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rious subject the Apostle had begun to discuss, but he had not proceeded far in it before he found himself at a stand, by recollecting the character of those to whom he was writing. He describes them, in the text, as men who were grown old in the profession of christianity indeed, but who knew nothing more of it than its first principles; and he endeavours to animate them with the laudable ambition of penetrating the noblest parts of that excellent systein of religion, which Jesus Christ had published, and which his apostles had explained in all its beauty, and in all its extent.
This general notion of St Paul's design, in the words of my text, is the best comment on his meaning, and the best ex-' plication we can give, of his terms.
By the first principles of the oracles of God, to which the Hebrews confined themselves, the apostle means the rudiinents of that science of which God is the object ; that is, christian divinity and morality; and these rudiments are here. also called the principles of Christ*, that is, the first principles of that doctrine which Jesus Christ taught. These are compared to milk, which is given to children incapable of digesting strong meat; and they are opposed to the profound knowledge of those who have been habituated by long exercise to study and ineditation, or, as the apostle expresseth it, who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and evil.
In this class St. Paul places, first, repentance from dead works, and faith towards God. These were the first truths, which the heralds of the gospel preached to their hearers : to them they said, Repent, and believe the gospel.
St. Paul places in the same class, secondly, the doctrine of baptisins, that is, the confession of faith that was required of such as had resolved to profess christianity and to be baptized. Of such persons a confession was required, and their answers to certain questions were demanded. The formularies, that have been used on this occasion, have been extremely diversified at different places and in different times, but the inost ancient are the shortest, and the most determinate. One question, that was put to the catechumen, was, Dost thou renounce the devil ? to which he answered, I renounce him. Another was, Dost thou believe in Jesus Christ? to which he replied, I believe in him. St. Cyprian calls these ques
* της αρκης του χριςου λογος.
tions the baptismal interrogatory; and the answers are called by Tertullian the answer of salvation . and we have a passage upon this article in an author still more respectable, I mean St. Peter, who says, Baptism doth also now save us, not the putting away the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience towards Goi, 1 Epist. iii. 21. that is, the answer which was given by the catechumen before his baptism.
Thirdly, Among the rudiments or first principles of christianity, St. Paul puts the laying on of hands, by which we understand the gift of miracles, which the apostles communicated by imposition of hands to those who embraced the gospel. We have several instances of this in scripture, and a particular account of it in the eighth chapter of Acts. It is there said, that Philip, having undeceived many of the Samaritans, whom Simon the sorcerer had of a long time bewitched baptized both men and women, ver. 11, 12, 14, 17. and that the apostles, Peter and John, laid their hands on them, and by that ceremony communicated to them the gift of the holy Ghost.
The resurrection of the dead, and eternal judgment, are two other articles which St. Paul places in the same class : Articles believed by the weakest christians, received by the greatest part of the Jews, and admitted by even many of the heathens. Now the apostle wishes that the Hebrews, learing these principles, would aspire to be perfect. Let us go on unto perfection, says he, let us proceed from the catechumen state to a thorough acquaintance with that religion, which is wisdom among them that are perfect; that is, a system of doctrine which cannot be well understood by any except by such as the heathens call perfect. They denominated those perfect, who did not rest in a superficial knowledge of a science, but who endeavoured thoroughly to understand the whole. This was the design of St. Paul in writing to the Hebrews : and this is ours in addressing you.
We will endeavour, first, to give you as exact and adequate a notion as we can of christian divinity and morality, and from thence to infer, that you can neither see the beauty, nor reap the benefit of either of thein, while you confine yourselves, as most of you do, to a few loose principles, and continue unacquainted with the whole system or body of religion. Secondly, We will inquire, why so many of us do confine
our attention to these first truths, and never proceed to the rest.
Lastly, We will give you some directions how to increase your knowledge, and to attain that perfection, to which St. Paul endeavoured to conduct the Hebrews. This is the whole we propose to treat of in this discourse.
I. It is evident from the nature of Christianity, that you can neither see its beauties, nor reap its benefits, while you attend only to some loose principles, and do not consider the whole system : for the truths of religion form a system, a body of coherent doctrines, closely connected, and in perfect harinony. Nothing better distinguisheth the accurate judgment of an orator, or a philosopher, than the connection of his orations or systeins. Unconnected systems, orations, in which the author is determined only by caprice and chance, as it were, to place the proposition which follows after that which precedes, and that which precedes before that which follows; such orations and systems are less worthy of rational beings, than of creatures destitute of intelligence, whoni nature has formed capable of urtering sounds indeed, but not of forming ideas. Orations and systeins should be connected; each part should occupy the place, which order and accuracy, not caprice and chance, assign it. They should resemble buildings constructed according to the rules of art; the laws of which are never arbitrary, but fixed and inviolable, founded on the nature of regularity and proportion: or, to use St. Paul's expresion, each should be a body fitty joined together, and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, Eph. iv. 16.
Let us apply this to the subject in hand. Nothing better proves the divinity of religion, than the connection, the harmony, the agreement of its component parts. I am aware that this grand characteristic of christianity hath occasioned many mistakes among mankind. Under pretence that a religion proceeding from God must harmonize in its component parts, men have licentiously contrived a chain of propositions to please themselves. They have substituted a phantom of their own imagination, for that body of doctrine which God. hath given us in the holy scriptures-Hence so much obstinacy in maintaining, after so much rashness and presumption in advancing such phantoms. For, my brethren, of all obstinate people, none excel more in their dreadful kind, than those who are prejudiced in favour of certain systems. A man who does not think himself capable of forming a con
Rected system, can bear contradiction, because, if he be obliged to give up some of the propositions which he hath advanced, some others which he embraces will not be disz, puted, and what remain may indemnify him for what he sur renders. But a man prepossessed with an imaginary systein of his own has seldom so much teachableness. He knows, that if one link be taken away his chain falls to pieces; and that there is no removing a single stone from his building without destroying the whole edifice: he considers the upper skins which covered the tabernacle, as typical as the ark in the holy place, or the mercy-seat itself. The staff, with which Jacob passed over the Euphrates, and of which he said with my staff I palled over this river, seems to him as much designed by the Spirit of God to typify the cross on which Jesus Christ redeemed the church, as the serpent of brass which was lifted up in the desart by the express command of God himself.
But if infatuation with systems hath occasioned so many disorders in the church, the opposite disposition, I mean, the obstinate rejection of all, or the careless composition of soine, hath been equally hurtful: for it is no less dangerous, in a system of religion, to omit what really belongs to it, than to incorporate any thing foreign from it.
Let us be more explicit. There are two sorts of truths in religion ; truths of speculation, and truths of practice. Each truth is connected not only with other truths in its own class, but truths of the first class are connected with those of the second, and of these parts thus united is composed that : dmirable body of doctrine which forms the system of religion.
There are in religion some truths of speculation, there is a chain of doctrines. God is holy : this is the first truth. A holy God can have no intimate communion with unholy creatures : this is a second truth which follows from the first. God, who can have no communion with unholy creatures, can have no communion with men who are unholy creatures: this is a third truth which follows from the second. Men, who are unholy creatures, being incapable as such of communion with the happy God, must on that very account be entirely miserable: this is a fourth truth which follows from the third. Men, who must be absolutely iniserable, because they can have no communion with the holy, happy God, become objects of the compassion of that God, who is as loving and merciful as he is happy and holy: this is a fifth truth which follows from the fourth. This loving and merciful God is
naturally inclined to relieve a multitude of his creatures, who are ready to be plunged into the deepest miseries : this is a sixth truth which foliows from the fifth.
Thus follow the thread of Jesus Christ's theology, and you will find, as I said, each part that composeth it depending on another, and every one giving another the hand. For, from the loving and merciful inclination of God to relieve a inultitude of his creatures from a thieatening abyss of the deepest miseries, follows the inission of Jesus Christ; because it was fit that the reinedy chosen of God to relieve the miseries of men should bear a proportion to the causes which produced it. From the doctrine of Jesus Christ's mission follows the necessity of the spirit of God: because it would have been inpossible for men to have discovered by their own speculations the way of salvation, unless they had been assisted by a supernatural revelation, according to that saying, Things which eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, God hath revealed unto us by his Spirit, 1 Cor. ii. 9, 10. From the doctrines of the mission of the Son of God, and of the gift of the holy Spirit, follows this most comfortable truth, that we are the objects of the love of God, even of love the most vehement and sincere that can be imagined: for God commended his love towards us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us, Roin. v. 8. And, as we are objects of that love which God hath commended to us in his Son, it follows, that no bounds can be set to our happiness, that there is no treasure too rich in the mines of the blessed God, no duration too long in eternity, no communion with the Creator too close, too intimate, too tender, which we have not a right to expect; according to that comfortable, that extatic maxim of St Paul: God, who spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with hiin also freely give us all thing's ? Rom. viii. 32.
This is a chain of some truths of the gospel. We do not say it might not be lengthened; we no not pretend to have given a complete system of the doctrines of the gospel; we only say that the doctrines proposed are closely coniiected, and that one produceth another in a system of speculative gospel truths.
In like manner, there is a connection between practical truths. The class of práctical truths is connected with the class of speculative truths, and cach practical tiuth is connected with another practical truth.