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Timbúktu, and to explore that part of the Niger which, through the untimely fate of Mungo Park, had remained unknown to the scientific world. In this enterprise I succeeded to my utmost expectation, and not only made known the whole of that vast region, which even to the Arab merchants in general had remained more unknown than any other part of Africa,* but I succeeded also in establishing friendly relations with all the most powerful chiefs along the river up to that mysterious city itself. The whole of this was achieved, including the payment of the debts left by the former expedition, and £200 which I contributed myself, with the sum of about £1600. No doubt, even in the track which I my. self pursued, I have left a good deal for my successors in this career to improve upon; but I have the satisfaction to feel that I have opened to the view of the scientific public of Europe a most extensive tract of the secluded African world, and not only made it tolerably known, but rendered the opening of a regular intercourse between Europeans and those regions possible.

* “It appears singular that the country immediately to the eastward of Timbuctoo, as far as Kashna, should be more imperfectly known to the Moorish traders than the rest of Central Africa."- Quarterly Review, May, 1820, p. 234. Compare what Clapperton says about the dangers of the road from Sókoto to Timbuktu. Sec. Exped., p. 235.

APPENDIX.

APPENDIX I. PRESENT CONDITION OF THE PROVINCE OF ZANFARA. The province of Zán fara in former times was far more extensive than at present, its ancient capital being situated half a day (hantsi) east from Sansánne 'Aisa, on the road to Tóze, and this is perhaps Birni-n-Zánfara, founded by the powerful chief Babári about a century ago. At that time the province was a powerful kingdom, but at present it is in the most distracted condition, half of the places belonging to it being still under the rule of the Fülbe, while the other half have revolted successfully, and are strictly allied with the Góberáwa.

Under the rule of the Fülbe, or Fullán, are the following places:

Zyrmi, with three governors : one, Abu Hámid, who has ruled (in 1853) seven, another, Tarna, who has ruled fifteen years, and a third one, a younger brother of Tarna, but who has exercised power for thirty years ;* Káuri-n-Namóda, at present governed by Mahamúdu, a younger brother of the warlike and far-famed chief Namóda, who has ruled for the last twelve years; Búnka, Bóka, Góga, Yánkaba, Dába, Banga, Birni-n-Máddera, Módiki, Moriki with Ne-ebbúsuwa, Kóre with Makauru, Dunfáwa, Dúchi, Badaráwa, Katúru, Kanna, Dan I'sa, Waúnaka-n-Féllani (in order to distinguish it from another town of the same name, which is allied with the Góberáwa), Yangwoy, Kiáwa, Rúra, Waúni, Jirgába, Gabáke, Kangwa, Kadámusá, Yanbúkki, Také-adoy, Birni-n-Mágaji, Birni-n-Torówa or Márekay, with Dan Korgú, Tuddu Makángerí, Ráwiya, Bidáji, Chibiri.

The independent places are the following:

A'nka, residence of 'Abdú, the rebel chief of Zánfara (Serkí-n-Zánfara); Máffara, residence of Serkí-n-Tléta ; Gummi, residence of the chief Banyári; Zóma, residence of 'Ali, and close by Gólli; Sabónbirni Dáraga, residence of Bánagá; Marádu, residence of Serki-n-Kaya; Gáumaché and Góra close by; Mátusgi, residence of Ajía; Gárbadú and Kággará, Munré, Bokúra, residence of Serkí-n-Báwa; Damrí, Sabóngarí, Dúffwa Mátfará, a district, with the chief place, Rúwa-n-bóre; Dankó, Uya.

In order to arrange these places topographically, I shall first give an itinerary from Kanó to Sókoto, by way of Káuri-n-Namóda. Day. ist. Rími-n-Gadó. 2d. Shá-nóno, a large walled place, having passed Yángadá. 3d. Kúrkejám or Kúrkejango, first place of the province of Kátsena, having passed

Sábberé. 4th. Músáwa, a large walled town, with a market; short march. 5th. Yá-mántemáki, with a water-course on its east side running south; having

passed U'ngwa Sámia. 6th. Sáwi, having passed Yá-músa, Shawáre, and Jigáwa. 7th. Ajja, a walled place of middle size.

Kiáwa, very large walled place, formerly the capital of Zánfara, at present

rather thinly inhabited. 9th. Káuri-n-Namóda, residence of Namóda (brother of Mahamudu), with a mar

ket held every Monday and Tuesday, and a considerable water-course on the west side, once a very large and populous place. A short day's march south, a little west from this place, lies Riyáwa (not Ránia), and west from it Búngudu, at present said to be the largest place in Zánfara among those which belong to the faction of the Féilani ; to its district or territory belong

the smaller places of Alíbawá, Bidaji, Kasaráwa, Módomáwa, Fáddamáwa, * Formerly there was in Zýrmi a powerful governor belonging to the faction of the Góberáwa, called Dan Jéka, who ruled twenty years, when he was murdered by Mámmedu (Mohammedu).

8th.

Day. Kontambáni, and the settlements of the Fellani-n-Dáwaki, and the Fellani

n-Také-adoy. 10th. Birni-n-Góga, on the east side of the same water-course. 11th. Kúsará, a small place inhabited by Fülbe. 12th. Gwara, large walled place, having crossed a water-course. 13th. Bakúra, large walled place, formerly residence of 'Atíku, the son of Hämedu.

till the town was taken by the Góberáwa. To the territory of this town be

long the places Sabóngarí, Dámmerí, Sála, Dogóje. Bakúra from A'nka one long day south, farther than Gándi from Wurnó:

Bakúra from Gándi one good day south, passing by Gáumaché. The river

forms a large bend west of Bakúra, and at the angle lies Tymba. 14th. Tymba, walled place on the west side of the Gulbi-n-Bakúra, at present in

the hands of the A'zena. Between Tymba and Bakúra lie the towns Birni-n-Dámbo and Birni-n-Riyáde, and hereabout are the places Alibana, Bidáji, Kasaráwa, Féllani-n-Dáwaki, Fellani-n-Také-adoy, Módomáwa,

Fáddamáwa, Kontambáni. 15th, Galádi or Danfa, large place, with a pond of stagnant water. 16th. A place of elephant-hunters. 17th. Sókoto.

I shall now connect Bánagá, or rather Sabónbirni Dáragá, as it is more properly called, with a few other places, and shall then conclude this Appendix, reserving for Appendix III. an enumeration of the towns and villages situated along the course of the Gulbi-n-Zóma to where it joins the Gulbi-n-Sókoto.

From Banagá to A'nka is one long day north, just as from Gándi to Wurno; from Bánagá to Gúmmi three days W.N.W.: 1st day. Adebka, Gari-n-serki-Kiyawa. 20. Birni-n-Týddu, on the south side of the Gulbi-n-Zóma. 3d. Gúmini, passing by the town of Kaiwa.

From Bánaga to Kotórkoshé six moderate days' march: Ist. Bíni or Béna. 2d. Mutumji. 3d. Mágami. 4th. Samrí. 5th. Cháfe. 6th. Kotórkoshé.

N.B. ---Besides Bíni and Mutúmji, there are, in the same quarter, the district inclosed between Bánagá, Kotú-n-kúra-Kotú-n-kúra being from Bánagá two days S.W.—and Gwári, the small principalities of Machéri, Bána, Morébbu, and Kumbáshi, all residences of petty chiefs, dependent in some degree on the governor of Kátsena.

Between Bakúra and Zóma lie Damrí, Sabóngari, Sála, Takáre; farther on, entering the territory of Zóma, Dangarúnfa, Másu, Matsáfa, Gúsará, Bókuyum, Solli.

From Sókoto to Zóma, south, three days: first day, Danchádi, the same as from Sókoto to Wurno; then a long night's march, reaching in the morning Birni-nMágaji, distance the same as that from Zékka to Búnka; from Mágaji to Zóma short march. From Gandó the distance is shorter.

Zóma lies about half way between A'nka and Gúmmi, on a river called after it, Gulbi-n-Zóma; but I shall give all the particulars with regard to the towns lying along this valley farther on, in Appendix IV., as this river, which lower down is called Gulbi-n-Gíndi, unites with the Gulbi-n-Sokoto within the boundaries of Kebbi.

I here subjoin a list of the places situated along the water-course, which lower down is called “Gulbi-n-Sokoto," between Sansánne-'Aísa and Dimbiso, but at present almost all of them are destroyed and deserted: first, Tóze on the south side; Gawángasó, where the branch of Marádi and Chéberi joins the greater trunk val. ley; Alkaláwa (written Alkadháwa), the former capital of Góber, destroyed by the Fülbe, Laijínge, both south; Páday, north; Tsámay, north; Tsiche, north; Bóre, south; Kakákia, north; Márennú, south; Maráfa, south; Kiráre, north ; Shináka, south; Giyáwa, Dímbisó. The valley, which probably has a very winding course, must therefore approach Giyáwa a little nearer than it has been laid down on the map.

APPENDIX II.
A FEW HISTORICAL FACTS RELATING TO GOʻBER AND ZA'NFARA.

(a.) Princes of Góber. Sóba, residing in Magále, one day west from Chebiri, made war against Gurma and Barba (Bargu), beyond the River Kwára, wherein he discovered a ford.

Uba Ashé succeeded to Sóba.

HISTORICAL FACTS AND LINE OF DESCENT.

635

Babári, King of Góber, reigned about fifty years, was introduced by the chief men of Zánfara into Birni-n-Zánfara, then a wealthy place and the centre of an important commerce (1764), which he conquered and destroyed; whereupon he founded Alkaláwa, which then became the capital of Góber. This was the origin of the national hatred which exists between the Góberáwa and Zánfaráwa.

Dángudé, killed by the A'sbenáwa.

Báwa, with the surname Mayákí, the warrior, on account of his restless and warlike character. During the eight years of his reign he only remained forty days in Alkaláwa, waging war the whole time.

Yakoba, a younger brother of Báwa, reigned seven years, was killed by Agoréggi, the ruler of Kátsena, which place appears at that time to have reached its highest degree of power.

Bunu reigned seven years, died in Alkaláwa.
Yunfa reigned forty-four years.

Dáne or Dan Yunfa reigned six years, made war against 'Othmán the Reformer, son of Fódiye, when he was killed by Bello, son of 'Othmán, at the taking of Alkaláwa.

Sálehu dan Babáliwá resided in Mázum, reigned two years, till killed by Bello. Gómki, seven years, slain by Bello.

'Alí, eighteen years, according to others twelve, slain by the Fulbe, together with Ráuda serki-n-Kátsena.

Jibbo Táwuba reigned seven years, according to others three years, residing in Marádi.

Báchiri, seven months.

The present King of Góber, generally known under the name of Mayaki, the warrior, on account of his martial disposition, son of Yákoba, has ruled since 1836.

(6.) A few data with reference to the ruling families in Sókoto and Gandó. Bello built Sókoto while 'Othmán was residing in Gandó; from hence the latter went to Sifáwa or Shifáwa, thence to Sókoto, where he resided ten years more.

Rulers of Sókoto. 'Othmán died 3 Jumád II., 1817 (A.H. 1233), aged sixty-four years, having resided

thirteen years in Gandó and Sifáwa, and ten in Sókoto. Bello, twenty-one years, died 25 Rejeb, 1837 (A.H. 1253), aged fifty-eight years. 'Atiku, another son of 'Othmán, succeeded him, reigned five years three months,

died in the beginning of 1843.
Aliyu, son of Bello, had reigned ten (lunar) years four months in April, 1853.

Rulers of Gandó.
Abd Alláhi died 1827, Wednesday, A.H. 20 Moharrem, 1245.
Mohammed Wáni died 1836, A. . 4 Ramadhán, 1250.
Khalílu was, A.D. 1853, in the eighteenth year of his reign.

Children of Fódiye, son of Mohammed. 'Ali, father of Módibo 'Ali; Sheikh 'Othmán ; 'Abd-Alláhi; Hotíhun Máunuma; Enhatákko, a daughter-all born of one mother.

Mameñáro; Elfá 'Omáro; Mamma Júma, still alive; Bakódda-born of different mothers.

Children of 'Othmán dan Fódiye. Mohammed Bisáda; Sambo Wulíy ; Bello; 'Atíku; Mohammed Bokhári, a very learned man, died 1840, A.H. the 23 Háj, 1255, aged fifty-five years three months; Hassan, father of Khalílu dan Hassan ; Mohammed Hájo; 'Abd el Kádiri; Hámed el Rufáy, and 'Isa, alive still, the former residing in Tózo.

'Alí Jédi, the father of Abu 'l Hassan, serki-n-yaki; Moéji, an influential chief of the tribe of the Wolóbe; and the serki-n-Syllebáwa, were the three principal advisers of 'Othmán dan Fódiye, and were the persons who placed his successor, Bello, upon the throne.

(c.) Fúlbe Tribes.

Divisions of the Fellani-n-Sókoto. Torunkáwa, Toróde or Tórobe, Torunkáwa Sabúni (thus called because, when as

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