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have made like penal laws against such as 1 “ It hath in solemn synods been decreed,
should ship out of their countries in any other
vessels than of their several countries and Both by the Syracusans and ourselves,
dominions; by reason whereof there hath not To admit no traffic to our adverse towns :
only grown great displeasure between the foreign Nay more, If any, born at Ephesus,
princes and the kings of this realm, but also Be seen at any Syracusan marts and fairs,
the merchants have been sore grieved and enAgain, If any Syracusan born,
damaged." The inevitable consequences of comCome to the bay of Ephesus, he dies,
mercial jealousies between rival states-the reHis goods confiscate to the duke's dispose ; Unless a thousand marks be levied,
taliations that invariably attend these “ narrow
and malignant politics," as Hume forcibly exTo quit the penalty, and to ransom him."
presses it-are here clearly set forth. But in The offence which Ægeon had committed, five or six years afterwards we had acts " for and the penalty which he had incurred, are setting her Majesty's people on work,” forpointed out with a minuteness, by which the bidding the importation of foreign wares ready poet doubtless intended to convey his sense of, wrought,“ to the intent that her Highness's the gross injustice of such enactments. In subjects might be employed in making thereof.” * The Taming of the Shrew,' written most pro- These laws were directed against the productions bably about the same period as 'The Comedy of the Netherlands; and they were immeof Errors,' the jealousies of commercial states, diately followed by counter-proclamations, forexhibiting themselves in violent decrees and bidding the carrying into England of any impracticable regulations, are also depicted by matter or thing out of which the same wares the same powerful hand :
might be made; and prohibiting the importa“ Tra. What countryman, I pray?
tion in the Low Countries of all English manu
of Mantua. factures, under pain of confiscation. Cnder Tra. Of Mantua, sir ?-marry, God forbid !
these laws, the English merchants were driven And come to Padua, careless of your life? Ped. My life, sir ? how, I pray? for that goes hard.
from town to town--from Antwerp to Embden, Tra. "T is death for any one in Mantua
from Embden to Hamburgh; their ships seized, To come to Padua; know you not the cause ?
their goods confiscated. Retaliation of course Your ships are staid at Venice; and the duke For private quarrel 'twixt your duke and him,
followed, with all the complicated injuries of Hath publish'd and proclaim'd it openly."
violence begetting violence. The instinctive At the commencement of the reign of Eliza-wisdom of our poet must have seen the folly beth, the just principles of foreign commerce and wickedness of such proceedings; and we were asserted in a very remarkable manner in believe that these passages are intended to the preamble to a statute (1 Eliz. c. 13): “Other | mark his sense of them. The same brute force, foreign princes, finding themselves aggrieved which would confiscate the goods and burn the with the said several acts"—(statutes prohibit- ships of the merchant, would put the merchant ing the export or import of merchandise by himself to death, under another state of society. English subjects in any but English ships) — He has stigmatised the principle of commercial " as thinking that the same were made to the jealousy by carrying out its consequences under hurt and prejudice of their country and navy, , an unconstrained despotism.
ACT II. 2 SCENE 11.—“ Thou art an elm, my husband,
" They led the vine
To wed the elm; she, spous'd, about him twines I, a vine.”
Her marriageable arms," WHEN Milton uses this classical image, in the annotators of our great epic poet naturally * Paradise Lost,
give us the parallel passages in Catullus, in
Ovid, in Virgil, in Horace. Shakspere un- Disguised cheaters, prating mountebanks, questionably had the image from the same
And many such like liberties of sin." sources. Farmer does not notice this passage; It was observed by Capell that “ the character but had he done so he would, of course, have given of Ephesus in this place is the very same shown that there were translations of The that it had with the ancients, which may pass Georgies' and 'The Metamorphoses' when for some note of the poet's learning.” It was this play was written. It appears to us that scarcely necessary, however, for Shakspere to this line of Shakspere is neither a translation search for this ancient character of Ephesus in nor an imitation of any of the well-known more recondite sources than the most interestclassical passages; but a transfusion of the ing narrative of St. Paul's visit to the city, spirit of the ancient poets by one who was given in the 19th chapter of the Acts of the familiar with them.
Apostles. In the 13th verse we find mention
of " certain of the vagabond Jews, exorcists ;" 3 SCENE II.-“ This is the fairy land.”
and in the 19th verse we are told that “many In the first act we have the following de- of them also which used curious arts brought scription of the unlawful arts of Ephesus : their books together, and burned them before “They say this town is full of cozenage ;
all men.” The ancient proverbial term, EpheAs, nimble jugglers that deceive the eye, Dark-working sorcerers that change the mind,
sian Letters, was used to express every kind of Soul-killing witches that deform the body,
charm or spell.
ACT III. * SCENE II.-“ I could find out countries in her.” | that the more offensive allusion to the “barrenSHAKSPERE most probably had the idea from ness” of Scotland, in the passage before us Rabelais, in the passage where Friar John maps being retained in the original folio edition, is a out the head and chin of Panurge (L. 3. c. 28). proof that the Comedy of Errors' was not “ Ta barbe par les distinctions du gris, du blanc, revived after the accession of the Scottish du tanné, et du noir, me semble une mappe- monarch to the English throne. monde. Regarde ici. Voila Asie. Ici sont
• SCENE II.—" Making war against her heir." Tigris et Euphrates. Voila Africque. Ici est
It seems to be pretty generally agreed that la montaigne de la Lane. Veois-tu les palus
this passage is an allusion to the war of the du Nil? Deça est Europe. Veois-tu Theleme? Ce touppet ici tout blanc, sont les monts Hy heire, although in the second folio it was
League. In the first folio we have the spelling perborées."
changed to haire. Upon the assassination of 5 SCENE II.-" Where Scotland ?”
Henry III., in August, 1589, the great contest In the · Merchant of Venice," where Portia commenced between his heir, Henry of Navarre, describes her suitors to Nerissa, we have an and the Leaguers, who opposed his succession. allusion,--sarcastic although playful,--to the In 1591 Elizabeth sent an armed force to the ancient contests of Scotland with England, and assistance of Henry. If the supposition that of the support which France generally rendered this allusion was meant by Shakspere be correct, to the weaker side:
the date of the play is pretty exactly deter"Ner. What think you of the Scottish lord, his neigh-mined; for the war of the League was in effect bour?
concluded by Henry's renunciation of the ProPor. That he hath a neighbourly charity in him, for he borrowed a box of the ear of the Englishman, and
testant faith in 1593. swore he would pay him again, when he was able; I think the Frenchman became his surety, and sealed under
7 SCENE II.—" Where America, the Indies ?" for another."
This is certainly one of the boldest anachronThe word Scottish is found in the original isms in Shakspere ; for, although the period of quarto of this play, but in the folio of 1623 it the action of the Comedy of Errors' may is changed to other. Malone considers that the include a range of four or five centuries, it must Merchant of Venice' being performed in the certainly be placed before the occupation of time of James, the allusion to Scotland was Ephesus by the Mohammedans, and therefore suppressed by the Master of the Revels; but some centuries before the discovery of America. ACT IV.
8 SCENE II.—“ Far from her nest, the lapwing, is by no means clear, from the passage before cries, away.”
us, that the bailiff did not even wear a sort of This image was a favourite one with the Eliza- armour : bethan writers. In Lily's Campaspe,' 1584,
“ One whose hard heart is button'd up with steel.” we have, “ You resemble the lapwing, who
10 SCENE II.—“ A hound that runs counter, and crieth most where her nest is not.” Greene and Nash also have the same allusion, which
yet draws dry-foot well.”
The hound that runs counter runs upon a Shakspere repeats in Measure for Measure :'
false course; but the hound that draws dry-foot “With maids to seem the lapwing, and to jest, Tongue far from heart."
well, follows the game by the scent of the foot, as the blood-hound is said to do. The bailiff's dog-like attributes were not inconsistent; for he was a serjeant of the counter prison, and followed his game as Brainworm describes in
Every Man in his Humour :' “Well, the truth is, my old master intends to follow my young master, dry-foot, over Moorfields to London this morning." " SCENE II.—“ One that, before the judgment,
carries poor souls to hell.” The arrest “ before judgment” is that upon mesne-process, and Shakspere is here employing his legal knowledge. It appears that Hell was the name of a place of confinement under the
Exchequer Chamber for the debtors of the “ Far from her nest the lapwing cries."]
Crown. It is described by that name in the
Journals of the House of Commons on the SCENE II.—“ A fellow all in buff."
occasion of the coronation of William and Mary. The Prince asks Falstaff, “Is not a buff jerkin a most sweet robe of durance ?" The ? SCENE IV.—“Here's that, I warrant you, will buff jerkin, according to Dromio's definition, is
pay them all.” “an everlasting garment,” worn by “a shoulder- Dr. Gray has the following note on this clapper.” The commentators have thrown away passage : “ If the honest countryman in the much research upon these passages. Steevens Isle of Axholm in Lincolnshire, where they maintains that everlasting and durance were grow little else but hemp, had been acquainted technical names for very strong and durable with Shakspere's Works, I should have imagined cloth; but there can be no doubt, we think, that he borrowed his jest from hence. At the that the occupation of the bailiff being some beginning of the rebellion in 1641, a party of what dangerous, in times when men were ready the parliament soldiers, seeing a man sowing to resist the execution of the law with the somewhat, asked him what it was he was sowsword and rapier, he was clothed with the ox- ing, for they hoped to reap his crop, 'I am skin, the buff, which in warfare subsequently sowing of hemp, gentlemen' (says he,) and I took the place of the heavier coat of mail. It hope I have enough for you all.””
The period of the action in this comedy being pillars of the former sort in the mosque of St. 80 necessarily undefined, we have preferred to John, at the village of Aiasalouck. I saw also select our Pictorial Illustrations from the most a fine entablature; and on one of the columns authentic representations of the existing re- in the mosque there is a most beautiful compomains of ancient Ephesus, and from views of site capital, which, without doubt, belonged to the present state of that celebrated city, of it. There are great remains of the pillars of Corinth, and of Syracuse. It may be convenient the temple, which were built of large hewn here to furnish a brief explanation of these stone, and probably cased with marble; but, Illustrations.
from what I saw of one part, I had reason to The Temple of Diana is thus described by conclude that arches of brick were turned on Pococke :
them, and that the whole temple, as well as “ The Temple of Diana is situated towards these pillars, was incrusted with rich marbles. the south-west corner of the plain, having a On the stonework of the middle grand apartlake on the west side, now become a morass, ment there are a great number of small holes, extending westward to the Cayster. This build as if designed in order to fix the marble casing. ing and the courts about it were encompassed It is probable that the statue of the great every way with a strong wall, that to the west goddess Diana of the Ephesians was either in of the lake and to the north was likewise the the grand middle compartment or opposite to wall of the city; there is a double wall to the it." south. Within these walls were four courts : The engraving of the Temple restored is that is, one on every side of the temple, and on principally founded upon the descriptions of each side of the court to the west there was a Pococke, who has given an imaginary groundlarge open portico, or colonnade, extending to plan. the lake, on which arches of bricks were turned The 'Antiquities of Ionia, published by the for a covering. The front of the temple was to Dilettanti Society, and the Voyage Pittothe east. The temple was built on arches, to resque de la Grèce,' of M. Choiseul Gouffier, which there is a descent. I went a great way have furnished the authorities for the other in, till I was stopped either by earth thrown engravings of Ephesian remains. down, or by the water. They consist of several of the modern population of Ephesus the narrow arches, one within another. It is pro- following striking description was furnished by bable they extended to the porticoes on each Chandler sixty years ago. The place is now side of the western court, and served for founda- far more desolate and wretched :tions to those pillars. This being a morassy “The Ephesians are now a few Greek peasants, ground, made the expense of such a foundation living in extreme wretchedness, dependence, so necessary; on which, it is said, as much was and insensibility; the representatives of an bestowed as on the fabric above ground. It is illustrious people, and inhabiting the wreck of probable, also, that the shores (sewers] of the their greatness ; some, the substructions of the city passed this way into the lake. I saw a glorious edifices which they raised; some, begreat number of pipes made of earthenware neath the vaults of the Stadium, once the in these passages; but it may be questioned crowded scene of their diversions; and some, whether they were to convey the filth of the by the abrupt precipices in the sepulchres city under these passages, or the water from the which received their ashes. We employed a lake to the basin which was to the east of the couple of them to pile stones, to serve instead temple, or to any other part of the city. In of a ladder at the arch of the Stadium, and to the front of the temple there seems to have clear a pedestal of the portico by the theatre been a grand portico. Before this part there from rubbish. We had occasion for another to lay three pieces of red granite pillars, each dig at the Corinthian temple; and, sending to being about fifteen feet long, and one of gray the Stadium, the whole tribe, ten or twelve, broken into two pieces; they were all three followed; one playing all the time on a rude feet and a half in diameter. There are four lyre, and at times striking the sounding-board
with the fingers of his left hand in concert with | exhausted. A herd of goats was driven to it the strings. One of them had on a pair of for shelter from the sun at noon; and a noisy sandals of goat-skin, laced with thongs, and flight of crows from its marble quarries seemed not uncommon. After gratifying their curiosity, to insult its silence. We heard the partridge they returned back as they came, with their call in the area of the theatre and of the musician in front. Such are the present citizens Stadium. The glorious pomp of its heathen of Ephesus, and such is the condition to which worship is no longer remembered ; and Christithat renowned city has been gradually reduced. anity, which was here nursed by apostles, and It was a ruinous place when the Emperor Jus- fostered by general councils, until it increased tinian filled Constantinople with its statues, to fulness of stature, barely lingers on in an and raised the church of St. Sophia on its existence hardly visible.” columns. Since then it has been almost quite