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having taken place between the Kél-owí and the Kél-gerés. In this struggle a great many of the noblest men of the former were said to have fallen, together with several hundred of the common people on both sides. I was sorry to hear that in this struggle my best friends had succumbed.

Meanwhile the news from Kúkawa remained very unsatisfactory, and false rumors were continually brought from thence. Thus it was reported on the 1st of November that the Sugúrti had vanquished 'Omár, who had made his escape accompanied only by a couple of horsemen; and it was not until the 9th that we received trustworthy news that he was holding his position steadily against the intrigues of the party of his brother, whom he kept in prison. It was with great satisfaction that I saw messengers from 'Omár arrive in the course of a few days, in order to present his compliments to the governor of this place. I at once had them called to my house, and made them a few presents, in order to express my satisfaction at their master having recovered his kingdom, and still holding his position; for it was a most important point with me to see my road to Bórnu clear, and to meet there with Mr. Vogel and his party, in order to give him my advice and assistance with respect to the countries which it was most desirable that he should explore. But in the situation in which I was thus placed, it proved most difficult to obtain the means of reaching Kúkawa, as I had no money at my disposal; for, to my great disappointment, the servant whom I had sent to Zínder on the 18th, in order to bring from thence the property which I had deposited there, as well as the merchandise which had arrived afterward, returned on the 4th of November empty-handed, bringing nothing but a few letters. It was now that I heard that the news of my death had been every where believed, and that a servant of Mr. Vogel's, together with a slave of 'Abd e' Rahmán's, had arrived in Zínder from Kúkawa, and had taken away all the merchandise that had reached that place on my account, the box with the 400 dollars and the cutlery having been stolen long before, immediately after the assassination of the sherif.

Thus, then, I was left destitute also from this side, and I felt the want of supplies the more, as my head man, 'Alí el A'geren, supported by the wording of the contract which I had entered into with him, had claimed here peremptorily the payment of the rest of his salary, which amounted to 111 dollars, and I had been obliged to request Sídi 'Alí to pay him this sum on my account.

LETTER TO 'ALI'YU.

577 This man had cost me very dear, and if I had possessed sufficient means I should have discharged him in Timbuktu, as he there threw off all allegiance and obedience to me as soon as he became aware of the dangers which surrounded me. He was likewise of very little service to me on my return-journey; but, of course, he was now anxious to excuse himself for his conduct on the road, and even laid claim to the present which I had promised him in the event of his conduct proving quite to my satisfaction. This, however, I refused with good reason; and I was glad to find that my other servants, whose salaries amounted altogether to nearly 200 dollars, were willing to wait for their payment until we reached Kúkawa.

However, the parcel which my servant brought me from Zínder was not quite devoid of subjects of gratification, as besides a few letters from Europe, including a map of South Africa by Mr. Cooley, it contained two beautifully written Arabic letters, one addressed to 'Aliyu, the Emír of Sókoto, and the other a general letter of recommendation addressed by her majesty's consul in Tripoli to the chiefs of the Fúlbe. These letters I had expressly written for, and if I had received them two years earlier they would have been of great service to me. As it was, I sent the letter destined for 'Aliyu to the governor, who was so much pleased with it that he forwarded it by a special messenger, accompanied by a letter from myself, wherein I expressed my regret that I had not been able to present this letter to him on my personal visit, while at the same time I excused myself for not being able at the time to send him a small present, not having found here any supplies, and being entirely destitute of means. Having heard a report, which afterward proved to be false, that the Govornor of Hamárruwa had formed the intention of attacking the people in the English steamer with a large force, I took the opportunity of protesting in this letter against such proceedings, giving the chief a plain statement of the peaceable intentions of the expedition.

The parcel which my servant had brought me from Zínder seemed also to hold out the prospect of material aid; for the letter from Mr. Dickson, dated the latter part of 1853, wherein he at the same time informed me, to my great disappointment, that he was about to leave his post for the Crimea, contained two letters of recommendation to a couple of Ghadámsi merchants, of the names of Háj Ahmed ben Slímán and Mohammed ben Músa,

VOL. III.-00

who, as he informed me, had property of his own in their hands, in order to assist me in case I should be in want of money; but when I sent these letters to their destination they were very cold. ly received, and it was intimated to me that I could not be accommodated. The disappointment which the awkwardness of my pecuniary circumstances caused me was soothed in some degree by the offer which the Fezzáni merchant, Khweldi, whose kindness to me I have mentioned on a previous occasion, made me at the same time, of lending me 200 dollars in cash. In the afternoon of the 14th a servant of his arrived with the money, which, however, did not suffice for my actual wants, as I had to return to Sídi 'Alí the 111 dollars which he had paid to my sery. ant'Alí el A'geren. After having made a suitable present to the messenger, I had therefore only a very small sum remaining, and the disappointment which I had experienced with regard to my luggage made me reluctant to forego the project which I had formed of taking home with me specimens of the manufactures of this place. I had also to buy two horses and a couple of camels, together with sundry other articles, and I was therefore obliged to procure farther means, however difficult it might be. I had even a great deal of trouble with Sídi 'Alí, who put off his promise to accommodate me from day to day.

At length, having, on the 10th of November, written an energetic letter to this merchant, it was agreed that the affair between myself and the Ghadámsi merchants, who refused to lend me money, although they had English property in their hands, should be referred to the ghaladíma, who granted me a public interview for the purpose. In this audience, in which a great number of other people were present, the merchants founded their refusal to comply with my request on the old date of the letter in which they were ordered to attend to my wishes; and it was not until the ghaladíma had ordered them to bring into his presence all that they possessed of the British agent's property that they agreed the following day to lend me a sum of money, at the usual rate of one hundred per cent. Being obliged to agree to this condition, as it had never been my intention to oblige them by force to grant me a loan without allowing them their usual profit, I stipulated to receive from them 500,000 shells, equal in this place to 200 dollars, on the condition that 400 should be repaid in Tripoli at four months' date. This loan, which would not have been necessary at all if I had found my supplies, enabled me, on the other

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hand, to send off my dispatches with the greatest ease and secu. rity, as it was, of course, the interest of these merchants to have these letters forwarded to Tripoli by the safest and shortest route. A courier was therefore dispatched immediately, who, being an experienced and well-known person, would be able to make his way through the country of A'ír, which in its temporarily disturbed state was closed to any one else. The only thing which caused me some displeasure in this transaction was the circumstance that these merchants from Ghadámes had the insolence, although half the money with which they trade is Christian money, to call the Christians, in the presence of the ghaladíma, by the offensive name of “Káfaráwa” (“the infidels"), and I made a serious protest against such a term being employed in official transactions.

The difficulty which I had in supplying my wants, and purchasing the articles that in my opinion were necessary for my outfit, was the greater, as every thing was very dear at the time, the merchants being of opinion, on account of the turbulent state of the road, that no caravan from the north would arrive that year. Camels especially were exceedingly dear, seven fine animals which Khweldi had sent from Zínder being sold for 60,000 shells each, a very high price for a camel. I deemed myself, therefore, very fortunate in being able to purchase a she-camel of inferior quality for 45,000. I also was so lucky as to buy an excellent mare for 70,000 shells, or less than thirty dollars. Having thus at length provided for all my wants, I got every thing ready for starting on the 21st, and heartily glad I was when I was fairly embarked on this the last stage of my journeying in Negroland, with the prospect before me that, in six months or so, I might again breathe the invigorating air of the north.

I therefore cheerfully took leave of my friends from the far west, who were to follow as soon as possible to Kúkawa; for, although they were not likely to be of any farther assistance to me, they wanted to lay the chief of that country under some contribution for their own benefit and that of their master. I then pursued my journey with great cheerfulness; and although the general character of the country was not new to me, yet the route which I was obliged to take had not been traveled by me before. The road; although perhaps less populous, seemed to possess the advantage of richer vegetation, and deléb palms especially formed the ornament of many a hamlet or of the open scenery. Fine cattle also were to be seen in considerable numbers, and altogether it was a pleasant ride. Thus, after a march of about eleven miles, we reached the town of Wase or Wása, and here took up our quarters; but, as usual, we found the gate so narrow that we were obliged to take most of the luggage off the camels, and this was the reason that we always preferred encamping outside, although here it was deemed too unsafe. Even inside the place the people were very much afraid of thieves. The town was tolerably populous, and the court-yards were fenced with hedges of living trees, almost in the same way as U'ba, and the one where we lodged was well shaded. Although, in the present disturbed state of the country, and with the prospect of another expedition of Bokhári, the inhabitants did not feel much at their ease, we were nevertheless tolerably well treated.

November 24th. We had the same difficulty in getting out of the town as we had in entering it, so that I was quite sick of these places, and resolved, if possible, never to enter one again. The sorghum or Indian corn had just been cut, but was lying on the ground unthreshed, or rather unbeaten. The dorówa-tree or Bassia Parkii, which seemed to be the prevailing tree in this district, appeared in great numbers a little farther on, and even date-trees were seen, close to a hamlet. Having then passed through a more open country, the scenery became exceedingly fine, and continued so as far as the town of Sabó-n-garí, which we passed at some distance on our left. The market-place, enlivened by two beautiful baúre-trees, remained close at the side of our track. It was here that the Governor of Kanó intended to collect his troops in order to oppose Bokhári; but it was not very likely, taking into account his own want of energy and the cowardly disposition of his host, that he would offer serious resistance to that energetic and enterprising chief, with his warlike bands, elated by victory and pillage.

Twelve miles beyond Sabó-n-garí, through a less-favored district, we reached the town of Yerímarí, surrounded with a keffi, while on its outer side a market was just being held. But there being here no food for the camels, we proceeded on, through a district covered with underwood, until we reached, about two miles beyond, a village called “Gída-n-Alla" ("the house of God"), which, besides being surrounded with a keffi, was so com. pletely hidden behind a dense covert of trees, which form a natural defense, that we could scarcely discover it. But inside this covert there was a fine open field, whereon we pitched our tent,

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