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Neighboring Kingdoms.
Sídi 'Alí, Governor of Sús, takes A.D. 1667. About this time the Welád Bille,

refuge in Songhay* - a proof A.H. 1078, in Tishít, possessed great power.
that the garrison stationed there 1079.
had made themselves quite in-
dependent of Morocco at that
time, notwithstanding the ener-
getic rule of E' Rashid, who died A.D. 1672.

A.H. 1083.
Múláy Ismá'all succeeds him, but A.D. 1672. Hennún, the son of Bóhedal, chief

without being able to establish A.H. 1083. of the Welád Mebárek, received
his power over all parts of the

the investiture as ruler of Báempire. It is very remarkable

ghena from Ismá'ail.
that this king formed a standing
army of Negroes, especially Son-
ghay, whom he married to Moroccain women, in order to rule his
own subjects, just in the same manner as a body of Moroccain sol-
diers intermarrying with Negro
women dominated Songhay.
These were the “abíd mt'a Sídi

Múláy А’hmed, the nephew of Mú- A.D. 1680. About this time Sóba, the mighty

láy Ismá'ail, Governor of Dar'a A.H. 1091. king of Góber, residing in Ma-
and Sus, undertook an expedi-

ghale, one day west of Chéberi, tion into Súdán, with a large

makes warlike expeditions bebody of troops, and although ho

yond the Kwára. lost 1500 men in crossing the desert, brought back a rich spoil in gold and slaves, principally from a place called Tagaret, which it is not easy to identify, especially as it is said that he found there a king of Súdán. It is probably a place in Taganet, most likely Tejígja. There is no mention of a garrison dependent upon Morocco. In this same year Timbuktu is said to have been conquered by the Mandingoes (Bámbara ?).

Mareb 02,
Múláy А’hmed el Dhéhebi succeeds to the aged Ismá aíl. Although A.D. 1727.

his reign lasted only two years, and he was constantly engaged in A.H. 1140-1.
civil war, he is said to have made an expedition into Súdán, from
whence he brought back great treasures. I But this is evidently a
confused statement, and probably refers to the deeds of his elder

namesake, Múláy А’hmed el Dhéhebi. Múláy 'Abd-Alla succeeds to the A.D. 1729.

throne. Constant civil war in A.H. 1142-3. the beginning of his reign.

A.D. 1740. About this time the Kél-owi take

A.y. 1153. possession of A'ír or A'sben.
Sídi Mohammed built Swéra or A.D. 1757. Babári, powerful king in Góber.

A.H. 1171-2.
A.D. 1770. 'Abd el Káder produces a religious
A.1. 1184. revolution in Fúta, combined

perhaps with a reaction of the
Wolof against the conquerors, $
or rather of the race of the To-

róde-the Wolof intermixed with About this time Gógó, which had

the Fülbe-against the element hitherto been ruled by the Rumá,

Málinke and Pullo. Sáttigi • Here again Jackson (Account of Morocco, p. 295) has made a most erroneous statement, saying that Sidi 'Ali escaped into Súdán, where the King of Bambara received him hospitably, so that 'Ali

t 800 black warriors, with whom he marched against Morocco; and that these blacks were the means by which Ismá'ail obtained influence in Timbuktu.

† There is great confusion in an article concerning this subject in a letter addressed by Jackson to Sir James Bankes, in the Proceedings of the African Association, vol. i., p. 366. Here the annual tribute which Timbuktu paid to this king is estimated at 5,000,000 dollars. The same sort of exaggeration we find in all Jackson's statements.

I Even the very meritorious Gråberg de Hem , in his Specchio di Marocco, p. 269, repeats this statement.

See M. le Colonel Faidherbe, in Bulletin de la Soc. Géogr., 1850.

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Neighboring Kingdoms. was conquered by the Tawárek.

Sambalámu, the last of the Soltribe of the Awelímmiden.

tana Deniankóbe. The order of Probably in consequence of this

the succession is as follows: event A'gades, having been de

Chéro Solimán Bal, prived of its commercial re

Almáme 'Abdu, sources, begins to decline.

Almáme Mukhtár,
Almáme Bú-bakr,
Almáme Shíray,
Almáme Yusuf,
Almáme Birán,
Almáme Hammad,
Almáme Makhmúdo,
Almáme Mohammed el Amin,

son of Mohammed Birán. The chief Káwa, who rules seventy A.D. 1780. Venture collects his information

years over the Awelímmiden, A.H. 1195. from two Moroccain merchants. establishes a powerful dominion

Tombo very powerful. Marka, on the north bank of the Niger

the Aswánek, in Baghena. Ka(A'usa).

wár, the Fülbe, in Másina. Timbuktu, according to the very A.D. 1787. About this period falls the quarrel

doubtful statement of Shabíni, * A.H. 1202- between the Sheikh el Mukhtar under the supremacy of Háusa. 1203. el kebír and the Welád Bille, the If this were true, it would be a

former overthrowing the latter, very important fact; but it is

with the assistance of the Méevidently a mistake, A'usa being

shedúf and the Ahel Zenághi. meant. Timbuktu, under the sovereignty A.D. 1803- El Mukhtár opens friendship with

of Mansong, at that time King 1804. 'Othmán dan Fódie, the Jihadi, of Bámbara (very questionable]. A.H. 1218. who this year entered into open Professor Rittert supposes the

hostility against Bawa, the King Moors to have been ejected at

of Góber, and brought about that that time, so that Timbuktu be

immense revolution in the whole came an independent Negro

centre of Negroland. town.

About this period a great struggle

between the Awelímmiden and

the Tademékket. A.D. 1804. The Fulbe make Gando, in Kebbi,

A.. 1219. the seat of their operations. Mungo Park navigates the Niger. A.D. 1805-6. The Rumá, still powerful between

A.H. 1220-1. Sébi and Timbuktu, dominate

the passage of the Niger. A.D. 1811. Sídi Mukhtár dies.

A.H. 1226. Mohammed or Ahmed Lebbo A.D. 1816. Great and sanguinary battle be

brings the religious banner from A.H. 1232- tween the Songhay, Rums, and Gando, and gradually acquires 1233. Berabísh on the one side, and the supremacy in Másina over

the Awelímmiden on the other, the native chiefs.

near the island Kúrkozay. A.D. 1817. Sheikh 'Othmán dan Fódie before A.H. 1233. his death divides his extensive

dominions between his brother 'Abd-Alláhi and his son Bello, the former receiving all the western provinces along the Niger, with Gando as his capital, the latter the southeasterly prov

inces, with Sokoto. Lebbo commences hostilities with A.D. 1820. Constant war between Másina and

Mohammed Galáijo, the chief of A.H. 1236- Bámbara.
Konári, vanquishes him, and 1237.
forces him to retreat eastward.
• Shabini, p. 12.

+ Proceedings of the African Associntion, i.. . 892. * Ritter, Erdkunde von Afrika, p. 446 seq., especially from Sidi llámed's statement (p. 363).




Veighboring Kingdoms. The Fulbé of Másina occupy Timbuktu in the beginning of the year. A.D. 1826. Major Laing left 'En-Sálah on the 10th of January; was attacked, A.H. 1242-3.

and almost slain, in Wadi Ahennet, on the 27th (?), by a party of
Tawárek; was received very kindly by Sidi Mohammed, the son of
Sídi Mukhtár, in the hillet e Sheikh Sidi Mukhtár, in A'zawád.
Sidi Mohammed died in consequence of a contagious fever. Laing
left this place about August 12th; arrived at Timbuktu August
18th; being ordered out of the town by the Fülbe, he left that place
on September 22d, under the protection of Ahmed Weled 'Abéda,
and was murdered by him and
Hámed Weled Habib, probably

on the 24th. The Sheikh el Mukhtár, the son A.D. 1827. 'Abd-Alláhi, the ruler of Gando,

and successor of Sídi Moham- A.n. 1243. dies. Is succeeded by his son med settles in Timbuktu.

Mohammed Wáni. Caillié stays in Timbuktu from the A.D. 1828.

20th April till the 3d May. A.H. 1244. The Fülbe enter Timbuktu with a A.D. 1831. stronger force.

A.H. 1247.
A.D. 1836. Khalílu succeeds to the empire of

A.H. 1250. Gando.
The Tawárek conquer the Fülbe. A.D. 1844.
The Fulbe, under ‘Abd-Alláhi, A.H. 1260.
make a great expedition along

the Niger as far as Burrum.
Lebbo dies. His son Ahmedu A.D. 1846.
succeeds him.

A.H. 1262. Sheikh el Mukhtár dies in the A.D. 1848.

month Rebí el áwel; El Bakáy A.H. 1264.
succeeds him.

A.D. 1851. The Kel-gerés kill E' Nábеgha, the
A.H. 1268- chief of the Awelímmiden, at

1269. Tintaláít.
The young A’hmedu succeeds his A.D. 1852–3.
father Ahmedu.

A.H. 1269. The Fulbe make a great expedi- A.D. 1855. The Igwadaren opposed to the tion against Timbuktu.

A.H. 1272-3. Awelímmiden.



A. Eastern Route from Tawát to Mabrúk, and thence to Timbuktu. N.B.—The route proceeds from Aulef in Tidíkelt, which is situated one short day from A'kabli (this is the right accent), and three days from I'nsala or 'Aín Sálah, the distance between Askabli and the latter place being about the same. Day.

28. Teríshumín, a well.
4th, Derộm.
7th. I'nzíze, a well. As far as this point the route follows a course a little E. of

S. (evidently in the direction of Gógó), but from this point onward S.W.
The syllable “i'n,” or “'in," seems to be the old Berber-Semitic form

for "ain."
14th. I'ndenán, a well, having crossed the desert tract called Tanezrúfet.
17th. I'n-tabórak; the last stage is only half a day's march.
19th. Moila.
22d. Taunant; the last stage is half a day's march.
24th. Mabruk.

The ordinary and general road from Mabrúk to Timbuktu leads by A'arwán:

2 days. Mamún. I shall speak about these places in the general account of 2 “ Bí-Jebeha. ^

" 2 A'rawán.

I A'zawad. 4 " Tenég el haye, or Tenég el háj. it " Timbuktu.

Between Tenég el háj and the town there are the following localities : El A'rire, El Ghába, El Meréra, A'thelet el Megil, Ellib el A'ghebe, Tiyáre el Jefál, Tiyaret el Wása.

Route from the hillet e' Sheikh el Mukhtár, generally called "el hilleh" (see the itinerary from Timbuktu to the hilleh, vol. iii., p. 310), to Tósaye, in long days marches; direction, as my informant supposes, exactly S.:. Day. 1st. Núr, à mountain without water. 2d. A locality on this side of a place called Dergel. 3d. Kazúft, a large pond of water in the rainy season. 5th. Tósaye or Tósé, the great narrowing of the river (see the journal). From the hilleh to Gógó is reckoned a distance of eight days.

B. Route from I'nzize to Gógó. Day. 4th. Tímmisau (hasi Músa? I think it can not be the well of that name on the

direct road from Tawát to Mabruk, which would give this whole route a far more westerly direction). Near the well is a rocky eminence like a castle, and famous on account of the tale of the footprint of Moses' horse, a story also attaching to the other well which I mentioned. It appears, from this route, that the arid desert, the Tanezrúfet, becomes narrower and more con

tracted toward the east. 7th. I'n-azál; the last march but half a day. 9th. Súk or “E' Súk” (Essuk), the ancient dwelling-place of the Kél e' Suk, now

without settled inhabitants, situated between two “kódia" or hilly emi. nences, one lying toward the E. and the other toward the W., just as the ancient city of Tademékka is described, with which it was evidently identical (see the journal). The town was destroyed by the Songhay conqueror, Sonni 'Ali, in the latter half of the fifteenth century. The vale is said to

be rich in trees. 11th. Günhan, another site of an ancient dwelling-place, and once the residence of

the Kel-gúnhan, with a hilly eminence. 13th. Takerénnat, another site. 14th. Tel-akkevín (or Tin-ákkevín), a well. 16th. Tin-óker; the last stage half a day's march. 18th. Gógó or Gágho, the last day again a short one.

C. Western Road from Aúlef to Mabrúk. 1st. Dháhar el hamár, a hilly chain called the ass's back-bone. 3d. El Immerághen. 5th. Wallen, a well. 12th. A'm-rannán, a well, two days W. from I'n-denán, having crossed the arid

desert Tanezrúfet. In summer you travel here by night. In winter, traveling night and day, with only short halts, you may accomplish this march

in four days. 17th. I'n-asserer, perhaps "the well of the stony tract,” or hammada, " serír" be

ing the proper term for such a region. 20th. Tin-hekíkan, a well, in former times the common settlement of the tribe,

which thence has received the name Kel-hekikan. It is W. or S.W. of

the well called Taunant (see preceding page). 22d. Mabruk; the last day's march a short one. D. A few particulars with regard to the region called A'zawád and the adjoining districts.

The name A'zawád is a corruption due to the Arabs of the Berber name Afzawágh (pronounced A'zawar), which is common to many desert tracts. But the district which has become known to the Europeans under the name A'zawád comprises an extensive tract of country to the N. of T'imbuktu, stretching northwestward as far

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as “ El Juf," the great sink or “belly" of the desert, full of rock-salt, and to the N.N.E. a little to the N. of Mabrúk, while its southern part, extending from the distance of one day's march from Timbuktu to about three days northward, is more properly called Tagánet. I will only add that Caillié mistook the name A'zawad, which he writes Zawát, for that of a tribe (vol. ii., p. 97, and elsewhere).

The tract of A'zawád, although appearing to us a most sterile tract of country, and thus characterized already by Arab travelers from the N., as Ebn Batúta and Leo Africanus, is a sort of Paradise to the wandering Moorish Arab born in these climes. For in the more favored localities of this district he finds plenty of food for his camels, and even for a few heads of cattle, while the transport of the salt of Taödénni to A'rawán and Timbuktu affords him the means of obtaining corn and any thing else he may be in want of. There are four small towns in A'zawad, the most considerable of which is A'rawán, a town small in extent, such as described by Caillié,* the number of its inhabitants scarcely exceeding 1500, but a very important place for this part of the world, and where a great deal of business is transacted, principally in gold, as I have described on a former occasion (p. 360, et seq.). On account of this trade several Ghadámsíye merchants are established here. It is a fact which was unknown before, but which is indisputable, that the original inhabitants of this place, as well as of the whole of A'zawad, belong to the Songhay nation, the Songhay-kiní, even at the present day, being the favored idiom of which all the inhabitants, including the Arab residents, make use. The present chief or head man of the town is Sídi Mohammed, a younger son of the notorious chief El Habib Weled Sídi A'hmed Agáde, who died the year previous to my arrival in Timbúktu. The younger son gained the precedence over his elder brother Oʻba, who has performed a pilgrimage to Mekka solely on account of his mother being the sister of Hámed Weled 'Abéda Weled Rehál, the chief of the Bérabísh, and the murderer of Major Laing. The family of El Habib belongs to the I'gelád, forming at present a small section of the large group of the A'welímmiden. They are now only distinguished by their learning, but formerly they were very powerful, and, together with the Imedídderen, were the most ancient inhabitants of the locality of Timbúktu. The inhabitants of A'rawán pay an annual tribute of sixty mithkál of gold to the Hogár, in order not to be molested by their continual predatory incursions.

The three other small towns or permanent dwelling-places in A'zawad, viz., BúJebéha, M'amún, and Mabruk, all lying in a line N.N. E. from A'rawán, almost at the equal distance from each other of two days easy traveling with camels, are much smaller and less considerable than A'rawán. Of rather more importance at present than the two others is Bú-Jebéha, which is principally inhabited by Kél e' Súk, and has a little commerce; but Mabrúk seems to have been of great importance in furmer times, when it was inhabited by Songhay people, had a Songhay name-Mabrúk being a comparatively modern name given to it by the Arabs-and was the market of Waláta. In some respects this place might seem to have a right to be identified with the ancient Aúdaghost; and there are certainly the sites of some former dwelling-places in the neighborhood, especially Tel-Aröást, two days N.E. either from Mabrúk or from the hilleh; but in another place I have explained (vol. iii., p. 658) why we have to seek the site of Aúdaghost in quite a different locality. There are some valleys clad with palm-trees to the east of Mabrúk (see vol. i., Appendix, p. 607), especially the valley called Tesillíte, which produces two different kinds of dates, viz.., the tissagin and the tin-áser. The names of the respective chiefs of the three places are Mohammed Weled Sídi 'Omár, the chief of the tribe of the Ergágeda in M'amún; Najib Weled el Mustapha el Kél e' Súki (the same who signed the letter of A'wáb, the chief of the Tademékket, giving a complete imána to the English in the territory comprised between Gundam, Bamba, Timbúktu, A'rawán, and Bú-Jebéha), together with 'Azizi in Bú-Jebéha, and Méni Weled Sídi 'Omár in Mabruk.

There was formerly in A'zawád another place with a permanent settlement, called “El Hilleh," or "Hillet e' Sheikh Sidi Mukhtár," which I have mentioned in a former place (vol. i., p. 602, and vol. iii., p. 310), two days east of M'amún, f and

• Caillie's Travels to Timbuctoo, vol. ii., p. 99, et seq. According to my information, A'rawán seems to lie from Timbuktu about 15° W. from N.

t No merchant from the north can pass Bú-Jeb ha, and certainly not A'rawán, unless he be escorted by some well-known person belonging to the tribe of the Tadem ikket.

I The position which I have assigned to these places in the map which I sent home from Timbáktu is slightly erroneous.

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