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Neighboring Kingdoms. this feeling of independence, probably, that the inhabitants would not bear the encroachments of the Káíd el Mustapha upon their liberty, especially as he wanted to fill from his own choice, after the death of Yáhia, the place of the Tumbutu-koy, or Túmbutu-mangha, as he is here called, the office of the native governor. Thus a bloody tumult arose in the town, when the Tárki chief Ausamba came to the assistance of the distressed Káid, probably from motives of plunder, and thus the whole town was consumed by flames, it being a dreadful day for the inhabitants. Nay, the enraged Káíd, who had now got the upper hand, wanted to slaughter them all; but the Káid Mámi succeeded in re-establishing peace between the inhabitants and El Mustapha, and quiet and comfort began to return, so that even those who had emigrated again returned to their native homes. Even the inspector of the harbor, who had retired to the province of Banku or Bengu, came back with the fleet. The communication therefore with Jinni and the region on the upper course of the river

was re-opened.
Having then made a successful expedition against the Zoghorán, who

devastated the districts of Bara and Dirma, and inflicted upon them
a most severe punishment, the
Kárd Mámi went himself to Jin-
ni, which had suffered a great

The Bambara appear as a conquerdeal from the devastating incur

ing race. sions of the pagan Bámbara, and took up his residence for a time in the palace of the Jinnikoy. Having then installed 'Abd-Allah ben 'Othmán as Governor of Jinni, and arranged matters in that distant place, he returned to Timbúktu. Samba Lámido (“lámido” means “ governor”), evidently a Púllo, in Danka or Denga, devastated many of the places on the Rás el má, and committed great havoc and bloodshed. Thus the Moroccains had conquered almost the whole of this extens

ive empire, from Dendi as far as and even beyond Jinni, for they even took possession of part of Baghena, and conquered the whole province of Hómbori, or, as it is called, from its rocky character, Tóndi or El Hajri, to the south of the river. Nay, they even conquered part of Tombo, the strong native kingdom inclosed between Hómbori, Mósi, Jinni, and Jimballa. They had their chief garrisons in Jinni, Timbuktu, Bámba, which on this account received the name Kasbah, in Gágho, and Kalna in Dendi, and their chief strength consisted in intermarrying with the natives, and thus producing a distinct class of people, who, as Ermá or Rumá, are distinguished to this very day, while the peculiar dialect of Songhay, which they speak, has been produced lately as a distinct language by M. Raffenel.* But these half-castes soon found all their interest in their new abode, and cared very little for Morocco, so that the advantage which the latter country drew from this conquest was only of a very transitory character. Certainly, there was some sort of order established, but there was no new organization, as it seems, the old forms being preserved, and soon becoming effete. On the whole, we can not but admire the correctness of the following passage of Bábá A'hmed, who says, “ Thus this Mahalla at that period found in Sudán (Songhay) one of those countries of the earth which are most favored with comfort, plenty, peace, and prosperity every where; such was the working of the government of the Emír el Múmenín, A'skíá el Háj Mohammed ben Abu Bakr, in consequence of his justice and the power of his royal command, which took full and peremptory effect, not only in his capital, but in all the districts of his whole empire, from the province of Dendi to the frontiers of Morocco, and from the territory of Bennendugu (to the south of Jinni) as far as Tegháza and Tawát. But in a moment all was

* See p. 297.


Neighboring Kingdoms. changed, and peaceful repose was succeeded by a constant state of fear, comfort and security by trouble and suffering; ruin and misfortune took the place of prosperity, and people began every where to fight against each other, and property became exposed to constant danger; and this ruin began, spread, increased, and at length prevailed throughout the whole region." Thus wrote old Bábá A’hmed, who

The kingdoms of Asianti and Dahad himself lost every thing in

home begin to become powerful. consequence of that paramount calamity which had befallen his native land, and who had been carried a prisoner to the country of the conqueror, till, owing to the unbounded respect which the enemy himself felt for the learning and sanctity of the prisoner, he was released, and allowed to return to Songhay, where he seems to have finished his days by endeavoring to console himself for the loss of all that was dear to him with science, and in writing the history

of his unfortunate native country. Múláy Hámed el Mansúr, the conqueror of Songhay, died.

A.D. 1603.

A.1. 1012. Zédán his youngest son, is proclaimed sultan, but has to sustain a long A.D. 1607.

struggle against his brothers 'Abd-Allah and Sheikh, and after an A.H. 1016. unfortunate battle on the 8th December, is driven beyond the limits

of Morocco, when Sheikh is recognized for a limited period. All these changes could not fail to exercise an immediate influence

upon the government of Songhay, which had now become a

province of Morocco. * Múláy Zédán died.

A.D. 1630.

A.H. 1040. Múláy 'Abd el Melek succeeds

him: is assassinated. Muláy Walid succeeds him.

A.D. 1635.
A.H. 1045-6.
A.D. 1637. The French make a settlement on

A.H. 1048. the Senegal. The History of Songhay composed A.D. 1640. The Tademékket are driven out of by A’hmed Bábá.

A.H. 1050. their former seats and deprived Great inundation in Timbuktu, in

of their supremacy by the Aweconsequence of the high level at

límmid or A'welímmiden (the tained by the river.

Lamta), who formerly had been settled in Igídi with the Welád

Delém, with whom they were allied. Karidénne, the son of Shwásh and of a wife from the tribe of the Tademékket, murdered the chief of the latter tribe, and drove them out of A'derár, when they went westward and implored the protection of the Basha, who assigned them new seats round about

the backwaters between Timbuk

tu and Gundam. Múláy Ahmed Sheikh succeeds to A.D. 1647.

Múláy Walid, but is soon after A.H. 1057.

killed in a revolt, Króm el Háji usurps the throne: is A.D. 1654-5. soon after assassinated.

A.H. 1065. Múláy Mohammed, son of Muláy A.D. 1664.

'Ali, the founder of the Filáli dy- A.H. 1075-8. nasty, dethroned by his brother E' Rashid: E' Rashíd takes possession of the town of Morocco. • I had no time to excerpt this latter part of Bábá Ahmed's history, but it is full of information with regard to this turbulent period.


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Neighboring Kingdoms.
Sídi 'Alí, Governor of Sús, takes A.D. 1667. About this time the Welád Bille,

refuge in Songhay* - a proof A.H. 1078, in Tishít, possessed great power.
that the garrison stationed there 1079.
had made themselves quite in-
dependent of Morocco at that
time, notwithstanding the ener-
getic rule of E' Rashid, who died A.D. 1672.

A.H. 1083.
Múláy Ismá'all succeeds him, but A.D. 1672. Hennún, the son of Bóhedal, chief

without being able to establish A.H. 1083. of the Welád Mebárek, received
his power over all parts of the

the investiture as ruler of Báempire. It is very remarkable

ghena from Ismá'ail.
that this king formed a standing
army of Negroes, especially Son-
ghay, whom he married to Moroccain women, in order to rule his
own subjects, just in the same manner as a body of Moroccain sol-
diers intermarrying with Negro
women dominated Songhay.
These were the “abíd mt'a Sídi

Múláy А’hmed, the nephew of Mú- A.D. 1680. About this time Sóba, the mighty

láy Ismá'ail, Governor of Dar'a A.H. 1091. king of Góber, residing in Ma-
and Sus, undertook an expedi-

ghale, one day west of Chéberi, tion into Súdán, with a large

makes warlike expeditions bebody of troops, and although ho

yond the Kwára. lost 1500 men in crossing the desert, brought back a rich spoil in gold and slaves, principally from a place called Tagaret, which it is not easy to identify, especially as it is said that he found there a king of Súdán. It is probably a place in Taganet, most likely Tejígja. There is no mention of a garrison dependent upon Morocco. In this same year Timbuktu is said to have been conquered by the Mandingoes (Bámbara ?).

Mareb 02,
Múláy А’hmed el Dhéhebi succeeds to the aged Ismá aíl. Although A.D. 1727.

his reign lasted only two years, and he was constantly engaged in A.H. 1140-1.
civil war, he is said to have made an expedition into Súdán, from
whence he brought back great treasures. I But this is evidently a
confused statement, and probably refers to the deeds of his elder

namesake, Múláy А’hmed el Dhéhebi. Múláy 'Abd-Alla succeeds to the A.D. 1729.

throne. Constant civil war in A.H. 1142-3. the beginning of his reign.

A.D. 1740. About this time the Kél-owi take

A.y. 1153. possession of A'ír or A'sben.
Sídi Mohammed built Swéra or A.D. 1757. Babári, powerful king in Góber.

A.H. 1171-2.
A.D. 1770. 'Abd el Káder produces a religious
A.1. 1184. revolution in Fúta, combined

perhaps with a reaction of the
Wolof against the conquerors, $
or rather of the race of the To-

róde-the Wolof intermixed with About this time Gógó, which had

the Fülbe-against the element hitherto been ruled by the Rumá,

Málinke and Pullo. Sáttigi • Here again Jackson (Account of Morocco, p. 295) has made a most erroneous statement, saying that Sidi 'Ali escaped into Súdán, where the King of Bambara received him hospitably, so that 'Ali

t 800 black warriors, with whom he marched against Morocco; and that these blacks were the means by which Ismá'ail obtained influence in Timbuktu.

† There is great confusion in an article concerning this subject in a letter addressed by Jackson to Sir James Bankes, in the Proceedings of the African Association, vol. i., p. 366. Here the annual tribute which Timbuktu paid to this king is estimated at 5,000,000 dollars. The same sort of exaggeration we find in all Jackson's statements.

I Even the very meritorious Gråberg de Hem , in his Specchio di Marocco, p. 269, repeats this statement.

See M. le Colonel Faidherbe, in Bulletin de la Soc. Géogr., 1850.

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Neighboring Kingdoms. was conquered by the Tawárek.

Sambalámu, the last of the Soltribe of the Awelímmiden.

tana Deniankóbe. The order of Probably in consequence of this

the succession is as follows: event A'gades, having been de

Chéro Solimán Bal, prived of its commercial re

Almáme 'Abdu, sources, begins to decline.

Almáme Mukhtár,
Almáme Bú-bakr,
Almáme Shíray,
Almáme Yusuf,
Almáme Birán,
Almáme Hammad,
Almáme Makhmúdo,
Almáme Mohammed el Amin,

son of Mohammed Birán. The chief Káwa, who rules seventy A.D. 1780. Venture collects his information

years over the Awelímmiden, A.H. 1195. from two Moroccain merchants. establishes a powerful dominion

Tombo very powerful. Marka, on the north bank of the Niger

the Aswánek, in Baghena. Ka(A'usa).

wár, the Fülbe, in Másina. Timbuktu, according to the very A.D. 1787. About this period falls the quarrel

doubtful statement of Shabíni, * A.H. 1202- between the Sheikh el Mukhtar under the supremacy of Háusa. 1203. el kebír and the Welád Bille, the If this were true, it would be a

former overthrowing the latter, very important fact; but it is

with the assistance of the Méevidently a mistake, A'usa being

shedúf and the Ahel Zenághi. meant. Timbuktu, under the sovereignty A.D. 1803- El Mukhtár opens friendship with

of Mansong, at that time King 1804. 'Othmán dan Fódie, the Jihadi, of Bámbara (very questionable]. A.H. 1218. who this year entered into open Professor Rittert supposes the

hostility against Bawa, the King Moors to have been ejected at

of Góber, and brought about that that time, so that Timbuktu be

immense revolution in the whole came an independent Negro

centre of Negroland. town.

About this period a great struggle

between the Awelímmiden and

the Tademékket. A.D. 1804. The Fulbe make Gando, in Kebbi,

A.. 1219. the seat of their operations. Mungo Park navigates the Niger. A.D. 1805-6. The Rumá, still powerful between

A.H. 1220-1. Sébi and Timbuktu, dominate

the passage of the Niger. A.D. 1811. Sídi Mukhtár dies.

A.H. 1226. Mohammed or Ahmed Lebbo A.D. 1816. Great and sanguinary battle be

brings the religious banner from A.H. 1232- tween the Songhay, Rums, and Gando, and gradually acquires 1233. Berabísh on the one side, and the supremacy in Másina over

the Awelímmiden on the other, the native chiefs.

near the island Kúrkozay. A.D. 1817. Sheikh 'Othmán dan Fódie before A.H. 1233. his death divides his extensive

dominions between his brother 'Abd-Alláhi and his son Bello, the former receiving all the western provinces along the Niger, with Gando as his capital, the latter the southeasterly prov

inces, with Sokoto. Lebbo commences hostilities with A.D. 1820. Constant war between Másina and

Mohammed Galáijo, the chief of A.H. 1236- Bámbara.
Konári, vanquishes him, and 1237.
forces him to retreat eastward.
• Shabini, p. 12.

+ Proceedings of the African Associntion, i.. . 892. * Ritter, Erdkunde von Afrika, p. 446 seq., especially from Sidi llámed's statement (p. 363).




Veighboring Kingdoms. The Fulbé of Másina occupy Timbuktu in the beginning of the year. A.D. 1826. Major Laing left 'En-Sálah on the 10th of January; was attacked, A.H. 1242-3.

and almost slain, in Wadi Ahennet, on the 27th (?), by a party of
Tawárek; was received very kindly by Sidi Mohammed, the son of
Sídi Mukhtár, in the hillet e Sheikh Sidi Mukhtár, in A'zawád.
Sidi Mohammed died in consequence of a contagious fever. Laing
left this place about August 12th; arrived at Timbuktu August
18th; being ordered out of the town by the Fülbe, he left that place
on September 22d, under the protection of Ahmed Weled 'Abéda,
and was murdered by him and
Hámed Weled Habib, probably

on the 24th. The Sheikh el Mukhtár, the son A.D. 1827. 'Abd-Alláhi, the ruler of Gando,

and successor of Sídi Moham- A.n. 1243. dies. Is succeeded by his son med settles in Timbuktu.

Mohammed Wáni. Caillié stays in Timbuktu from the A.D. 1828.

20th April till the 3d May. A.H. 1244. The Fülbe enter Timbuktu with a A.D. 1831. stronger force.

A.H. 1247.
A.D. 1836. Khalílu succeeds to the empire of

A.H. 1250. Gando.
The Tawárek conquer the Fülbe. A.D. 1844.
The Fulbe, under ‘Abd-Alláhi, A.H. 1260.
make a great expedition along

the Niger as far as Burrum.
Lebbo dies. His son Ahmedu A.D. 1846.
succeeds him.

A.H. 1262. Sheikh el Mukhtár dies in the A.D. 1848.

month Rebí el áwel; El Bakáy A.H. 1264.
succeeds him.

A.D. 1851. The Kel-gerés kill E' Nábеgha, the
A.H. 1268- chief of the Awelímmiden, at

1269. Tintaláít.
The young A’hmedu succeeds his A.D. 1852–3.
father Ahmedu.

A.H. 1269. The Fulbe make a great expedi- A.D. 1855. The Igwadaren opposed to the tion against Timbuktu.

A.H. 1272-3. Awelímmiden.



A. Eastern Route from Tawát to Mabrúk, and thence to Timbuktu. N.B.—The route proceeds from Aulef in Tidíkelt, which is situated one short day from A'kabli (this is the right accent), and three days from I'nsala or 'Aín Sálah, the distance between Askabli and the latter place being about the same. Day.

28. Teríshumín, a well.
4th, Derộm.
7th. I'nzíze, a well. As far as this point the route follows a course a little E. of

S. (evidently in the direction of Gógó), but from this point onward S.W.
The syllable “i'n,” or “'in," seems to be the old Berber-Semitic form

for "ain."
14th. I'ndenán, a well, having crossed the desert tract called Tanezrúfet.
17th. I'n-tabórak; the last stage is only half a day's march.
19th. Moila.
22d. Taunant; the last stage is half a day's march.
24th. Mabruk.

The ordinary and general road from Mabrúk to Timbuktu leads by A'arwán:

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