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munion,] 'he doth eat and drink the Body and Blood of our * Saviour Christ to his soul's health, although he do not receive the Sacrament with his mouth.' This principle is asserted in the Sarum Manual, which less distinctly, but not less positively, allowed of the possibility of spiritual communion when actual reception of the elements was impossible.

Such a concession is in fact the concession of the whole principle. In the more stringent view, the outward reception of the two Sacraments was regarded as so absolutely necessary to salvation, that not even the innocence of the newborn babe nor the blameless life of Marcus Aurelius were allowed to plead against their lack of the outward form of one or the other. But the moment that the door is opened for the moral consideration of what is due to mercy and humanity, the whole fabric of the strict Sacramental system vanishes, and reason, justice, and charity step in to take their rightful places.

IV. We have thus far endeavoured to show how in the vitals of the most mechanical theory of the Sacraments there was wrapt up a protest in favour of the most spiritual view. Let us for a moment take the reverse side of the picture, and show how, in the heart of the early Protestant Church, there has always been wrapt up a lurking tenderness for the purely outward and material view.

When the shock of the Reformation came, next after the Pope's Supremacy and the doctrine of Justification by Faithand in a certain sense more fiercely even than either of these, because it concerned a tangible and visible object-the battle of the Churches was fought over the Sacrament of the Altar.

Each of the Reformers on the Continent made some formidable inroad into the usages or the theories which the Roman Church had built up on the primitive ordinance. Yet, with one exception, they all retained something of the old scholastic theory, or the old material sentiment on the external surroundings of the grand spiritual conception of the Sacrament. Luther, the Titan of the age (as he has been termed by the great Roman Catholic theologian of Munich, who first of his co-religionists has dared to speak the truth concerning the relations of the Roman and Protestant Churches)--in most points the boldest, the most spiritual of all-on this point was the most hesitating and the most superstitious. Under the new name of Consubstantiation,' the ancient dogma of Transub• stantiation' received a fresh lease of life. The unchanged form of the Lutheran altar, with crucifix, candles, and wafer,

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testified to the comparatively unchanged doctrine of the Lutheran sacrament. Melanchthon, Bucer, Calvin, all trembled on the same inclined slope; all laboured to retain some mixture of the physical with the purer idea of the metaphysical, moral efficacy of the Eucharistic rite. One only, the noble-minded Reformer of Zurich, the clear-headed and • intrepid Zwingli,'* in treating of this subject, anticipated the necessary conclusion of the whole matter. In language, perhaps too austerely exact, but transparently clear, he recognised the full Biblical truth, that the operations of the Divine Spirit on the soul can only be through moral means; and that the moral influence of the Sacrament is chiefly or solely through the potency of its unique commemoration of the most touching and transcendent event in history. This is the doctrine, sometimes in contempt called Zwinglian, which in substance became the doctrine of all the Reformed • Churches' properly so called, and in a more or less degree of all Protestant Churches. It is well known how vehemently Luther struggled against it. In the princely hall of the old castle which crowns the romantic town of Marburg, took place the stormy discussion in which Luther and Zwingli, in the presence of the Landgrave of Hesse, for two long days met face to face, in the vain hope of convincing one another, with the hope, not equally vain, of at least parting in friendship. Everything which could be said on behalf of the dogmatic, coarse, literal interpretation of the institution was urged with the utmost vigour of word and gesture by the stubborn Saxon. Everything which could be said on behalf of the rational, refined, spiritual construction was urged with a union of the utmost acuteness and gentleness by the soberminded Swiss. Never before or since have the two views been brought into such close collision. Never before or since have their respective claims been urged with more ability. As regards the Continental Churches, the feud has never been altogether healed, but its virulence has been much abated; and in the Church of Prussia the earnest efforts of the father of the present Emperor produced an accommodation sufficiently solid to admit of a union within the same · Evangelical « Church.'

V. We now turn to the relation of the two conflicting tendencies in England. It will not be surprising to anyone who

* We quote from the ‘Bampton Lectures on the Communion of Saints,' by the Rev. H. B. Wilson; a work too little known in proportion to the interest excited hy it at the time and to its own rare merits.


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has followed our articles on the ecclesiastical system of this country, * in which from time to time we have pointed out the essentially mixed aspect of the English character and of English institutions, the gradual development of our religious, side by side with the equally gradual development of our political, ordinances and ideas—that the conflict of thought, visible as we have seen even in the compact fabric both of the Roman and the Presbyterian Churches, should have left yet deeper traces in the Church of England. During the reign of Henry VIII. this hesitation was almost a necessary consequence of the laborious efforts by which King and people rose out of their own natural prepossessions into a higher region :

Now half appeared
The tawny lion, pawing to get free
His hinder parts, then springs as broke from bonds,

And rampant shakes his brinded mane.' No doubt the ancient doctrine of the Mass maintained its place during those eventful years. But Tyndale had not spoken and written in vain ; and already by the Royal theologian himself was issued one of those magnificent documents in which the true doctrine of the relation of form to spirit is set forth with a clearness of exposition and of thought that has never been surpassed. The contradictions and vacillations in the growth of Cranmer's opinions on this point are well known. Nothing can be more natural-nothing, we may add, more creditable to his honesty and discrimination-than that he should have felt his way slowly and carefully through the labyrinth from which he had been slowly emerging. In Edward VI.'s reign, the influence of the great Reformer of Zurich at last made itself felt in every corner of the ecclesiastical movement of England :f . De cænâ omnes Angli rectè sentiunt,' writes Hooper to his Swiss friends in 1549 ; Satisfecit piis Eduardi re• formatio,' writes Bullinger. At length Cranmer's agreement with the Helvetic Confession of 1536 was complete. Canter

· bury,' writes a friend to Bullinger in 1548, contrary to • expectation, maintained your opinion. It is all over with • the Lutherans.' Ridley's last sentiments, though guardedly expressed, were at the core the same as Cranmer's. It was its persistent adhesion to the Swiss doctrine on the whole which made the Anglican Church, in spite of its episcopal

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See Edinburgh Review, July, 1850; April, 1866. † See Cardwell's "Two Liturgies,' Pref. pp. 26-28.


government and liturgical worship, to be classed not amongst the Lutheran but amongst the Reformed Churches.

Yet still the medieval, or, if we will, the Lutheran element remained too strongly fixed to be altogether dislodged. At the distance of two centuries, Swift could regard his own Church as represented by Martin rather than by Jack. Lutheranism was in fact the exact shade which coloured the mind of Elizabeth, and of the divines who held to her. Her altar was precisely the Lutheran altar; her opinions were represented in almost a continuous line by one divine after another down to our own time. But they were always kept in check by the strong Zwinglian atmosphere which pervaded the original theology of the English Church, and which has been its prevailing hue ever since. Into this more reasonable theology almost every expression that has been since used (till quite our modern times) might be resolved. But it must be remembered that in the earlier years of the reign of Elizabeth, not only the Queen herself, but a very large portion of the English Clergy, who had been brought up in the Romish doctrine, still held opinions scarcely distinguishable from it; thus it came to pass that, in the spirit of compromise and conciliation which pervaded all their work, the framers of the formularies, though determined to keep the Zwinglian doctrine intact, yet often so expressed it as to make it look as much like Lutheranism as possible. Elizabeth herself, when crossquestioned in her sister's time, evaded the doctrine rather than stated it distinctly. There are still to be seen rudely carved on a stone under the pulpit of the Church of Walton on Thames the lines in which she gave the answer that to many a devout spirit in the English Church has seemed a sufficient reply to all questionings on the subject :

• Christ was the Word and spake it,
He took the bread and brake it;
And what the Word doth make it

That I believe and take it.' The Articles as finally drawn up in her reign exhibit this same reluctance to exclude positively one or other of the two views. The 28th Article, as originally written in Edward VI.'s time, had expressed the exact Helvetic doctrine. A sentence was added in which, amidst a crowd of Zwinglian expressions, one word—given'—was inserted which, though not necessarily Lutheran or Roman, certainly lent itself to that meaning. The 29th Article, on the wicked which eat not the • Body of Christ in the use of the Lord's supper,' which was added in Elizabeth's time, was obviously meant to condemn

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the doctrine that there is any reception possible but a moral reception. But—not to speak of the slight wavering, at its close, of the positiveness of its opening —this very Article, though authorised by the canons of 1603, and by implication in the Caroline Act of Uniformity in 1662, does not occur in the edition of the Articles (which are here only 38 in number), authorised by the 13th of Elizabeth. That is to say, this most Protestant of all the Articles is confirmed by what the High Church party regard as the authority of the Church in Convocation, and by the High Church legislature of Charles II.'s time, but it was not confirmed by the Act which first imposed the Articles, and which had for its object the admission of Presbyterian orders.

The Catechism, which originally contained no exposition of the sacraments at all, in the time of James I. received a supplement, in which for one moment the highly rhetorical language of the fathers and schoolmen is strongly pressed : • The Body and Blood of Christ are verily and indeed taken • and received in the Lord's Supper.' But then the qualifying clause comes in, ‘by the faithful;' and these very words are further restricted as describing not the bread and wine, but the thing signified thereby.' The strong denial of the Real and bodily,' the Real and essential Presence, which was in Edward VI.'s time incorporated in the 28th Article, and afterwards appended to the Prayerbook in his Declaration of Kneeling, was in Elizabeth's time omitted altogether, and when revived in Charles II.'s time, was altered to meet the views of the then predominant High Church divines; though the Declaration itself was restored at the request of the Puritan party. But the words 'real and essential Presence

there being' were omitted, and the words corporal presence substituted for them. The consequence is, that while the adoration of the elements or of any corporal presence of • Christ's natural flesh and blood' is strictly forbidden as idolatrous, the worship of any real and essential presence

there being of Christ's natural flesh and blood' is by implication not condemned by this Declaration of the Rubric. The Privy Council conceded to Mr. Bennett the benefit of this distinction.

Most characteristic of all is the combination of the two tendencies in the words of the administration of the Eucharist. In the first Prayerbook of Edward VI., which retained as much as possible of the ancient forms both in belief and usage, the words were almost the same as now in the Roman Church, and as formerly in the Sarum Missal :- The Body of our Lord


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