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509 tered a dense but short tract of forest, full of the dung of the elephant, and traces of the footsteps of the banga, or hippopotamus. Here we had to cross several water-courses, at present dry, one of which is called Galíndu, and is said to be identical with the Búggoma, which we had crossed with so much difficulty before reaching the town of A'ribínda. But rocky ground soon prevailed again, and another promontory jutted out into the water, the riy. er, which on the whole has here a southwesterly direction, being once more broken by cliffs.

A little farther on we encamped opposite a hamlet called Waigun, which was just building, while another one of the same name was lying a little higher up the river. However, we derived no advantage from the neighborhood of this little centre of life, for, having no boat at our disposal, we were not able to communicate with those people ourselves, and they, on their part, felt little inclination to make our acquaintance, as they could not expect that we should be of much use to them, except in lightening their stores. My companion, the Kél e' Súki, with shouts endeavored to intimate to the people that their sovereign lord, Bozéri, was himself present; but this artifice did not succeed. The I'melíg. gizen, or their slaves, who dominate both shores, are ill-famed on account of their thievish propensities, and we protected ourselves by firing a good many shots in the course of the night.

Monday, July 17th. Pursuing our course at an early hour, generally in a southwesterly direction, we reached, after a march of about four miles, a fine. running stream, about twenty-five feet broad and fifteen inches deep, traversing a beautifully fresh vale, the slopes of which exhibited traces of several former encampments of the Tawárek. It joins the river at a spot where it forms an open and unbroken sheet of water, and greatly contributes to enhance the whole character of the scenery, although, about 1200 yards below, it was again broken by a ledge of rocks crossing almost the whole breadth of the river, but mostly covered by the water, even at the present season. About 500 yards below this ledge a small island lies in the midst of the river, occupied almost entirely by a village called Kátubu, consisting of about 200 snuglooking huts, which were most pleasantly adorned by two beautiful tamarind-trees. But the peace of the inhabitants appeared to have been disturbed, as they had probably heard our firing during the night, and were therefore on their guard. Five or six boats, filled with men, lay around the island at various distances, most Tuber were fishida while, and coff a curve o


probably spying out our proceedings, although some of our party thought that they were fishing.

We here left the beach for a while, and ascended the higher ground, which rose to a greater height, cutting off a curve of the shore. The river, farther on, was again broken by a ledge of rocks, but so that a passage remained open on the side of A'ussa; and shortly afterward the various branches joined, and formed a fine noble reach. The country now became more billy and better wooded, being clad with retem, besides kórna and hájilíj. Numerous ponds of water were formed in the hollows, and antelopes of various species, including that called “dadarít,” were observed. Leaving then a path leading to a place called Tákala, situated at a distance of about fifty miles inland, in a southeasterly direction, we reached, about a quarter past ten o'clock, the highest point of this undulating ground, from whence we obtained a view over a wild and gloomy-looking forest region, behind which the river disappeared, after having inclosed a well-wooded island call. ed Sakkenéwen.

From this higher ground we descended into a fine rich vale, the vegetation of which was distinguished by a few busósu, ághanát, or tamarind-trees. Emerging from this richly-clad valley, we again obtained a sight of the river-if river it can be called-for, seen from hence, it looks almost like an archipelago or net-work of islands and rocky cliffs in the wildest confusion, the river foaming along through these obstructed passages; for, just as it turns round a cape, which juts far out to the N.N.W., and is continued under water toward the opposite shore in a long reef of rocks, forming a sort of semicircle, it is broken into several branches by a number of islands, through which it makes its way, as well as it is able, over cliffs and rocks, in such a manner that along this southwesterly shore there is no idea of navigation even during the highest state of the river, but on the A'ussa side it is more open, and renders navigation possible, although even there caution is evidently necessary. I have no doubt that this is one of the most difficult passages of the river. The name of the cape is E'm-níshib, or rather E'm-n-áshid, "the cape of the ass."

Having passed a place where the most westerly branch forms a small waterfall of about eighteen inches elevation, foaming along with great violence, we encamped on the slope of the green bank, adorned with fine herbage and luxuriant hájilíj, in full view of this wild scenery. I made a sketch of it from the highest ground



513 near our halting-place, which is occupied by a small cemetery, the locality having been formerly enlivened by a hamlet of the I'melíggizen, of the name of Lebbezéya. This encampment was also important to me, as I here had to take leave of our guide, Mohammed Kél e' Súki, whom I had vainly endeavored to persuade to accompany me as far as Say, although he would have had no objection to have fulfilled his promise, if our other guide, HammaHamma, had not broken his word and staid behind, for, alone, he was afraid to trust himself to the Fúlbe. It was, moreover, his intention to proceed from here on a visit to his friends the Událen. Convinced, therefore, of the justice of his arguments, I gave him his present, although I missed him very much, as he was an intelligent man, and had given me some valuable information.


DENSER POPULATION BEGINS. Tuesday, July 18th. The beginning of our journey without a guide was not very fortunate; for, having set out first from our encampment, endeavoring to cut off the great windings of the river, with my camels and my three freed blacks, my companions, in the dawn of the morning, lost the traces of my footsteps upon the grassy undulating ground, and it was some time before they joined me. The ground became at times stony, talha, gerredh, and other spices of mimosas being the predominant trees; and after a march of eight miles, we had to ascend another ridge, clothed with thick forest, where the kúka, or tédumt, the monkey-bread-tree, which I had not seen for so long a time, was very common. This was an almost certain sign of the locality having once been a centre of human life, but at present only the traces of a former ksar, or hamlet, were to be seen. Having then crossed a small “rek” or “faire," that is to say, a barren, naked plain, we descended again, while the desolate character of the country continued, and the only signs of human life which we observed were the traces of two men, with three head of cattle, probably robbers from the other side of the river, who were returning to their haunts with their booty. But gradually the country assumed a more cheerful aspect, being clad with large trees, and exhibiting evident signs of former cultivation, while isolated masses of rock were projecting


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