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“ The Word of the Lord came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram: I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward.” This Word of the Lord, Abram addressed as Jehovah : “ And Abram said, Jehovah, God,” &c., Gen. xv, 1, 2. Compare also verses 4, 7, 8, 18.
" Jehovah appeared to Abraham in the plains of Mamre. As Abraham sat in the tent door in the heat of the day, he lifted
eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood by him," Gen. xviii, 1, 2. One of these is called Jehovah : “ And Jehovah said unto Abraham, Wherefore did Sarah laugh ?"
Of these men two proceeded toward Sodom. Compare Gen, xviii, 22 ; xix, 1. But the one who was called Jehovah remained and communed with Abraham. Of him it is related : “ And Jehovah said, Shall I hide from Abraham that thing which I do ?" Gen. xviii, 17. " And Jehovah said, Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great,”. &c., verse 20; see also verses 22, 26, &c. In the next chapter, still keeping up the distinction which we have observed, and yet maintaining the proper divi. nity of him who destroyed the devoted cities, it is said, “ Then Jehovah rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from Jehovah out of heaven,” Gen. xix, 24.
“ And it came to pass after these things, that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah, and offer him there for a burnt-offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of," Gen. xxii, 1, 2. When Abraham had perfectly manifested his faith and obedience, “the angel of Jehovah (or the Angel Jehovah) called unto him out of heaven, and said, Now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son from me,” Gen. xxii, 12. Here we see that the Angel Jehovah was the “God” who “ did tempt Abraham.”
It is still more remarkable that, on this occasion, the “ Angel Jehovah," who had required Abraham to offer up his son, and to offer him up to himself, as to God," called unto Abraham out of heaven the second time, and said, By myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah; (he could swear
by no greater ;) for because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son : that in blessing I will bless thee, because thou hast obeyed my voice," Gen. xxii, 15–18. Here we see that the angel who appeared to Abraham was the God who commanded this sacrifice ; to whom it was in purpose offered ; who accepted it as offered to himself; who made the great promise to Abraham ; and who sware by himself : in a word, Jehovah.
“ The angel of God spake unto Jacob in a dream, saying, Jacob.
And he said, I am the God of Bethel, where thou anointedst the pillar, and where thou vowedst a vow unto me," Gen. xxxi, 11, 13. Now the God of Be. thel is he of whom it is said, “ And behold Jehovah stood above it (the mysterious ladder) and said, I am Jehovah, the God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac,' Gen. xxviii, 13. And the vow which Jacob vowed to him was this : “If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I
go, and will give me bread to eat, and rai. ment to put on so that I come again to my
father's house in peace: then shall Jehovah be my God.
And this stone which I have set for a pillar, shall be God's house : and of all that thou shalt give me, I will surely give the tenth unto thee,” Gen. xxviii, 20, 22. To Jacob, therefore, it was obvious that “the angel of God” was Jehovah, God himself.
When Jacob was returning to his father's house, he was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until the breaking of the day," When this man had put forth his power, and by a touch had disjointed Jacob's thigh, Jacob discerned his divine visitant, and said, “I will not let thee go, except thou bless me. And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel ; for as a prince hast thou power with God and with men, and hast prevailed. And Jacob asked him, and said, Tell me, I pray thee, thy name : and he said, Wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my name? And he blessed him there. And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel : for I have seen God face to face, (said he,) and my life is preserved,” Gen. xxxii, 24–30. Whatever others may think, it was obvious to Jacob that this man was no other than God himself.
“ The angel of Jehovah appeared to Moses, in Horeb, in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush." is called Jehovah, God, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob,Jehovah, God of the He. brews, I am,--and I am that I am,-throughout the chapter. Exod. iii; see also chap. iv, et seq.
When Jehovah sent Moses to lead his people Israel to the land of Canaan, he was pleased to promise, “ Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared,” Exod. xxiii, 20. But of this angel Jehovah said, “ Beware of him, and obey his voice: provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions, for my name is in him," Exod. xxiii, 21. This angel then had the power, authority, and náme of Jehovah.
66 When Joshua was by Jericho, behold there stood a man over against him, with his sword drawn in his hand: and Joshua went unto him, and said unto him, Art thou for us, or for our adversaries ? And he said, Nay, but as captain (or prince) of the host of Jehovah am I now come. And Joshua (well understanding this language) fell on his face to the earth, and did worship, and said unto him, What saith my Lord unto his servant ? And the captain of Jehovah's host (approving this) said unto Joshua, (in the language of Jehovah to Moses,) Loose thy shoe from off thy foot, for the place whereon thou standest is holy,” Josh. v, 13–15. This captain of Jehovah's host is imme. diately called Jehovah : “ And Jehovah said unto Joshua,” &c., Josh. vi, 2.
“ The angel of Jehovah appeared unto Gideon, and said unto him, Jehovah is with thee, thou mighty man of valour,” Judg. vi, 12. Here also the angel is styled Je. hovah : “ And Jehovah looked upon him, and said, Go in this thy might, and thou shalt save Israel from the hand of the Midianites : have not I sent thee ?" See Judges vi, 14, 16, 23.
" The angel of Jehovah appeared to Manoah and his wife. And Manoah said unto his wife, We shall surely die, because we have seen God.” See Judges xiii.
Such were the manifestations which God gave to his people till the time of the judges of Israel.
We may now perceive on what authority Job was
enabled to say, “I know that my Redeemer (now) liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth,” Job xix, 26.
The knowledge of the Redeemer of mankind was still farther imparted to David, who spake of him as the Son and the (Messiah) anointed of Jehovah : “Jehovah hath said unto me, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee,” Psa. ii, 7. What were David's views of his person we may understand from his subjoining, “Kiss the Son lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little : blessed are all they that put their trust in him," Psa. ii, 12. For the saints of the Old Testament were not ignorant that “ cursed is the man that trusteth in (mere) man;" and that “ blessed is the man that trusteth in Jehovah,” Jer. xvii, 5, 7.
That David wrote the forty-fifth Psalm with reference to the expected Messiah, and not to Solomon, is abun. dantly proved from the psalm itself. The language of the psalm is not at all applicable to Solomon. He was not the man of war, who “girded his sword upon his thigh," ver. 3-whose right hand taught him terrible things,” ver. 4—whose “arrows were sharp in the hearts of the king's enemies;" or "under whom the people fell,” ver. 5. He was not remarkable for “loving righteousness," or “ hating iniquity,” ver 7. His “ throne is (not) for ever and ever,” ver. 6. His children were not “made princes in all the earth,” ver. 16. Nor do “ the people praise" him or his spouse “ for ever and ever, ver. 17. Yet these are the terms in which David speaks of the subject of this psalm. On the other hand these terms are appli. cable to the Messiah. He is the 66 King,” ver. 1, set upon the holy hill of Zion : compare Psa. ii, 6. He is “ fairer than the children of men; grace is poured into his lips,” ver. 2. He is “ anointed with the oil of gladness above his fellows." Him “God hath blessed for ever and ever,” ver. 2. Now in this psalm, of which the Messiah is so clearly the subject, the writer, who had called the
King the Son of God, in his addresses to this “ King," says, “Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever.
* Our argument does not admit of our quoting in this place the testimony of the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, who, however, cites the words of this psalm as the words of God to the Son.
The Messiah was now known as the Son of God, and his name was deemed a mystery. If the " Angel Jeho vah” said to Jacob, “ Wherefore dost thou ask after my name ?" and to Manoah, “Why askest thou thus after my name, seeing it is secret” (or wonderful ?) Agur, perhaps with equal reference to the mystery of the incarnation, asks “ Who hath ascended up into heaven, or de. scended ? Who hath gathered the wind in his fists? Who hath bound the waters in a garment? Who hath established all the ends of the earth? What is his name and what is his Son's name, if thou canst tell ?” Prov. xxx, 4. Both are equally mysterious.
Isaiah, so often and so justly styled the evangelical prophet, in prospect of the coming of the Messiah, breaks out, “ Unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and the government shall be upon his shoulder : and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The Father of the everlasting age, The Prince of peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice, from henceforth even for ever! the zeal of Jehovah of hosts will perform this,” Isa. ix, 6, 7. Having spoken thus of the humiliation and exaltation, the hu. manity and the divinity of the Messiah, he returns to the same subject in different language : “ There shall. forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots, and the Spirit of Jehovah shall rest upon him," Isa. xi, 1, 2. “ And in that day,” says he,
there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people ; to it shall the Gentiles seek, and his rest shall be glorious," Isa. xi, 10. “In that day thou shalt say, Behold God is my salvation, I will trust (in such a Saviour) and not be afraid; for the Lord Jehovah is my strength and my song ; he also is become my salva. tion," Isa. xii, 2. "It was impossible for a spiritual Jew to read this description of the Messiah's peaceful kingdom, without seeing that this root of Jesse, this Holy One of Israel, so great in the midst of Zion, was the same wonderful person whom the prophet had just before called the Son given, and the mighty God;" (Fletcher's Rat. Vin. ;) that he was that Jehovah who should become their Saviour.