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SKETCHES OF JERSEY.

NO. IV.

THE ISLAND.

summer.

We are told that we write sketches in Jersey, yet the climate, which is called mild in winter, hot in give little information of Jersey. To supply this

As to the later assertion, we steady old omission, therefore, we begin by stating that English people remark that all places within Jersey (that small but pleasant island) is to be British atmospheric influence appear to be “ hot found in 49 deg. N. lat., 2 deg. 22 sec. W. long. in summer ;" 'twere very strange if Jersey The breadth of this same emporium of gaiety is should be "cold in summer !" But it is hot in somewhere about six miles; the length, eleven or summer-and very hot, moreover,---and the sky twelve. We give the greatest limit, because we is an intense blue, and the glorious sea takes the have an affection for the little place, and wish same deep hue; and there is always a delicious to make it as important as possible.

breeze coming from that sea, and chasing the Now those tourists and others who visit the superfluous heat away. little island may have peregrinationary intentions Then Jersey is certainly "mild in winter "-of travelling to the adjacent islands of Guernsey, not as mild as some imaginative people would Alderney, or Sark; and no doubt they would like have you believe, who declare they can only to know the relative positions of each of these " endure" a fire in the months of January and places—they may even have insane views (such as February! We have our own particular notions we have frequently held ourselves) of journeying about their not being able to endure the heat of a over to France, either to Granville, St. Malo, or fire; we would substitute "expense" for “ heat," Cherbourg : and they may wish to know what and we suspect we should be pretty near the amount of sea-sickness they will have to endure, truth. For our own part, we must say, that we, ere they can reach any or either of these respective during our Jersey winters, always found a fire very places.

We will simply give them the distances comfortable from November, not earlier, to April, in old fashioned English miles, and leave all other or even May. But, nevertheless, Jersey is mild in calculations to themselves.

winter. Jersey, then, is no less than 21 miles from Now for the chief town which, as every one Guernsey, 27 from Alderney, 29 from Granville, knows, is St. Helier's, and a very cheerful place it 32 from St. Malo, and 42 from Cherbourg. Sark is. The streets, it is true, are narrow; but those is six miles east of Guernsey. At one time we streets contain plenty of shops, and those shops entertained erratic notions of going there, but as hold all you want, if you . have only money to pay we know that its extent is three miles by one, and for the same; for, although people go to Jersey as we have heard that there is only one decent for economy, they cannot live there without that house in the island, and nothing in the world to metal which first tempted the Phænicians to our do there but to walk up a steep rock and see the coasts, and which, judging from the current ex. sun rise, and then come down again, we have given pression of the day, still seems to be in general up the notion.

requisition-"tin;" therefore, what matters it if But to return to Jersey. First to the soil: It the streets are narrow, when they contain what we is excellent, of great depth, and very productive. want ? The price of land is high, but with skilful cultiva- As to the people--not the English, Irish, and tion it amply repays the owners. They have (the Scotch-hut the Jerseyites, the Druidical remains Jerseyites, we mean,) a custom of cultivating seem to prove that the aborigines belonged to the parts of this land, as what may be termed hanging Celtic races. The Romans also occupied the island gardens-"coutils,” they are called. These gar- for a considerable time; and when their empire in dens are shelves of earth, cut one above another, Gaul was conquered, and the Franks were subdued on the side of a sloping hill. The effect is new by the Northmen, or Normans, as they were and pretty; perhaps we yield to it the latter at called, Jersey became the residence of the latter, tribute in consequence of the former. These whose actions and conquests there were sung and "coutils” are generally planted with fruit or chronicled by Wace, the first poet and historian of vegetables; and we may fairly conclude that the Jersey. Now, these same Normans generally carplan answers, as they are so common in the island. ried matters with a very high hand, and they did We spare the reader a geological analysis of the not depart from their usual custom in Jersey. land, feeling assured that if we took the trouble They established their own laws, and the legal to write it, he would not care to read it.

authority of the island is the “Grand Coustumier After the soil we discuss the climate, which is de Normandie," a work, according to our British so far connected with the soil, inasmuch as it has legal authority, Blackstone, of "very great con. a considerable influence on its productions, and sideration.” the soil, in return, has a particular influence upon Our worthless King Jolin voluntarily granted a

530

LAWS, REVENUE, TRADE, AND POPULATION.

charter to Jersey, by which twelve “jurats etc., and last, not least, pears—the great Jersey coroners" were established to assist the “ bailli” pears—hundreds of bushels of which are yearly in the administration of justice. These “jurats sent to England, and other places, and are justly coroners" were to be elected for life from among considered a dainty, coming as they do at a time the našives of the island. In cases of importance of year when native fruit cannot be obtained. The an appeal is permitted to the Queen in council. price asked for these pears is enormous, £5 This charter, and their laws, are still in force, but per hundred being demanded and obtained various modifications have from time to time been for the largest—which, however, it may be remade by the different sovereigns of England. The marked, should each of them weigh one pound, or people for whom these laws were framed are an even more than that. honest, frugal, and industrious set (we are speak- The population of Jersey, like everything else ing of the Jerseyites, not the British), religious, there, except the island itself, is on the increase ; and strict in their observance of the Sabbath. some years since it extended to 50,000, now it They are all of the Protestant faith, no Roman considerably exceeds that number. But it is a Catholic family being of Jersey origin. Each of changing population, and just at this present time the twelve parishes which the island contains, has promises to decrease, for a rumour exists in the an episcopal church ; there are also several chapels island of an intention of imposing a local tax on of ease, and several dissenting places of worship. the British residents. Now, the British residents The Roman Catholics are chiefly, if not exclu- won't stand this, therefore they will leave the sively, French and Irish, and have increased of late place; and, therefore, as we said before, the popuyears. Two of their chapels exist in St. Helier's. lation may be soon from this cause slightly on the

There are various schools established in the decrease. island-charity schools on a small scale, and the We suppose our readers will like to know some. Royal College on a large one. At the latter thing of the Legislative Assembly, or States. It establishment an excellent education may be consists then of the Governor, as the representaobtained at a comparatively small rate; therefore, tive of royalty; the Bailli, who acts as president or although we hate advice ourselves, and never by speaker; 12 Jurats, the 12 Rectors, and the 12 any chance take it, we are going to bestow a little Constables, who are the representatives of each of of it on others, and “advise” people whose in the 12 parishes. These thirty-six members meet, comes are small, and families large, to go to propose, discuss, and enact laws. The Governor Jersey, and get their boys “licked” into shape, and Bailli can vote only in certain cases. The and drilled into knowledge, at the Royal College high legal authorities have seats, but do not vote. of Jersey. The building is beautifully and health. There are also two Crown lawyers, who may fully situated on a hill, and commands a splendid advise or dissent from, and address the States in view of the towns of St. Helier's and St. Aubin's, any case. so that the budding masculine mind muy delight Now it must not be imagined after all we have in the contemplation of the beauties of nature, said, that Jersey is only a trading and legislating while conning old Horace and his cotemporaries. place; no, forsooth, Jersey bas bad, and now reThe revenue of Jersey is greater than those cynics tains, military aspirations. Jersey men are many who decry the little place may imagine ; and, of them devotees of the belligerent Mars. Jersey moreover, it is rapidly increasing. It is collected has a militia, and a very goodly militia, too,-sell under the authority of royal charters, which were trained and disciplined men, who, we have no in the first instance ganted by the sapient James doubt, would offer a brave resistance should our the First of England. In 1804, the consolidated neighbours, the French, make a twelfth attack on revenue of Jersey amounted to no more than the island (they have already perpetrated eleveu), £5,000 ; in 1849 it had increased to £20,000! and rattlc away famously with their artillery, &c. Cynics, look at that! We won't say what it ex- Besides the militia, Jersey (as is of course perfectly tends to at present, because, like novel writers, well known) is garrisoned with the Queen's we delight to make a mystery and excite an in- troops, who occupy Fort Regent, and other militerest ; so, ye wise cyuics, who abuse our little tary quarters of the island the artillery (Queen's island, if you would know the present revenue Royal) being stationed in Elizabeth Castle-a very derived from it, you must even find out the pleasant place in summer, but rather dreary in same yourselves, and you cannot do better than winter, being a complete island at high water, and just, by taking a trip over there, give to your only to be reached on foot at low water by a wet bodies a modicum of sea air,—to your minds, an and uncomfortable route over the beach. equivalent amount of Jersey information and finan. We have now redeemed the charge against us cial statistics.

of writing in Jersey rather than of Jersey; but a From the foregoing account of the revenue, it little more of practical information may be useful may fairly be surmised that the trade of the -How can we get to Jersey ? island is in a progressive state ; and such is the In many ways ;-by the cargo steamship from case. The imports, of course, consist of all the London direct, which goes every ten days_not people of the island require for their own use and the pleasantest mode, but ostensibly cheap; we consumption ; the exports comprise cattle, butter, say ostensibly cheap, because, in order to be really

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so, we must make up our minds to be sea-sick the There are plenty of hotels besides Bree's; lots
whole way, in order not to eat; for the voyage of them, like mushrooms, springing up on all sides;
round the Straits of Dover occupying a long time " The Britisb," “ The Commercial," "Le Soleil
-some days, in fact, time varying according to Levant,” &c., &c., of different degrees of cleanli.
weather—if we eat, we will disburse more in ness—suitable to all pockets and persons ; still
provisions than would cover the additional passage we say, in friendly advice, to Bree's."
money of the regular line of steamships from Wey- But perhaps our traveller does not like an hotel
moath, Southampton, or Brighton.

-perhaps he has brought those veritable encum. So much for that boat; and now to the other brances with him, a wife and children; in which modes of transit. First in order comes the Royal case an hotel will be too expensive ; he must have mail steamships from Southampton—we like to be lodgings. Very good. He can have lodgings, as loyal, so we place royalty, even when connected many as he likes. He may revel in a change of with a steamboat, first. Then we have the Wey lodgings, have fresh quarters every week, and mouth route, which, en passant, it may be re. yet (should he not make a very lengthened somarked, embodies the advantage of a short sea journ) fail to exhaust the long list of " lodgings passage, some three hours less than the South- to let." As to price, they may be had from ten ampton route.

shillings to three or four guineas per week, the Next we have Maple's boats from Newhaven rent depending of course on the number of rooms, (the Brighton line), and capital boats they are, too, and the style and situation of the same. with good captains and accommodation ; in fact, rule, lodgings are cheap-cheaper than in any there is no difficulty in getting to Jersey; no diffi- watering place, possessing the same advantages as culty in getting away again, unless one happens to St. Helier’s, which we have visited in England. be in debt-in which case he will experience very But we are progressing, and mean to suppose considerable dificulty; for the tradesmen and trades that our traveller has taken our advice-put up women, although willing to trust to any amount, first at “Bree's," been well pleased; moved to while their debtors remain on the island, lose their lodgings; been better pleased still —indeed so beautiful confidence in human nature as soon as very well pleased that he has decided on becoming the above named debtors talk of departure; and, a resident in the island, and means tę take a to use a homely but very apposite simile, watch house. them “as a cat would watch a mouse ;" frequently Now this is an important affair, and he must reserving the final spring until the unhappy debtor give it important consideration ; and consider stands exultingly on the pier, ready for, and cer- whether he will take a furnished or unfurnished tain of -as he thinks-escape. Then comes his house. If the former, he will pay the same for enemy, his creditor, down upon him, and he must the furniture (the hire of it) as for the house. perforce liquidate bis debt or debts-or prolong Thus a house which will fetch £40 por annum his residence in the island.

unfurnished, will be £80 per annum furnished. But “ how to get away" is not the first thing a This is the general rule of the island; and univertraveller thinks of when he reaches a place - sally acted on; although such arrangements are although, in our own case, from a concatenation of open to a little bargaining. In Jersey, as in every unpleasant circumstances, it was almost the first other place, people must have their eyes open, and thing we thought of on the evening of our arrival remember the proverb, Chacqu'un pour soi ; Dieu in Jersey. However, as we sincerely hope others pour tout. may not be similarly circumstanced, we will afford Very good houses for small families, containing a little useful information as to the manner in eleven or twelve rooms, may be had for about £25 which the traveller may dispose of himself during or £30 British per annum. Some are even less the interval which, in the common course of nature, than this, but then they must be in the country. must elapse between his coming to, and departure The neighbourhood of St. Helier's is the most exfrom, the island.

pensive, as being the most convenient locality. First of all then, where is he to stop ? We However, those who don't object to omnibuses, suppose, if he have friends in Jersey, he will stop (Jersey has omnibuses) will not find the country with them; but, in the other case, if he be a inconvenient ; for these lumbering “twelve insides wretched, lonely being, wandering about all day, and ten out" traverse every part of it--and then with his hands in his pockets, and, as ninety-nine we must recollect that no part of "the country" men out of a hundred do, looking forward to his can be very far removed from “ town," as St. dinner as the great event of that day, as the wel - Helier's is called, when we remember the whole come something to do ;" then we recommend extent of the island. him to go to “Bree's Hotel,” in Bath-street ; Now we have given the rent of houses for small where, according to the advertisements, he will get families—but, we dou’t mean it to be understood “an excellent dinner, either at a table d'hote, or that there are no others in the island; for there in a private room, at a moderate charge." In are grand houses, and very grand houses, to be fact at this hotel or boardinghouse, every comfort had a few of them ; and there are besides plenty can be had which the heart of man (or woman of medium domiciles, something between the either, for the matter of that) can desire.

“very grand” and the "small family affairs, and

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these we fancy are the most useful class after all; | than in Eugland, and all raised with little care. and their rents vary between £40 and £60 | The climate and the soil act as gardeners, and per annum, unfurnished of course.

very excellent gardeners (in the mere culture of Supposing our traveller, therefore, to have got flowers), do they prove to be. as far as his house, we imagine he will want a ser. There are no rivers in Jersey, as may be supposed vant. These functionaries may be obtained in from the restricted dimensions of the island. In Jersey, of all prices, sizes, and ages; from the the valleys we noticed running streams of clear “Marchioness,” whose height is three feet no- pure water. In the winter, these streams are, of thing, and whose value is estimated at one shilling course, very much swollen, but the most active per week, to the combination of “good plain cook imagination could not even then construe them and maid of all work," who considers herself and into anything approaching to rivers. Fresh water her services worth £12 per annum. From eight springs abound in the island; and from these, to ten pounds, bowever, is the average amount of through the medium of wells, the Jerseyites are vages to servants in the island; and for the latter supplied with the fluid material for boiling their sum a very decent "help" may be obtained, who kettles and slaking their thirst. will do every thing you desire her to do, and not One word more in description of Fort Regent, expect to spend more than three evenings in the the principal fortification in the island. The cost week from home, besides “her Sunday!” We we have named elsewhere. It is magnificently had one Frenchwoman as “help," who struck for situated above the harbour, and its cannon could seven evenings in the week “ for herself.” We sweep both sea and land for many a mile round. yielded the point, and she pined for an eighth! From i he broad ramparts we have splendid views which, not being able to accomplish, she relin- uf St. Clement’s and St. Aubin's bays, the town quished her situation. But then, to be sure, she of St. Helier's, and the extending country. Un. was a Frenchwoman.

derseath the Fort there is said to be a subterra. As to the salubrity of St. Helier's, doctors nean chamber (if, indeed, such a place may be differ on the subject. With some people the place called a chamber), large enough to contain all the agrees well enough ; others cannot bear its re- women and children of the island, who, in case of laxing properties. The higher ground is the its being besieged, would be safely stowed away healthier; and we should advise all who go there there, while their sterner companions would be in a debilitated state, to choose their residence in over head, peppering away at the enemy. One an elevated situation.

inestimable advantage Fort Regent possesses—it And now, having discussed the useful, we gladly can never be without fresh water. A well of imturn to the ornamental attributes of the island. mense depth supplies the place. The entrance to The whole place is intersected with beautiful walks the mouth of this well is by a long subterranean and drives, generally of rather a wild and rugged rocky passage, leading from the barrack square. character. Valleys, whose sloping sides are either As we steamed into the harbour of St. Aeliers, cultivated in the hanging "coutils,” or covered on our first visit to Jersey, we were very much with the purple blooming heath, and serving as a struck with the massive grandeur of Fort Regent, pasturage for the goats which abound in Jersey. aud we mentally decided, that he would indeed be These drives are not generally very well timbered; bold who would provoke the hustility of its you may pass through long and shady avenues of battery. trees, but there are not many which attain the We have now, we believe, said all we have to magnificent growth of trees in England.

say about Jersey. We would add, let those who But although Jersey cannot boast much of its feel inclined go to the island; and while imbibing trees, it may be very justly proud of its flowers. its pure sea-breezes, and admiring its pretty Heliotropes of gigantic size ; fuschias, geraniums, scenery, test for themselves the truth of our -all are exquisite; of more brilliant colouring report.

TANGLED TAL K.

"Sir, we had talk."-Dr. Johnson.
" Retter be an outlaw than not free." - Jean Paul, the Only One.

" The honourablest part of talk is to give the occasion ; and then to moderate again, and pass to somewhat else." - Lord Baoon.

THE INDUSTRIAL CULTURE OF WOMEN. commonplace with me, in conversation and otherAn improved education, literary, industrial, and wise, and it is a topic which has so often slipped moral, for the Better Half of the race is, and, ever into these columns, half unawares, from my pen, since I thought at all, always bas been, such a that no one who reads this will need to be told how

THE INDUSTRIAL CULTURE OP WOMEN.

583

strongly I feel the necessity which exists for widen. have the soul of a gentleman, he can recall situa. ing (what, in a former paper on the Domestic Re. tions in his lifetime in which he has taken silent, lations of Literary Men, I called) " the spiritual thankless pains, or made silent, thankless sacrifices trysting-ground” of the sexes, by extending the of feeling or interest, in behalf of women, merely benefits of a much more varied and robust mental from natural chivalry of heart, which is quite incontraining to girls than is now conventionally accor-sistent with the " tyrant hypothesis. He looks ded to them. As far as my observation goes, the at an English lady, with a kind husband and most cultivated and conscientious men and women affluent «

surroundings," and half asks himself, (out of the pale of purely sectarian prejudice) are fretted and worn by business, -Is there in the quite of accord upon this subject in the general. world a creature so much to be envied as a wellThose who cannot bear to hear of a better edu. to-do English woman? An ordinary Briton looks cation for women are for the most part men of the no farther. He shelves all “woman's questions' world who know too much to believe in anything as nuisances, and pursues the old tracks of thought good, and that loathsome class of men whom and action without misgiving in all that relates to Shelley had in his eye in the verse

the sex. If part of his blindness be selfish, let it Things whose trade is over ladies

be confessed that a snarling, quarrelsome advocacy To lean, and flirt, and stare, and simper,

is not the thing to anoint his eyes. Till all that is divine in woman

All woman's advocacy of women's needs is, of Grows cruel, courteous, cold, inhuman,

course, not of this character. There are ladies who, Crucified 'twixt a smile and whimper.

like Mrs. Jameson and Harriet Martineau, labourNon ragioniam di lor. Such creatures are rarely ing to better the culture, and widen the social converted, rarely reached with any touch of a sphere of their own sex, know very well that there sound moral criticism. The hope of the world is is no “conspiracy" to "keep them down;" that in the gradual extinction of the breed. But there all advocacy of the claims of women, as separate are other men, who are accessible to common from the interests of men, is liable to run into sense and kind feeling; and there are thousands of unfairness, and is sure to seem unamiable; that women, in these times, when the complications of men, not less than themselves, are in these matters civilisation are teaching the sex the urgent need of entangled in meshes of "custom,” to the weaving of multiplying independent sources of happiness, if which they were unconscious parties, and to the they would be happy at all, who are prepared to breaking of which frank, friendly concert, in the change a general into a special interest in such a drawing-room and the market-place, not less than question as Industrial Culture for Women. in the journal and the lecture room, is necessary;

It is true that real danger attaches to any at. and that the only advocacy which is likely to tempt to deal with the interests of women as if “tell," must be at once genial in its tone and they were separate from those of men. It is true practical in its drift. On the other hand, there that female advocacy in general is distinguished by are men who are ready to “meet" the women halfA personal tone, which, where there is not suficient way” (as the phrase is), in this matter of an power of mentally changing places in the reader to improved education, and extended sphere for their get it allowed for, is unpleasant and deterring. It sex. is true, also, that some degree of the ridiculous The practical questions concerning women, hangs over the "earvestness" of most " earnest " which most urgently press upon our attention, do

A vulgar-minded woman in earnest is the not require that we should settle, before dealing very Fiend. No man is ever so devoured by the with them, any abstract questions about the capa

cause” he espouses. Her seriousness is more city of women. My own private opinion may be, thau devotional, be the occasion ever so small. that they are not, and never will be, equal to men; Martyrs jest on the scaffold, and heroes on the that the broad outlines upon which the social brink of action, but propagandist women of aver- edifice of the future will be reared, are irrevocably age mould, never. Their work is sacramental. marked out in what we already know of the relaTempt them not with Joe Miller and such like tive characters of the sexes ; that the normal carnal pomps and vanities, lest you be sent about position of the woman is one of dependence upon your business with “Away, slight man !” and find the man--all this I may, and I think I may add, “ Is't possible ?" no answer. Much of their advo. | all this I do think. But I am satisfied that there cacy, accordingly, takes the shape of complaint, are remains of barbarous modes of feeling in all, and sometimes of doworight objurgation. They even the best, of the conventional modes of treatwrite in their own behalf as if they were trampled, ing women; that the ills of our competitive indusbetrayed, conspired against on all hands; as if men trial polity, and badly managed social intercourse, were all “ tyrants," and could with a list of the press most hardly upon them, and that their freer finger get them rid of all that "custom" is charged action is the appointed means for healing some of with doing to their social disadvantage. Men, of our social wounds. To this end, they must be. course, resent this. An ordinary Briton hears him come more independent. And they will do so. self branded as a woman's “ tyrant” with aston- Providence has taken this matter out of our ishment. He is conscious only of the kindest feel hands. The enormous number of unmarried ings towards the sex. Probably, certainly if he women is one of the most positive, unquestionable

women.

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