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tributed have done so under ample notice. They entered | following question and reply (No. 959), respectthe public service well knowing that those contributions and ing the appropriation of deductions, as an insurance, those terms would be exacted.

according to Sir James Graham's false representa. Such was the notable explanation of Sir James tion :Graham as to his intentions and impressions at the

Question: Would it be of any importance whether that time of introducing the bill ; and we have no

sam was applied to the uses of Government, or was funded hesitation in saying that, if the report of his and to the uses of a Provident Fund, with respect to the presLord Grey's apeeches in the Mirror of Parliament sure upon the income of the individual who paid it ? be correct, which we firmly believe, notwithstand- Answer : Yes, in this way; men now go to work harassed

with cares for the future state of their families; they are ing the wily baronet's disclaimer, both the House

not able to attend to their business in the way they ought of Commons and the country were most grossly

to attend to it. There are numerous cases where individuals deceived. Beyond a doubt, the bill was passed upon their death-beds have been in an unhappy state of under an impression that a fund was to be created mind, knowing that their families are left in the most ab. upon the principle of insurauce, and for the sole ject distress, that there is nothing even to support them ; and benefit of those who contributed to it ; in Sir

their friends have been obliged to go round to the public James's own words, they will pay the premiums

offices to raise sums of money to bury them. There was a

case at the Admiralty of a man with a good salary, who had themseltes, and secure the whole benefit. A fool ten children, who was obl to give up an insurance he could not err in the interpretation of words so effected on his life. Sickness came on, and positively that plain, simple, and comprehensive ; but what is the individual died without a shilling in the house, and his family actual result of the working of this precious piece

were obliged to come to his fellow clerks for money to bury

him. of ministerial robbery ? No sooner

was it passed, the word “fund" The gentlemen of the civil service are expected being left out of the bill (whether by accident or by their superiors to appear as gentlemen; and any design is no matter, the House was pledged to the one who should go to his office with a shabby coat principle), all idea of forming a fund was at once

would be frowned upon as a disgrace to the serabandoned, although up to the present year the vice; but the Treasury acts too meanly as regards farce of calling it “the Superannuation Fund” has

them to enable them to do this, and at the been kept up by the Treasury in their yearly same time to support their families in the accounts. The deductions have ever since been commonest comforts, or even necessaries of life. paid into the account of the Consolidated Fund, By a paper prepared by Mr. Farr, stating the anand disposed of as the Treasury have thought nual expenditure of a married clerk, with two fit

. And so far from the "premiums” having children and a servant, upon the strictest rules of been founded for the sole benefit of the payers, as economy, it is shown that with an income of £200 Sir James Grabam blandly assured the House, out per annum, reduced by the superannuation tax of £860,000 deducted, more than the to £177 6s. 8d., he will find himself minus six odd £60,000 have been paid in pensions to the pounds at the end of the year, without allowing contributors, the whole surplus of £800,000, wrested anything for the education of his children, sittings from the hard-earned wages of the clerks, having in a place of worship, recreation in the country (so gone in payment of the pensions of those who much needed), wine or spirits, or-worse than all have never subscribed a shilling!

-insurance ! Is this a state of things relative Nor is this the only grievance the civil service to one section only of the Government servants clerks have to complain of. Upon the new scale of that Parliament will any longer tolerate! And yet pensions the superannuations have been greatly re- this is the condition of those deserving men, while duced to those who are subject to the tax, who its permanence was endorsed by the majority are in fact, far worse off in this respect than any

of the committee of last year, upon which were of those who do not suffer any deductions; so that three Chancellors of the Exchequer and a Lord of they suffer on all bands, both by a reduction of the Treasury, every one of whom must be cognisalary, and a reduction of pension.

sant of the injustice of the case, and who being, But by far the most conclusive and telling evi- or having been in receipt of untaxed salaries, shut dence was that of R. M. Bromley, Esq., the Ac- their hearts and their ears to the iniquity of thus countant-General of the Navy, who, by his extensive perpetuating a system, commenced in fraud, and acquaintance with all matters relating to the pub. continued in robbery. lic offices, and as Chairman of the Committee of A gross misrepresentation of Sir James Graham Civil Servants, has become thoroughly versed in in his evidence must not be left unnoticed. He all the details of this monster grievance. Never stated broadly that the superannuation tax was inwas evidence given in a more clear, straightfor-teuded instead of a reduction of salary which was ward, and fearless manner; and how the com- contemplated. This is false in so far as the mittee could withstand this evidence, and recom- prevention of the reduction of salaries was conmend the passing of the infamous bill, we can

cerned. By Mr. Bromley's evidence it appears only account for by their atter destitution of that all the Government offices underwent a revi. moral and humane feelings. The cases of abject sion, and that large reductions were made in distress brought before them by Mr. Bromley many cases, amounting in the aggregate to the should have touched hearts of stone. Take the sum of £700,974. This was between the years


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1821 and 1829, and therefore quite irrelative to appointed on it, we have reason to hope that their the superannuation tax, or the reduction of pen- report will be favourable to the repcal of the Act sions, which had not then been inflicted. How of 1834. But this is only the first step in the Sir James could muster face to make such a business, and it is probable that any Bill for that statement, when he knows that the salaries are purpose will meet with the strenuous opposition of barely adequate to support the clerks in the neces- the Government, backed by the Grahams, the saries of life, can only be accounted for by a me- Barings, the Stanleys, the Gladstones, and the lancholy disregard of the rules of political morality whole body of receivers of untaxed salaries in the which has distinguished him through lite. But two Houses; nothing, in fact, can be hoped for, whatever subterfuges he resorted to in bis evidence unless the country at large take the matter in hand, before this committee, the evidence of Sir C. and, with one voice, ask for the repeal of this Trevelyan remains untouched, and it is as plain as shabby and stupid Bill. The country has need words can make it, that the Bill was obtained by indeed to perform a lustration to clear itself of a false pretences; and that whilst the obnoxious participation in the crime, in which it is impliprinciples of it have been worked to the utmost, cated by its silent acquiescence in its perpetration. the spirit of the measure, favourable to the contri. Ignorance of its extent and fatal effects may have butors, has been wholly disregarded and departed been some excuse hitherto; but now that the subject from, to the irreparable injury of the sufferers, the is known, and lias been so amply discussed, it will disgrace of the Government, and the shame of no longer be a valid plea for silence. Parliament.

The writer of this paper is in no way inWhat then is to be done, in this iniquitous dis. ierested in the question, having never received a regard of the principles of justice, with this very penny of the public money, either as a clerk in a blark spot upou the character of our British honesty public office or otherwise. He has, however, stuand generosity to public servants ? The seri ants of died the subject con amore, ever since 1848, and the Crown should be put upon such a footing as to be come to the conclusion, that a more glaring act of able to support themselves in comfort and respecta injustice has never been perpetrated by the Go. bility, and make provision for their families at their vernment, or one which has entailed more misery decease. “A Royal Commission” has been issued, upon a large body of men, by depriving their fa. it is true, to inquire into the case, and that com- milies of future support, and themselves of present mittee is now sitting. From a bank director being comfort and peace of mind,


"Sir, we had talk."-Dr. Johnson. “Better be an outlaw than not free."-Jean Paul, the Only One. " The honourablest part of talk is to give the occasion ; and then to moderate again, and pass to somewhat else."-Lord



which.” The Spanish language has a very useful MR. A. DE MORGAN said, in a recent letter to the participle applicd to things before named between Daily Nero8, that we ought to have the word "sar- persons in communication. Instead of saying (for cast,” to indicate one who speaks or writes sar instance) “ the cases referred to in your letter of castically (for once) without being professedly a such a date," a Spaniard amply explains himself satirist. Who will help to introduce it ? At last, by saying, " las cajas consabidas” — the cases known “ telegram," for a telegraphic despatch, is becoming of, or with, or between us; and this under cirfamiliar. But these things take time. Mr. cumstances where we could not gracefully use the Macaulay has not succeeded in naturalising the phrases "in question," " referred to," and so on. ablative absolute in English, though it would be a process of interchange is constantly going on a very useful saving of words. How much shorter between France avd England, and Germany and to write, as he once did, “ sitting the Parliament,” both, as to new words and locutions. Poets and instead of " while the Parliament was sitting." imaginative writers are great innovators. So arc It is only quite recently that we have nearly all the newspapers. But is not the French of to-day gathered courage to employ " whose” as the relative more Anglicised in construction that our English, to nouns of the neuter gender, saying, "the house , is Gallicised? There are some very nice French whose windows,” &c., &c., instead of “the house words and expressions which we want introduced, of which the windows," or, “the windows of " Rest trauquil,” we remenber in Shelley ; but it

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is not common. There is the word morne, which | vialism is natural to the literary type of character, seems to express a depth of sadness attaching to under average conditions ; but the amount and the no English word. How pathetic to read~" Elle exhibition of that feature are liable, in every separate gardait une morne silence." The word is as superior case, to be modified by accidents of physique and to our “melancholy," as the German "Thränen" to of mental peculiarities. The reply was, that "then our “tears."

there is an end of speaking of men and things in the lump altogether, it is nonsense to talk of a

race, a parish, a profession, or anything of the sort, MORAL DIFFERENTIATION.

and we are lost in hair-splitting." A FRIEND of the present writer was once rallying

The answer to this must be—These things, all him upon habits of sonie little seclusion and absti things, go by comparison. Be it so, that for all nence imposed upon him by delicate bealth. It

purposes of criticism, moral, literary, and other, was insisted that, to the literary type of character, the lump-that of differentiation there is no end,

There is an end, with wise men, of all speaking in conviviality and a gallant style of living

if we want the truth. And the ratio of the thing But always, reader, in a modest way,

is obvious. You may speak of “a race" in the Observe,- for that must be a sine quá

lump, if your main theme of differentiation is the are essential features, and the late Professor Wilson race; because a race stands related to that as a was instanced as a model specimen of the man of specics. By the same rule, when you descend, a letters. He who now holds the pen admitted that class in a race becomes a new species of a genus, breadth of sympathy, and openness to all genial and demands its own special subordinate analysis. impulses, should indeed distinguish every man, And again, an individual in a class necessarily especially the imaginative man; but that character claims the same "hair-splitting" process-only, as was one thing and conduct another; that innu. you cannot divide bim into separate existences, merable, incalculable conditions of physique and of you must measure off the elements that go to his mental faculty must, in every case, go to modify composition, if you would estimate him anight. the exhibition of the generic peculiarity; that, for He stands related to his class precisely as his class instaace, a full chest, or, at all events, a. proper stands related to his species, and is entitled to pbysical training in early life, must go before a precisely the same differentiating criticism. healthy animatism; and that, to pass from heart Thus, starting from a particular case, we bave and Jungs to brain, the presence of, say, a greater arrived at a general rule, which should serve as a amount of the scholarly, or the philosophic, element guide, not only in morals, but in literature and in an imaginative man, would necessarily modify elsewhere. How foolish, how childish, in the the bearty sociality and convivialism which are light of this idea, appears such a question as--Is admitted to be natural to the poetic temperament. Pope a poet? It could only be asked by some It is not easy to conceive a convivial Leibnitz, or uncatholic mind, bent upon setting up its own Locke, or Newton-though such a thing were standand, without allowing for specific deviations. possible, and though noble minds of all categories Was Peel a patriot? Was Cromwell a hero are, for the most part, free, open, and hearty. But are questions of the same impatient class, not to it is easy to conceive a poetic man with sufficient be answered without wide differentiation-quesof the Leibnitz element to reduce very materially tions to which you may say yes and no, all in a the poetic tendency to enjoyment and excitement. breath, with perfect consistency. And such a man is as much entitled to the quiet Such expressions as a good man, a religious man, tenure of his speciality as he is to show, unrebuked, a modest woman, a faithful friend, absolute in their a Grecian nose or a hazel eye. Nor is that all, meaning, can, of course, only be comparative in for a respectable list might be made out of abste- their application. The nearer an individual may mious men of imaginative mould. If Milton's approach to the type of "a religious inan,” for Puritanism should be thought to make him an instance, the more positively the title applies to exception not to be calculated from (though that him. But once pass a certain line, and you must would be a false thought, since Milton's faith was differentiate infinitely, if you seek the truth. This as essential to Milton the poet as the march of is surely obvious; yet it is not only neglected in Milton's numbers), what is to be said for Shelley the hurry of daily business ; but it is deliberately -bim of the “ Cor Cordium ?

scouted as a principle of moral judgment by the Though we eat little flesh, and drink no wine,

class who are fond of what they think “broad Yet let's be merry! We'll have tea and toast, views," and do not like the trouble of thinking Custards for supper, and an endless host

twice. Of syllabubs, and jellies, and mince-pies

Again : we apply words expressive of moral And other such like lady-luxuries, Feasting on which we will philosophise.

qualities to actions, irrespective of motives—we

say such a thing is kind, unkind, disrespectful, and On the whole, the present writer and then talker so on; and here another source of error arises. submitted that no general rule should be enforced, Alighting from an omnibus which was standing though one might be laid down. Yet not even laid still at a stopping-place, the other day, when it down without differentiation. As thus : Convi- | was raining heavily, I held out my band for the

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change before quitting shelter ; the conductor , ments of our criminal jurisprudence, and the whole hurried me out, without giving me my change pre-scheme of reformatory machinery, are only practical viously, and there I stood in the wet. I supposed moral differentiations. at first that some lady might be waiting to get in, and therefore complied with the man's evident wish to see me on terra firma. But there was no lady. Here, then, was conduct on the man's part

ACCIDENTAL PATHOS. to which we should apply the word “unkind." | In a translation of “Faust” now before me, MarBut, was he an unkind man? Well, I looked in his face on the spot, feeling concerned to solve garet's appeal to the Mater Dolorosa, when she

sets fresh flowers in the pots, stands thus :that very question, and seeing there not a mere superficial ruddiness, but a genuine hearty good

Mother of many sorrows ! deign, oh deign

To turn thy face with pity on my pain ! nature, I unhesitatingly voted the fellow kind,

The sword hath entered in thy heartthough he had done an unkind thing. But I saw,

Thou ol a thousand pangs hast part ; at the same time, in his face and carriage, the Thou lookest up, thou gazeat on plain expression of natural insolicitude. He was a The death of Him who was thy son ! man who took things as they came; looking neither before nor behind for suggestions or consequences. This was a case for moral differentiation;

The flower-pots at my window

Were wet with tears like dew, it is a common one, and it will serve to illustrate

As I, in the early morning, a thousand. The man might have had a kinder

Gathered these flowers for you. heart than I; yet, I, partly perhaps from cultivation, but far more from natural thoughtfulness, should never have done so unkind a thing. If | In a general way, a change from the use of the anybody should say this conductor (or any indi-second person singular to the colloquial second vidual in the habit of doing “thoughtless" things, person plural, has, in poetry, a most unpleasant for whom the conductor may stand) could not have effect. Bat we have here an instance to the conbeen a kind man, because, in the words of Mr. trary. It is a case of accidental pathos.

“ You" Taylor, in his “Notes on Life," love begets solicianddew” rhyme (passably well), and that is made tude; I reply that that expression is figurative, an excuse for the change from singular to plural in and, philosophically considered, inaccurate. The the form of address—unless, indeed, some underreal truth is, that love quickens solicitude which flowing instinct told Mr. Filmore that the “ you" is latent, and that which is quickened grows; would be more pathetic. The literal translation of kindness, pure and simple, stimulates the intellect, Goethe's words would bewhich, in its turn, informs the hard. But how

The flower pots before my window can I be judge from one solitary action, or from a

Bedewed I with tears—ah, me! thousand, of the relative proportions in another's

As I in the early morning mind, of his natural good-will and his natural

Gathered these flowers for thee. power of forecast ? It is impossible; and, what- On the continent, to tutoyer another is to use the ever measures I may take for my own protection language of affectionate familiarity : everywhere in dealing with such a mạn, I am bound to be “thou" is held to suit better with the refinements careful in apportioning to him praise or blame. and solemnities of poetry in certain cases. In

It is not necessary to multiply examples. I England, familiarity says "you ;” and “I did it have chosen very familiar ones, which will come for you,” “I got this for you,” “I brought it for home to men's business and bosoms. If you say you,” is a locution so associated in all our minds you cannot spare all this thought about ordinary with loving intercourse, and, under particular cirthings—that a spade is a spade, and you must be cumstances, with a pleading tone in the speaker, content with calling it so; I am sorry for you. that, by using such a form in this case, the writer But I must be allowed to split hairs till all is blue, has trebled the pathos of the verse.

Did he mean if I like it. And the current of moral criticism, it at all, or only half mean it ? Did the rhyme not only of individual minds, but of the body suggest the "you,” or did a subtle perception of politic, is—I rejoice to write it-constantly ad- propriety accompany or precede the bint of the vancing in fineness and discrimination. A dis rhyme ? Let us not inquire too curiously into honest action is a dishonest action, and a thief is such things. What theory of poetic inspiration a thief ; but the kind thoughtfulness of our time would stand against much of this kind of criticism? insists upon splitting moral hairs, and the amend- l I sear, none.


Broken memories of many a heart
Woven into one. --Shelley.

Alas ! that love should be a blight and snare
To those who seek all sympathies in one.--Ibid.



"twilight grey" eyes of hers, in which lay a depth CHRISTMAS has passed away—another new year of feeling too soon to be evoked, and too soon has dawned upon us, bringing with it new joys, new chilled by early death. But I anticipate sadly ; sorrows, new hopes, and new fears. Buried in the for alas ! sadness is so absorbing a part of her hispast with that departed year lie our broken vows, tory that I ever do this when speaking of her. I uullified resolutions, and fruitless aspirations. Born remeniber, on the night of her first arrival at this with this New Year's birth come vows for the fu. place, seeing a demure little maiden walk quietly ture, lofty aspirations as yet unfulfilled, and remorse- across our hall and then seize my sister in energetic ful recollections over the dead year's grave. It is affection, as is sweetly customary with young girls night; and I am again alone in my quiet room in fresh from school, and new to the world's colder this quiet old house. My fire is bright as ever-proprieties. There was nothing in all this to warits shadows are yet fertile in broken memories — rant the subsequent interest she excited in my mind my meerschaum is charged with “right Varinas” -absolutely nothing to account for the long hours as before, and I am on the extreme confines of of pensive regret over a memory that has so often that “Tom Tickler's ground” of the mind, dream- tinged my solitude with sorrow. This may be an inland, again. I am a young man, yet I have many coherent way of telling you a life-history, but memories and few friends. Moreover, I am that life-history was painfully incoherent-bright lonely man in life; therefore, I suppose, I love in its beginning, dark in its course, dreary in its these same memories, and my inditing of them, as early close. A short time after she left us, on her now, because, when I am so dreaming and writing, return to school, she received a letter from her I feel less alone in the world. In you, dear mother, saying that she was a widow, and Mary reader, I think I find a friend, even though it be fatherless. Her father, once an eminent merchant, but for a brief half hour. Bear with me then, pity had failed, and, unable to bear the cold eye and me for my loneliness, and be thankful that you have averted look of former friends, had died in despair, around you those presences of which I have but of a broken heart. After the year of mourning broken memories. As before, the shadows of my had expired, Mary Leigh awoke to life's stern fire ficker quietly along the oaken wainscotting- realities--she was leaving home, her dear mother, the few inmates of the old bouse have long ago and the old purse, who had loved her from her retired to rest, leaving me in silent possession of birth as a daughter, for a stranger's fireside. my sanctum, and, as a consequence, I babble to you “ Going out as a governess." Simple words truly; again. Opposite to me is a tall, uncomfortable yet how much misery do they too often foreshadow looking, high-backed chair, half-baked to a season- and embody! The leaving home at any time, unable brownness (I will not answer to the shades of der any circumstances, for an indefinite period, is departed lexicographers for this noun), by a cen- a sad thing to a young heart. How much more tury's sojourn in this room by the fire. That so to Mary, who felt that she was leaving her same chair is, in itself, as ugly a specimen of an- poor widowed mother for strange faces, and tique opholstery as any old lady, who loves an- stranger hearts, in a strange county, far from the tiquity and stained oak, would wish to see in a scene of ber early happiness. I never hear that week's perambulation of Wardour-street, Soho, same phrase, “ going out as a Governess," withand its vicinity. But though the chair, after all, out sad, bitier thoughts. Think of the

ties is ugly and commonplace, it has strangely-moving ruthlessly snapped asunder in that one short associations hovering about it to-night. If chairs parting hour; think of the many home delights were ever cognisant of the lives of their occasional | that must be at once and for ever relinquished, occupants, this chair's story would be much like think of unprotected innocence and guileless inexmine. In that chair sat five years ago, to the perience ; think how coldly fall from a stranger's very day and hour, a young girl--a friend of my lips words of greeting on the heart of the young sister, and wbo bad come down with her from a girl standing silently on the stranger's threshold. London " finishing school" to spend the Christmas See that child of many prayers, in the school-room, vacation with us here. Well do I remember | bearing the flouts of upstart Mammon, or the little mild-eyed Mary Leigh ; long has the memory freezing courtesy, it may be, of patrician pride. of her six weeks' sojourn here weighed upon my A servant in reality—a governess in name is she mind. She was a little, flaxen-baired girl, with a --with that moral incubus, a position to maintain, high, pale forehead, and those unforgotten, soft, and a forced cheerfulness to counterfeit. See her


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