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of the mountains on the opposite shore, I went down to the river and enjoyed the wild scenery of the rapids, which here also obstructed its course, forcing this westerly branch to a velocity of perhaps six miles an hour, intersected by flat cliffs, which at present were only a few feet out of the water. A fine belt of trees lined the bank at a short distance from the edge of the river, the islands also being clad with rich vegetation, and, altogether, the locality seemed to me worthy of a slight sketch, which has been represented in the plate opposite. I had hitherto looked in vain all along the shore for traces of the elephant, but I discovered that this part is visited by them in great numbers. The place is called Tiboráwen. Having indulged in quiet repose for several hours, we were joined by our companions, who, seeing that I was not to be detained by their tergiversations, were anxious to come up with us.

Sunday, July 16th. Keeping a short distance from the river, first in a more winding, and then in a southwesterly direction, we entered, after a march of three miles, more undulating and fresher pasture-grounds; but stony ground soon began to prevail, although without entirely excluding vegetation. Here, before we reached the cape called Immánan, meaning the fish-cape, the several branches of the river united, while a grassy lowland was attached to the higher bank which bounds the river during the period of its inundation. This fresh grassy tract, full of herbage and trees, was a while interrupted by the high ground attached to the cape; but as soon as we had left the naked hills behind us, we descended into a lovely little valley or ravine, which in a winding course led us to the beach of the river, which here formed a magnificent reach; but a little farther on, at a place called Ekeziríden, it was broken by a ledge of rocks, which stretched almost across its whole breadth, and, at this season at least, made it totally unnavigable. A short distance beyond, a second ledge set across the river, while a little farther on a rocky islet, overgrown with rich vegetation, caused the stream to divide. The bank itself now became stony, mica slate protruding every where, and we ascended a small ridge, which formed a higher cone at some distance on our right, while on our left it formed a promontory jutting out into the river. The whole district is call. ed Béting.

Having descended from this small ridge, we approached nearer the river, which was here tolerably free from rocks, and then en.

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509 tered a dense but short tract of forest, full of the dung of the elephant, and traces of the footsteps of the banga, or hippopotamus. Here we had to cross several water-courses, at present dry, one of which is called Galíndu, and is said to be identical with the Búggoma, which we had crossed with so much difficulty before reaching the town of A'ribínda. But rocky ground soon prevailed again, and another promontory jutted out into the water, the riy. er, which on the whole has here a southwesterly direction, being once more broken by cliffs.

A little farther on we encamped opposite a hamlet called Waigun, which was just building, while another one of the same name was lying a little higher up the river. However, we derived no advantage from the neighborhood of this little centre of life, for, having no boat at our disposal, we were not able to communicate with those people ourselves, and they, on their part, felt little inclination to make our acquaintance, as they could not expect that we should be of much use to them, except in lightening their stores. My companion, the Kél e' Súki, with shouts endeavored to intimate to the people that their sovereign lord, Bozéri, was himself present; but this artifice did not succeed. The I'melíg. gizen, or their slaves, who dominate both shores, are ill-famed on account of their thievish propensities, and we protected ourselves by firing a good many shots in the course of the night.

Monday, July 17th. Pursuing our course at an early hour, generally in a southwesterly direction, we reached, after a march of about four miles, a fine. running stream, about twenty-five feet broad and fifteen inches deep, traversing a beautifully fresh vale, the slopes of which exhibited traces of several former encampments of the Tawárek. It joins the river at a spot where it forms an open and unbroken sheet of water, and greatly contributes to enhance the whole character of the scenery, although, about 1200 yards below, it was again broken by a ledge of rocks crossing almost the whole breadth of the river, but mostly covered by the water, even at the present season. About 500 yards below this ledge a small island lies in the midst of the river, occupied almost entirely by a village called Kátubu, consisting of about 200 snuglooking huts, which were most pleasantly adorned by two beautiful tamarind-trees. But the peace of the inhabitants appeared to have been disturbed, as they had probably heard our firing during the night, and were therefore on their guard. Five or six boats, filled with men, lay around the island at various distances, most Tuber were fishida while, and coff a curve o


probably spying out our proceedings, although some of our party thought that they were fishing.

We here left the beach for a while, and ascended the higher ground, which rose to a greater height, cutting off a curve of the shore. The river, farther on, was again broken by a ledge of rocks, but so that a passage remained open on the side of A'ussa; and shortly afterward the various branches joined, and formed a fine noble reach. The country now became more billy and better wooded, being clad with retem, besides kórna and hájilíj. Numerous ponds of water were formed in the hollows, and antelopes of various species, including that called “dadarít,” were observed. Leaving then a path leading to a place called Tákala, situated at a distance of about fifty miles inland, in a southeasterly direction, we reached, about a quarter past ten o'clock, the highest point of this undulating ground, from whence we obtained a view over a wild and gloomy-looking forest region, behind which the river disappeared, after having inclosed a well-wooded island call. ed Sakkenéwen.

From this higher ground we descended into a fine rich vale, the vegetation of which was distinguished by a few busósu, ághanát, or tamarind-trees. Emerging from this richly-clad valley, we again obtained a sight of the river-if river it can be called-for, seen from hence, it looks almost like an archipelago or net-work of islands and rocky cliffs in the wildest confusion, the river foaming along through these obstructed passages; for, just as it turns round a cape, which juts far out to the N.N.W., and is continued under water toward the opposite shore in a long reef of rocks, forming a sort of semicircle, it is broken into several branches by a number of islands, through which it makes its way, as well as it is able, over cliffs and rocks, in such a manner that along this southwesterly shore there is no idea of navigation even during the highest state of the river, but on the A'ussa side it is more open, and renders navigation possible, although even there caution is evidently necessary. I have no doubt that this is one of the most difficult passages of the river. The name of the cape is E'm-níshib, or rather E'm-n-áshid, "the cape of the ass."

Having passed a place where the most westerly branch forms a small waterfall of about eighteen inches elevation, foaming along with great violence, we encamped on the slope of the green bank, adorned with fine herbage and luxuriant hájilíj, in full view of this wild scenery. I made a sketch of it from the highest ground

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