Anxiety and Cognition: A Unified Theory
It is argued in this book that there are three major approaches to anxiety. First, there is anxiety as an emotional state. Second, there is trait anxiety as a dimension of personality. Third, there is anxiety as a set of anxiety disorders. What is attempted is to produce a unified theory of anxiety which integrates all these major approaches. According to this unified theory, there are four sources of information which influence the level of experienced anxiety: (1) experimental stimulation; (2) internal physiological activity; (3) internal cognitions, (e.g., worries); and (4) one's own behaviour. The unified theory is essentially based on a cognitive approach. More specifically, it is assumed that individual differences in experienced anxiety between those high and low in trait anxiety depend largely on cognitive biases. It is also assumed that the various anxiety disorders depend on cognitive biases, and that the main anxiety disorders differ in terms of the source of information most affected by such biases (e.g., social phobics have biased interpretation of their own behaviour). In sum, this book presents a general theory of anxiety from the cognitive perspective. It is intended that this theory will influence theory and research on emotion, personality, and the anxiety disorders.
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Abnormal Psychology agoraphobia anxiety disorder patients anxious patients approach Arntz assumed attentional and interpretive Behaviour Research behavioural anxiety bodily sensations Chapter Clark clinical anxiety cognitive appraisal cognitive biases cognitive therapy correlated Derakshan and Eysenck effects emotional experience evidence Eysenck ﬁndings ﬁrst four-factor theory generalised anxiety disorder heart rate high in trait high trait-anxious high-anxious subjects hyperventilation identiﬁed implicit memory bias individual differences inﬂuence interpretive bias Journal of Abnormal long-term memory low-anxious MacLeod Mathews measures Mogg negative memory bias neuroticism normal controls obsessive—compulsive disorder patients one’s panic attacks panic disorder patients panic patients perceived personality physiological activity physiological arousal post-traumatic stress disorder predicted predisposing factors processes relevant reported repressors Research and Therapy responsibility Salkovskis schemas scores selective attentional bias self-reported anxiety signiﬁcant situation social phobics sources of information speciﬁc phobia stress Stroop task studies subliminal supraliminal symptoms theoretical theory of clinical theory of trait threatening trait anxiety words