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and, finally, Sáre-méle and Sáre-bele, the river probably forming a great bend near Wónyaka, so that these latter towns are touched at in coming from both sides, either the N, or the S.

H. From Yowaru to Hamda-Allahi. Ist. Dógo, on a small creek. 2d. Shay, probably meaning the place of embarkation, on the N.W. side of the

river, which is very wide in this spot. Pass on the road one or two branches of stagnant water, which you must cross in a boat. Perhaps one of these

branches is the same on which the village Máyo lies. 3d. Encamp on the bank of a smaller creek (Máyo dhannéo?). 4th. Niakóngo. 5th. Berber, a very short march. 6th. Siye, in the morning. 7th. Hamda-Alláhi, the capital of the kingdom of Másina. I. List of towns and villages situated along the bank of the chief trunk of the River I'sa

bére or Máyo-mangho, from Dire upward to Sansándi. This branch is the northwesterly one ; the other, which Caillie navigated, is the southeasterly, and is called Bara-I'sa.

Dire, a very important place, one of the oldest settlements of the Songhay in this quarter, situated at the point of junction of two branches which have separated from each other in the lake Debu.*

Tindírma, one of the original seats of the Songhay, by some regarded as the original seat of the whole tribe. That portion of them called Sáhena were especially settled here. It is now principally the residence of the Chóki, who formerly were settled in Gundam. With regard to its importance in former times as the capital of the province of Kúrmina, see vol. iii., p. 290. A little distance from the bank of the river lies Gitigátta, and on the island in the river the locality called “Al Mohalla," probably from having been once the spot where part of the Mohalla, or the army of the Moroccains, remained encamped. At Tindírma the branch of Gúndam separates from the main trunk of the river.


Sibo. This is evidently the town Seebi where Mungo Park is said to have mad some stay on his voyage from Jenni to Timbuktu. (Clapperton's Second Journey, • Appendix, p. 334.)

Dháhabi-koira, called after a sherif belonging to the family of Múláy el Dhéhebi.

Yowaru. In crossing from Yowaru the next branch, and leaving Gúram on one side, you reach Zinzo, or Jinjo, or Gíjo, as it is called, in four or five hours. This is another of the oldest seats of the Songhay, and probably the place from whence Islám spread in this quarter, there being here the sepulchre of a venerated saint called Mohammed el Káberi, belonging to the Idaw el Háj. It is not impossible that this is the place of pilgrimage to which Scott, the sailor, went as a captive by way of the Giblah, crossing the lake.t In the neighboring hamlet, Togga, also is the tomb of a holy man called Morimána Báka. There is another tradition current in Zinzo of a saint of the name of Elfa Zakkaríyá, who is said to have visited this place at a time when no village existed, nothing but a cavern being then inhabited.

S.E. of Zinzo, at some little distance from Lake Debu lies A'wi. The Debu is so

* From Dire, down the river toward Timbuktu, my informant indicated several places which nei. ther I myself nor Caillié have mentioned on our passage down the river: Búram, a large village (Kóra, Danga), Semsáro (Koiretágo), Lenga, all on the south side; Segaliye, on the north side of the river ; an adabay or hamlet, belonging to Buram, E'luwa, on an island; Hendibángo.

+ Edinburgh Philological Journal, vol. iv., p. 35, et seq. There is no such district hereabout ag "El Sharray," but I have not the slightest doubt that this name is nothing but & corruption of the term "e sherk," with which the Moors of that region indicate the south. There are some inaccuracies in Scott's account, which might cause suspicion of his sincerity; and among these is the circum. stance that he mentions as living on the lake the Moorish tribes of the Ergebát and Sekarna, both of which live in the northern districts. But it is very remarkable that he should call that tomb by the name of " Saidna Mohammed."


shallow during the dry season that the native boats can only proceed with great difficulty along the main channel, and often stick fast entirely. In the dry season the natives ford it by wading through the water. Where the main branch, caled by the Fülbe Máyo balléo, reaches the lake, at least during the rainy season, it divides into a net of smaller branches, thus increasing the difficulty of the navigation. On the contrary, the advantage of the smaller branch, the Bara-I'sa, or River of Bara, called by the Fülbe Máyo dhannéo, consists in preserving one unbroken volume of water. This was the reason probably why the party with whom Caille went down the Niger from Jinni followed this branch. Besides the Mayo balles and dhannéo, the chief creeks which join the Debu are the Máyo Píru and the Máyo Jóga, not inconsiderable during the rainy season, but very small during the dry one.

The lake, besides fish, contains numbers of that curious animal called aru (e


From the lake upward there lie along the principal branch of the river the following places : Búri; Bánghida; Waládu ; Ingárruwe; Mányata ; Kossanánna; Tánnare; Bówa; Kirrínkiri; Gánde-Táma; Sarbére ; Kára, an important place, after which the river is sometimes called “the River of Kára;" Ingánshi; Dággads; Kumáy, a place of some importance, distant two days from Yá-saláme, * wlich is about three days from the considerable market-place Tenéngu (p. 688), both west from the river; Júgi; Nyásu; Kóliñango; Sabáre; Búrruwé; Fenga, a middlesized place, after which this whole branch of the river is also called “ Máyo Fenga," about two hours E. from Tenéngu, and one good day's march from Fáfarák.

We now proceed along the southeastern shore of the Debu, and along the Maro dhannéo.

Gúram, a considerable place, situated round a large rocky eminence, kódia, as the Arabs call it, or “haire," as it is called by the Fülbe, who celebrate it highly as the “haire maunde Gúram.” The mount is so conspicuous in the flat alluvial level that it is visible from Yowaru. Caillié saw it at the distance of three or four miles (ii., p. 18), and again farther on, where he calls it St. Charles' Island (ii., p. 20). The village is separated into three distinct groups, one of which is called Gúram Fülbe, lying at the northern foot of the kódia; the other, Gúram Hábe, inhabited by Songhay; farther on and finally, Gúram Súrgube, inhabited by (degraded ?) TAwárek or Surgu.

Méro. Poth in

Both inhabited by Kórongoy.

Sórroba, situated at the foot of another smaller rocky eminence called “haire Sórroba," lying opposite to Gúram on the S. side of the river, which seems to make here a great bend. It is mentioned by Mohammed el Másini (Appendix to Clapperton's Second Journey, p. 331). Caillié gave it the ridiculous name of " Henry Island."

Jantaye, a considerable place.
Máyo Tína, a place close to the former, inhabited by Tawárek.
Kóbi. (Compare Caillie's account, ii., p. 16.)

Sáyo, distant half a day's journey from the Batamáne, towns close to the bank of the river becoming here more rare.

Wánaka, where the two branches unite, being joined besides by a small westerly creek, called by some Máyo Fenga.

Hombólbe, the principal seat of the Kórongoy or Surk, who constitute the chief inhabitants of the places Ngárruwe and Toy.

Neménte, and not far from it inland the village called “rúgga Bóde."


• I here add a short itinerary from Yowaru to Yá-saláme : lat. Hasi Jolláb, with a settlement of Zuwaye Sombánne. 20. A well, 3d. Yá saláme, a place of about the same size as Y6waru, on backwater at & considerable de

tance from the chief river. From Basikonnu to Yá-saláme, four daye.




Móbti or Isáka, situated at the point of junction of the two branches of the river, which have divided at Jafarábe, a low point of land, as it seems, separated by the river into a group of six islands, where all the boats coming from Hamda-Alláhi and the lower river, and proceeding to Sansándi, are obliged to disembark their merchandise, which henceforward has to be transported on the back of donkeys to the place of its destination. Of these two branches the northwestern* one bears also the name of Máyo Jágha, from a very important place, the celebrated Zágha of the Arab geographers, which, on account of its situation out of the great commercial track, is at present not very generally known in those quarters. The original form of the name, both with Songhay and Fülbe, seems to be Jáka or Jágha, but the letters Z and J are continually interchanged. The town is said to lie at the distance of one and a half days S.W. from Sáre-dína, “the city of the (Mohammedan) religion,” and only half a day N. E. from Jafarábe, † and is still celebrated on account of its excellent "tári" or "leppi.”

I here add a short list of the towns and villages between Kúna, the place where the river is ordinarily crossed in proceeding from Sofára to the island of Másina Proper, and Móbti: from Kúna, about six miles E., is Néma, situated on the E. side of the river; from Néma, Tikkétiá, on the W. side of the river; Sáre-béle, on the E., Sáre-méle, on the W. of the river, N. of Tikkétiá; Gómi, a large town on the bank of the river; Móbti, on the E. side, with large fortifications, if I have understood right, of an ancient date, where the two branches join; Nymitógo, on the E. side of the river.

The distance from Tenéngu is also a day and a half, and between them lie the following places, beginning with Tenéngu: Takanéne, Chube, a hamlet inhabited by slaves, Kumbel, Ingelleye, Taikiri, Kóllima, and Warángha.

From Jafarábe upward along the river are situated the places Kongunkoro ("old Kongu”), Kóno, Jóru, Síbila, Maddína, Sansándi (this is the Songhay form) or Sansánne (the Mandingo form), the well-known starting-point of Mungo Park's voyage down the river. Mr. Cooley supposes that “di” is a contraction of “ding," meaning “ little,"

K. From Hamda-Alláhi to Kábara, by land, by way of Sa. 1 day. Niyakóngo, a large town at a considerable distance from the river; much

cultivation. 1 day. Denéngu (?), a place inhabited by Fülbe and Songhay, the latter being more

numerous than the former; near the bank of the river. 1 day. U'ro-Búlo, a place inhabited by Fulbe, on the E. side of the Debu. 1 day. S'a, a large place, inhabited chiefly by Bámbara, the seat of a governor, as was also the case in former times; on the E. side of the Máyo dhannéo or BaraI'sa. Many dúm palms, or rather deleb palms, grow in this neighborhood, from whence Timbuktu is supplied with rafters. The floods of the lake and the various branches or creeks are so considerable during the rainy season that at that

period of the year a person can not reach Hamda-Alláhi in less than six days. 1 day. Kóma, a small town of Bámbara, at a considerable distance E. from the

river. 1 day. Chiay, close to the bank of the Máyo dhannéo. 1 day. Sáre-feréng, a Bámbara place. The road leads all the way along the S.E.

bank of the river. 1 day. Jangináre, a Bámbara place. 1 day. A'rkoja, a town partly inhabited by Bámbara, partly by Songhay, the former

prevailing. 1 day. Dári, a large place of Fulbe, who call it Dár e' Salám. No Bámbara inhab

itants. I day. Bongesémba, a village inhabited by Fülbe Sudúbe, close to the point of junc

tion, called I'sofay, of the two branches of the Dhiúliba, the white (dhannéo) and the black (balléo), the quality of their waters being totally different, one being full * On the southeastern branch up to Jenni or Jenne (this is the Aswének form), or Zenne (Zinne, as the Songhay call it), or Jinne (the Bambara form), lie the following towns and villages : Bólay, a ksar or koira, Sildoy, Konne, Kóme, Isaka or Móbti, Kúna, Sofára, Zinne. Sofára, which lies half way between Hamda- Alláhi and Jenni or Zinne, has a market every Wednesday and Thursday. The eastern side of sofára is skirted by a small branch or creek of the Niger called Golónno, and on the eastern bank of the latter lies a village called Gónima.

+ These particulars I obtained after having finished my manuscript map in Timbáktu.

of crocodiles, hippopotami, and fish, and the other containing nothing of the kind. just as is the case with the Tsád. The water of the black river overwhelms the white water of the dhannéo. Cross the river. 1 day. Tindirma, a large Songhay place. A long day. 1 day. Dire, one of the oldest places of the Songhay. 1 day. Dongoy, inhabited by Songhay, no Fulbe ; on the E. side of the river. 1 day. Tóyai, a Songhay village; the Tademékket rove in this neighborbood.

Country level and without trees, being temporarily flooded. 2 days. Kábara, keeping close along the river, and crossing a small rivulet or creek.

L 1. From Hamda-Alláhi to Káñima. Day. 1st. Siye. 2d. Niyakóngo, having passed the heat in the hamlet called Berber. 3d. Benne-ndugu or Konna, having passed the heat in N'amet-Alláhi (a long

day's, if not two days' journey). 4th. Toy. Arrive before noon. 5th. A Songhay village or ksar. 6th. Konsa, a Fülbe village. 7th. A village inhabited by Fúlbe, Songhay, and Bámbara. 8th. Takóti. 9th. Sambejeráhit. 10th, Ungắma. 11th. Káñima, on a branch of the river coming from Bámbara (see ante, p. 249),

end at a day's march from the latter place.

L 2. Another short Itinerary from Káñima to Hamda-Alláhi. 1st. Lábo. 2d. Dóra, a rúmde, or slave hamlet. 3d. Takóti, or Jengináre, both on the Bara-I'sa, Jengináre lying a little to the

S.W. of the former. 4th. Another town on the Niger, the name of which informant has forgotten,

probably Sáre-feréng. 5th. Gulúmbu, on the widening of the creek Debu or Dóbu. (Another road leads

from Káñima, by Labo, Langóma, Konse, and another place, to Gulúmbu). 6th. Doy or Toy, a large Songhay place. 7th. Karri, Konna, or Benne-ndugu, all names of the same place. On your way

you pass Kori-ántsa, a large Pullo village. 8th. N'amet-Alláhi, a town of the Feroibe. 9th. Fatóma, the market-place (the market being held every Saturday) of Konári,

not a large place. 10th. Hamda-Alláhi, a good day's march of ten hours.

M. List of towns in Jimbálla, Zánkara, and Aússa. (A.) Towns in Jimballa, the district S. of the river, W. from the district Kiso:

Ayun, Kufa, Sáre-feréng (the town mentioned p. 689), probably the seat of gov. ernment under the empire of Melle, Tési, A'rkoja, Hóre-ayé, Dangal, Bória, Ngorko or Goronya, a considerable market-place between Zánkara and San-kore, and distant one and a half day's journey S. from Dári, Kúlesongho, Guddunga. The following places lie in the central region of Jimbálla: Tórobe, Gmoy, Gunki, Gungare, I'chi al Hábe, Séri, Segúl, Bugo-linchére, Gnórija.

It is a very remarkable fact that three places to which the origin of the Bambara nation is referred are said to be the oldest places in Jimbálla, viz., Kanembugu, Jéngenabúgu, and Tsorobúgu.

The following are the tribes of the Fulbe in Jimbálla : Fittobe, Sangho, Uralifoná, Búsurá, Kaya, U'ro-Módi, Dugurábe, Tongábe in Séri, Zukkáre, Toródi (probably settled in the locality called Tórobe), Nar-han, Yaffóli. There is besides a tribe of Fülbe called Dongo, mixed with Rumá, settled in four places of Jimbálla, viz., Kurúm on the Máyo balléo, Sebi, Waki, and Gong. In Sebi, the place mentioned p. 689, resides à chief of the Ruma, who formerly commanded the whole communication along the river, and with whom therefore Park had some business to settle--this evidently being indicated by the words wrongly translated by Mr. Silame, “that they might cross the way of the river."



South of Jimballa is the district Sákkeré, under the dominion of the Fulbe, but chiefly inhabited by Zoghorán. Chief place Doko, one day from Koisa, and not far from UỐro-Búlo.

(B.) Zánkara, the district S. of the river, inclosed between the latter and the districts of Kíso and Jimbálla:

Tomme, Chángará, Manjebúgo, A'njau, Jebár, Báko, Bánikan, Jú, Ju-kárima, Wáki, Tondo, Jindigatta, Wabango, Kúgu, Bádi, Gom. The capital of this province is Dári, or Dár e' Salám, residence of the governor 'Abd-Alláhi, son of Sheikh Ahmed. S.E. from Dári is Gannáti, a considerable market-place.

(c.) In Aussa (the province north of the river, between Timbuktu and Fermágha):

Tomba, Mékore near Gundam, Bankoríye, Jango, Akoire-n-éhe, Hammakoire, Kamba-dumba, Ungurúnne, Nyafúnche, Hardánia or Béllaga, Gnóro, Baba-danga, Báñaga, Tóndi-dáro, Gubbo, Ďháhabi-koire, Síbo, Alwéli-koira, Gombo, Tommi, Gaudel, Kurbal, Kattáwen, Fadhl-illáhi, A'ttora, Núnu, Nyódogu, Gaude, another Mékore near Kurbal, Kabara-tanda, Duwé-kiré near Dongoy, Tásakál, Mánkalágungu between Dongoy and Kabara, Telfi, Koddisabári ; Sobónne, I think, is not the name of a place, but of a section of the Fülbe settled here.

I also think this a fit place to insert some lists of towns lying along the various routes traversing the territories of Fermágha, the province to which Yowaru belongs, and Bergu, the province bordering on the former toward the S., although I can not fully testify to the accuracy of the order in which the towns are mentioned. I will here also add that this district Bergu, as it is called by some of the natives, the original form of the name being probably Marka, and of which Yá-saláme is the chief place, is a very flat country, almost destitute of trees, and producing no crops, but, on account of its ample supply of water, affording fine pasture-grounds. Fermágha, on the contrary, is a well-timbered province. My informant is Dáúd, the brother of the Pullo chief Mohammed ben 'Abd-Alláhi, whom I have mentioned in my journal.

Between Yowaru and Yá-saláme, along the western road, are said to lie the following places, beginning with the former: Bánghita, a village of learned men or m'allemín, Sáredína, Dógo, the place touched at in going from Yowaru to Niyakóngo by way of Shay, Urúnde, Gogórla, Launyánde, Launérde, Meré-únuma, Urungiye (1st day) (Urungiye in the dry season is at half a day's distance from the river; it is still reckoned by some as belonging to Másina); Tanna, Kánguru, having crossed between these two villages a small creek, Heráwa, Bandáre, Chúki, Kalaségi, Gachi- (or Gasi-) lúmo, Nanka, Kárangérre, Surángo, Kúru (2d day); Módi Masanáre, Kunába, Júre, Ikáre, Búrburankobe, Nyóji, Diggesíre, Yá-saláme, a considerable town inhabited by Aswánek and Fulbe (30 day).

Between Yowaru and Yá-saláme, along the western road by Urungiye. After having passed Urungiye : Alamaye, Ucha-malángo, Ukánnu, Jowengéña, a village called Almáme, another called Fittobe, Doroy, Sáre-yáru, Diggesíre, Yá-saláme.

Between Yá-saláme and Saredína, a journey of three days: Kóra, Túguri, Jappéje, Sendekubi, a hamlet inhabited by slaves of the Fülbe and Jáka, Sende-kórrobe, Chube, Bú-deráje, Gánda, Gauye, Nomárde, Saredína. This road probably passes at no great distance W. of Tenéngu.

Between Yá-saláme and Konári, a journey of three days: Burtupédde, Geléji, Dóko, not the one mentiond above, Jónyori (1st day); Kóle, Wandebute, Kollekombe, Salsalbe (2d day); U'nguremáji, Konári.

Between Basikúnnu and Yá-saláme : Kussumáre, Jáfera, Jerri-Jáfera, a village inhabited by slaves (1st day, short march); Binyamús, a place inhabited by Arabs, Terebékko, Sorbára, Kóllima, Tugguri (28 day); Túre-sangha, a place at present inhabited by Arabs (formerly by Songhay? túri=Mohammedan Máleki?), Kójole, Páche, Batáwa, a place inhabited by hárratín, Káre (residence of ?) Búgoné, chief of the Bowár, Buburankobe, Um-muswéle, Yá-saláme.

Between Basikúnnu and Yowaru, a journey of five and a half days : Barkánne or Barkánnu (1st day); another road goes by Jéppata; Shám, Lére (2d day); Nimmer, a creek called by the Arabs “el má hammer,” “the red water," where you pass the heat, Dogoméra, Nyenche, Báya (3d day); Karúnna, Gungu, Saléngurú, Chíllunga, Gasi-lumo (leaving Gasi-Jerma toward the N.) (4th day); Kalasége, Chuki (5th day); Yowaru.

Between Ikánnu, a town lying one day W. of Urungiye, and the town of Gundam : Séda, Bundúre, Sabére-lóde, Tánuma, Jamweli, Tómoró (both of these villages in

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