatre, or the Cattle show, almost make the crowning significance in the solemn aisles beneath, Protestant blush for the glory of his Church, and and I wondered what history would have to say wonderingly ask if the freedom and cheerfulness of of these.

the Madeleine, where no distinction is made between Arousing from my reverie and looking forth on the workman in his blouse and the Countess in her the towers, palaces, and domes that stood up diamonds, and where the worshipper kneels in any sbarply defined in the clear, soft atmosphere, tinted portion of the building he chooses, has not a more gorgeously with the last rays of the sinking san i humanising influence than the purest creed adwas almost unconsciously led to think of the ministered in a sectarian spirit. Looking down capital of my native land.' Living in Londou, year upon the river, which tows beneath, one sees a after year, I had almost ceașed to think of it in vast difference between it and the broad-bosomed

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Thames (pity that it retains so little of its virgin really handsome fountain in London, we must not purity). The silent highway of London has as look for such a marvel. In Paris we have many, sociations, historical, commercial, and domestic, to quite works of art, and what can be more agreewhich the canal-like Seine is a stranger. I have able on a sultry day than the cool refreshing always thought the views of London from some of splash of a fountaiu. the Bridges to possess much interest--and could

I can only regard our Railway Stations with a always enter into the feelings so charmingly em- sigh-such lavish expenditure, such heaps of bodied by Wordsworth in his sonnet on a view of inortar, such piles of brickwork, and—so little London from Westminster Bridge. But I have elegance. It is quite astonishing. been most struck by a view of St. Paul's at Of the petrified negroes that are stuck about sunset from Southwark Bridge. To the Cockney, some of our squares, I had better say nothing. born and bred within the sound of Bow bells, Nor will I advert to those ghastly abominations, writing thus may seem very prosaic, but I can the city churchyards, for here at least, there is assure him if he is anything of an artist, that the some ground for hope. To a much greater length effect of the grand central object surrounded by, it these remarks might have extended, but the sun is may be, a thousand leagues of cloud, gorgeously sinking lower and lower, and the beauties of Paris tinted an by autumn sunset, was quite Rem- are no longer visible. The workmen, also, coming brandtish.

forward, politely inform me that their labours are The bridges of Paris though very numerous are over for the day, and they are about to close the too small to awaken much interest in the mind of building. So, almost reluctantly even now, I descend a Londoner accustomed to the majestic terraces of from the towers of Notre Dame, with a feeling, not Waterloo, or the bold yet airy span of Hungerford. of contempt for my own capital, in its busy, bust

One thing should be particularly noted in ling variety, but a desire that the vast sums Parisian architecture; whatever is really beautiful expended in London architecture could be as is made the most of-would that it were so in promptly and effectively applied as in the charmLondon. The Parisian Houses of Parliament ing city beneath me. would not have been crected in a swamp where only a good view of them could be obtained from one of the dirtiest and least interesting localities. Compare the situation of the Arc de Triomphe with THE PERSIANS IN HERAT AND THE RUSSIANS the position of any public building in London, where

IN INDIA, the only really fine site is occupied with one of the Tue geography of central Asia has long been a ugliest edifices that an Englishman of taste can mythical subject in our seminaries of useful blush for—to say nothing of it as a receptacle learning. Three-fourths of our people know not for high art. (It may be worth considering, what or where Herat is, with any precision. The en passant, what would have been done by this The Aral, the Araxes, even the Caspian, certainly time for a French Turner's gift to the nation.) I the Osus, and, most undoubtedly, all those chains should hope too, that no real artist is blind to the of horrible mountains that raise rugged cliffs lamentable folly of placing a tall column in the between the Indus and the Tigris, are names to middle of a large square; and I would quietly ask, them, and nothing more. This ignorance of comwherein consists the appropriateness of such a mon things leaves us in danger of being cheated column to a naval commander-I am told it is

on every hand. We are at war with the Persians, Nelson, but the cocked hat is all vouches for it at and a vast portion of our population know only that distance. In Paris we may see, in more that Persia was a great empire when it had Cyrus instances than one, how and where a column should for its monarch-aud they have heard of Xerxes, be placed. A column, says common sense, should and Greece-of Darius and Alexander, and of stand that the eye rests upon it alone, as a princi. Esther the Queen. pal object. In Trafalgar-square the only effect Persia extends from the Caspian to the Indian produced in my mind is that it is sadly in the way. Ocean. To the ports of the Caspian the Russian To show again the improved effect to be attained armies can be floated by navigable canals, or rivers, by a slight change of position—I would refer to the from every part of that Northern Empire in Europe Marble Arch, which a French architect would most -even from Finland, or the shores of the White certainly have placed exactly opposite the end of Sea. Into the Caspian our fleet of new gun-boats the Edgeware-road, and thus it would have formed

can never penetrate. Around that great inland a pleasing object across the very centre of the sea the Russians may build arsenals, and collect park, and for nearly a mile down a wide road. the materials of war without the dread of inter

As to hoping for Boulevards round London, ruption. Upon its waters they can collect half a that is visionary, from the high value of the ground; million of men, more easily than, perhaps, to any yet in some quarters (as, for instance, the New other part of their dominions. The Caspian is road, where a small portion of the gardens front- their natural basis in their cxpeditions io the ing the houses, would form charming promenades South, now that they have been foiled in the in the summer) the experiment might be tried Euxine. The former sea bas the great advantage without any extraordinary difficulty. As to a of perfect security, which the latter can never

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