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CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF THE HISTORY OF SONGHAY. 679
Neighboring Kingdoms. this feeling of independence, probably, that the inhabitants would not bear the encroachments of the Káíd el Mustapha upon their liberty, especially as he wanted to fill from his own choice, after the death of Yáhia, the place of the Tumbutu-koy, or Túmbutu-mangha, as he is here called, the office of the native governor. Thus a bloody tumult arose in the town, when the Tárki chief Ausamba came to the assistance of the distressed Káid, probably from motives of plunder, and thus the whole town was consumed by flames, it being a dreadful day for the inhabitants. Nay, the enraged Káíd, who had now got the upper hand, wanted to slaughter them all; but the Káid Mámi succeeded in re-establishing peace between the inhabitants and El Mustapha, and quiet and comfort began to return, so that even those who had emigrated again returned to their native homes. Even the inspector of the harbor, who had retired to the province of Banku or Bengu, came back with the fleet. The communication therefore with Jinni and the region on the upper course of the river
devastated the districts of Bara and Dirma, and inflicted upon them
The Bambara appear as a conquerdeal from the devastating incur
ing race. sions of the pagan Bámbara, and took up his residence for a time in the palace of the Jinnikoy. Having then installed 'Abd-Allah ben 'Othmán as Governor of Jinni, and arranged matters in that distant place, he returned to Timbúktu. Samba Lámido (“lámido” means “ governor”), evidently a Púllo, in Danka or Denga, devastated many of the places on the Rás el má, and committed great havoc and bloodshed. Thus the Moroccains had conquered almost the whole of this extens
ive empire, from Dendi as far as and even beyond Jinni, for they even took possession of part of Baghena, and conquered the whole province of Hómbori, or, as it is called, from its rocky character, Tóndi or El Hajri, to the south of the river. Nay, they even conquered part of Tombo, the strong native kingdom inclosed between Hómbori, Mósi, Jinni, and Jimballa. They had their chief garrisons in Jinni, Timbuktu, Bámba, which on this account received the name Kasbah, in Gágho, and Kalna in Dendi, and their chief strength consisted in intermarrying with the natives, and thus producing a distinct class of people, who, as Ermá or Rumá, are distinguished to this very day, while the peculiar dialect of Songhay, which they speak, has been produced lately as a distinct language by M. Raffenel.* But these half-castes soon found all their interest in their new abode, and cared very little for Morocco, so that the advantage which the latter country drew from this conquest was only of a very transitory character. Certainly, there was some sort of order established, but there was no new organization, as it seems, the old forms being preserved, and soon becoming effete. On the whole, we can not but admire the correctness of the following passage of Bábá A'hmed, who says, “ Thus this Mahalla at that period found in Sudán (Songhay) one of those countries of the earth which are most favored with comfort, plenty, peace, and prosperity every where; such was the working of the government of the Emír el Múmenín, A'skíá el Háj Mohammed ben Abu Bakr, in consequence of his justice and the power of his royal command, which took full and peremptory effect, not only in his capital, but in all the districts of his whole empire, from the province of Dendi to the frontiers of Morocco, and from the territory of Bennendugu (to the south of Jinni) as far as Tegháza and Tawát. But in a moment all was
* See p. 297.
Neighboring Kingdoms. changed, and peaceful repose was succeeded by a constant state of fear, comfort and security by trouble and suffering; ruin and misfortune took the place of prosperity, and people began every where to fight against each other, and property became exposed to constant danger; and this ruin began, spread, increased, and at length prevailed throughout the whole region." Thus wrote old Bábá A’hmed, who
The kingdoms of Asianti and Dahad himself lost every thing in
home begin to become powerful. consequence of that paramount calamity which had befallen his native land, and who had been carried a prisoner to the country of the conqueror, till, owing to the unbounded respect which the enemy himself felt for the learning and sanctity of the prisoner, he was released, and allowed to return to Songhay, where he seems to have finished his days by endeavoring to console himself for the loss of all that was dear to him with science, and in writing the history
of his unfortunate native country. Múláy Hámed el Mansúr, the conqueror of Songhay, died.
A.1. 1012. Zédán his youngest son, is proclaimed sultan, but has to sustain a long A.D. 1607.
struggle against his brothers 'Abd-Allah and Sheikh, and after an A.H. 1016. unfortunate battle on the 8th December, is driven beyond the limits
of Morocco, when Sheikh is recognized for a limited period. All these changes could not fail to exercise an immediate influence
upon the government of Songhay, which had now become a
province of Morocco. * Múláy Zédán died.
A.H. 1040. Múláy 'Abd el Melek succeeds
him: is assassinated. Muláy Walid succeeds him.
A.H. 1048. the Senegal. The History of Songhay composed A.D. 1640. The Tademékket are driven out of by A’hmed Bábá.
A.H. 1050. their former seats and deprived Great inundation in Timbuktu, in
of their supremacy by the Aweconsequence of the high level at
límmid or A'welímmiden (the tained by the river.
Lamta), who formerly had been settled in Igídi with the Welád
Delém, with whom they were allied. Karidénne, the son of Shwásh and of a wife from the tribe of the Tademékket, murdered the chief of the latter tribe, and drove them out of A'derár, when they went westward and implored the protection of the Basha, who assigned them new seats round about
the backwaters between Timbuk
tu and Gundam. Múláy Ahmed Sheikh succeeds to A.D. 1647.
Múláy Walid, but is soon after A.H. 1057.
killed in a revolt, Króm el Háji usurps the throne: is A.D. 1654-5. soon after assassinated.
A.H. 1065. Múláy Mohammed, son of Muláy A.D. 1664.
'Ali, the founder of the Filáli dy- A.H. 1075-8. nasty, dethroned by his brother E' Rashid: E' Rashíd takes possession of the town of Morocco. • I had no time to excerpt this latter part of Bábá Ahmed's history, but it is full of information with regard to this turbulent period.
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF THE IIISTORY OF SONGHAY. 681
refuge in Songhay* - a proof A.H. 1078, in Tishít, possessed great power.
without being able to establish A.H. 1083. of the Welád Mebárek, received
the investiture as ruler of Báempire. It is very remarkable
ghena from Ismá'ail.
láy Ismá'ail, Governor of Dar'a A.H. 1091. king of Góber, residing in Ma-
ghale, one day west of Chéberi, tion into Súdán, with a large
makes warlike expeditions bebody of troops, and although ho
yond the Kwára. lost 1500 men in crossing the desert, brought back a rich spoil in gold and slaves, principally from a place called Tagaret, which it is not easy to identify, especially as it is said that he found there a king of Súdán. It is probably a place in Taganet, most likely Tejígja. There is no mention of a garrison dependent upon Morocco. In this same year Timbuktu is said to have been conquered by the Mandingoes (Bámbara ?).
his reign lasted only two years, and he was constantly engaged in A.H. 1140-1.
namesake, Múláy А’hmed el Dhéhebi. Múláy 'Abd-Alla succeeds to the A.D. 1729.
throne. Constant civil war in A.H. 1142-3. the beginning of his reign.
A.D. 1740. About this time the Kél-owi take
A.y. 1153. possession of A'ír or A'sben.
perhaps with a reaction of the
róde-the Wolof intermixed with About this time Gógó, which had
the Fülbe-against the element hitherto been ruled by the Rumá,
Málinke and Pullo. Sáttigi • Here again Jackson (Account of Morocco, p. 295) has made a most erroneous statement, saying that Sidi 'Ali escaped into Súdán, where the King of Bambara received him hospitably, so that 'Ali
t 800 black warriors, with whom he marched against Morocco; and that these blacks were the means by which Ismá'ail obtained influence in Timbuktu.
† There is great confusion in an article concerning this subject in a letter addressed by Jackson to Sir James Bankes, in the Proceedings of the African Association, vol. i., p. 366. Here the annual tribute which Timbuktu paid to this king is estimated at 5,000,000 dollars. The same sort of exaggeration we find in all Jackson's statements.
I Even the very meritorious Gråberg de Hem , in his Specchio di Marocco, p. 269, repeats this statement.
See M. le Colonel Faidherbe, in Bulletin de la Soc. Géogr., 1850.
Neighboring Kingdoms. was conquered by the Tawárek.
Sambalámu, the last of the Soltribe of the Awelímmiden.
tana Deniankóbe. The order of Probably in consequence of this
the succession is as follows: event A'gades, having been de
Chéro Solimán Bal, prived of its commercial re
Almáme 'Abdu, sources, begins to decline.
son of Mohammed Birán. The chief Káwa, who rules seventy A.D. 1780. Venture collects his information
years over the Awelímmiden, A.H. 1195. from two Moroccain merchants. establishes a powerful dominion
Tombo very powerful. Marka, on the north bank of the Niger
the Aswánek, in Baghena. Ka(A'usa).
wár, the Fülbe, in Másina. Timbuktu, according to the very A.D. 1787. About this period falls the quarrel
doubtful statement of Shabíni, * A.H. 1202- between the Sheikh el Mukhtar under the supremacy of Háusa. 1203. el kebír and the Welád Bille, the If this were true, it would be a
former overthrowing the latter, very important fact; but it is
with the assistance of the Méevidently a mistake, A'usa being
shedúf and the Ahel Zenághi. meant. Timbuktu, under the sovereignty A.D. 1803- El Mukhtár opens friendship with
of Mansong, at that time King 1804. 'Othmán dan Fódie, the Jihadi, of Bámbara (very questionable]. A.H. 1218. who this year entered into open Professor Rittert supposes the
hostility against Bawa, the King Moors to have been ejected at
of Góber, and brought about that that time, so that Timbuktu be
immense revolution in the whole came an independent Negro
centre of Negroland. town.
About this period a great struggle
between the Awelímmiden and
the Tademékket. A.D. 1804. The Fulbe make Gando, in Kebbi,
A.. 1219. the seat of their operations. Mungo Park navigates the Niger. A.D. 1805-6. The Rumá, still powerful between
A.H. 1220-1. Sébi and Timbuktu, dominate
the passage of the Niger. A.D. 1811. Sídi Mukhtár dies.
A.H. 1226. Mohammed or Ahmed Lebbo A.D. 1816. Great and sanguinary battle be
brings the religious banner from A.H. 1232- tween the Songhay, Rums, and Gando, and gradually acquires 1233. Berabísh on the one side, and the supremacy in Másina over
the Awelímmiden on the other, the native chiefs.
near the island Kúrkozay. A.D. 1817. Sheikh 'Othmán dan Fódie before A.H. 1233. his death divides his extensive
dominions between his brother 'Abd-Alláhi and his son Bello, the former receiving all the western provinces along the Niger, with Gando as his capital, the latter the southeasterly prov
inces, with Sokoto. Lebbo commences hostilities with A.D. 1820. Constant war between Másina and
Mohammed Galáijo, the chief of A.H. 1236- Bámbara.
+ Proceedings of the African Associntion, i.. . 892. * Ritter, Erdkunde von Afrika, p. 446 seq., especially from Sidi llámed's statement (p. 363).
EASTERN ROUTE FROM TAWA'T TO TIMBUĽKTU.
Veighboring Kingdoms. The Fulbé of Másina occupy Timbuktu in the beginning of the year. A.D. 1826. Major Laing left 'En-Sálah on the 10th of January; was attacked, A.H. 1242-3.
and almost slain, in Wadi Ahennet, on the 27th (?), by a party of
on the 24th. The Sheikh el Mukhtár, the son A.D. 1827. 'Abd-Alláhi, the ruler of Gando,
and successor of Sídi Moham- A.n. 1243. dies. Is succeeded by his son med settles in Timbuktu.
Mohammed Wáni. Caillié stays in Timbuktu from the A.D. 1828.
20th April till the 3d May. A.H. 1244. The Fülbe enter Timbuktu with a A.D. 1831. stronger force.
A.H. 1250. Gando.
the Niger as far as Burrum.
A.H. 1262. Sheikh el Mukhtár dies in the A.D. 1848.
month Rebí el áwel; El Bakáy A.H. 1264.
A.D. 1851. The Kel-gerés kill E' Nábеgha, the
A.H. 1269. The Fulbe make a great expedi- A.D. 1855. The Igwadaren opposed to the tion against Timbuktu.
A.H. 1272-3. Awelímmiden.
APPENDIX X. COLLECTION OF ITINERARIES ILLUSTRATING THE WESTERN HALF OF THE DES.
ERT, ITS DISTRICTS, AND ITS INHABITANTS, AND THE COURSE OF THE UPPER NIGER
A. Eastern Route from Tawát to Mabrúk, and thence to Timbuktu. N.B.—The route proceeds from Aulef in Tidíkelt, which is situated one short day from A'kabli (this is the right accent), and three days from I'nsala or 'Aín Sálah, the distance between Askabli and the latter place being about the same. Day.
28. Teríshumín, a well.
S. (evidently in the direction of Gógó), but from this point onward S.W.
The ordinary and general road from Mabrúk to Timbuktu leads by A'arwán: