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The original inhabitants of these regions, at least since the middle of the eighth century of our era, were the Berbers, especially the Zenagha, or Senhaja; but these tribes, since the end of the fifteenth century, it would seem, have been pushed back and partly conquered by the Arab tribes to the south of Morocco and Algeria, who either intermingled with them or reduced them to a degraded position. Thus there are especially four classes of tribes: the free warlike tribes, 'Arab, or Ilarar; the Zuwaye, or peaceable tribes; the Khdddeman, or Lahme, identical in the southwestern quarter with the Zenagha, the degraded tribes; and the Harratin, or the mixed stock. The characteristic feature of these Moorish tribes is the guft'a, or full tuft of hair; that of the Zenagha the peculiar fashion of wearing the hair called gataya, as they cut the hair on both sides of the head, and leave nothing but a crest on the crown, from whence a single tress hangs down sometimes to their very feet, or they tie the ends round their waist.

The supposed ancestor of the Moorish tribes is Ode' ben Hassan beu A'kil, of the tribe of the Ratafan, who is supposed to have come from Egypt.


The Welad Mebarek (sing. Mebarki), divided into the following sections: A'hel 'Omar Welad 'All, A'hel Hennum (e' Shiiikh).

Fata, separated into the following divisions: Welad Monu'n, Welad Dokhanan, A'hel BU Set.

Fiinti, separated into the following divisions: Welad Hammu el kohol, A'hel Hammti el biadh, A'hel Miimmu, A'hel Si'di I'brahim, Welad Zenaghi, A'hel 'Omar Shemati.

The following tribes are in a Btate of dependence upon them, or are, as it is called, their lahme, or their khdddeman: Idabuk, Ifoleden, A'hel 'Abd el Waned, El Hiirrctin (no proper name), El Mehajeriyin, these only partly degraded, Yadas; Welad el 'Alia, A'hel A'hmed Henniin, whose khdddeman are the following tribes: El Rowosfl, Welad Salem, Basi'm, I'shalan, Welad Bille (the brethren of the Welad Bille in Tishit, formerly Arabs, that is to say, free independent Arabs, but at present khdddeman, paying however only the medarive, and not the kerama), El 'Abedat, A'hel Ude"ka.

Next to the large group of the Welad Mebarek are the Welad Maziik, living in the ksiir together with the Welad 'Omar.

Then the E'rmetat and the Niij; while in a degraded state are El She"balu'n and El Habiisha.

This is the place to mention a particular group or confederation of warlike tribes called "El Imghafera," or Meghafera, and consisting of the Welad el 'Alia, Fata, Abeddt, Welad Maziik, A'hel e' Zenaghi, A'hel 'Omar Shemati.


The Teghdaust, a mixed tribe, but considered as Arabs: the Ede'san, Gelagema, Idii Bclal in Baghena as well as in El Hodh, Tafulalet, said to have nothing in common with Tafilelet.

Gesima, living partly in Baghena partly in El Hddh, and divided into the following sections: Welad Taleb, Iddw-'Esh, Welad 'Abd el Melek, Tenagit, El Arusiyin (a tribe very powerful in ancient times, to whom belonged Shenan el Anisi, the famous despot of Walata and Tcziight), E' Nwazfr, A'hel Taleb Mohammed.

Tenwaijio, who collect the gum and bring it to the European settlements, separated into the following divisions: A'hel Yi'ntit, Ijaj Burke, A'hel Baba, A'hel I'brahim o' Shiiikh (held in great veneration).

These four divisions live in Baghena, while the two following are scattered over the district called Erge"be, where the Tenwaijio are very numerous; Welad Delem ma intis (sic), Welad Bii Mohammed.

Zemiirik, separated into numerous divisions: Wel&l Miisa, El Horsh, El HsireDai, Jcwaule, El Mekhainze, Arde'l, Welad Shcfu, El A'thamin, Welad 'Alcyai. A'hel Dombi, A'hel 'Abd (these the Shiiikh), A'hel e' Shege'r, Welad e* Dhit^ E" Zemarik (properly so called), very numerous.

Between Baghcna and Tagiinct live the Welad Lighwezi, the relatives, but likewise the enemies of the Welad Mebarck.


El Hodh is a large and extensive district, which has received this nunc, •• tbe basin," from the Arabs, on account of its being surrounded by a range of rocky hills. "El Kiklin," at the western foot of the eastern extremity of which lies Walata. aic near its southern foot Tishit, both of which belong to El Hodh. The N. E. part of this district, which some centuries ago was densely covered with small towns and villages, stretching from half a dny 8. from Walata to a distance of about tbrer days, and being inclosed on the W. and E. by "ellib" or light sand-hills, is called A'riic, and is rich in wells, among which the following are the best known: El Kediive, Unkiisa, Bu'-il-gediir, Nejiim, A'we-tofe'n, El Imbcdiyat, El Mebdura, Bo'Ash, Rdjut, Tcshimmamet, Tekifii, Nwaiyar, Tanwalh't, and not far from it Arengis el tcllfyo and Ardngis cl gibliyc, Tunbuske, N. from the large well KwaJ, motioned above, El Bedd'a Ummi e' Diiggeman, &c.

From A'rik, S.W. as far as Mesilii, extends the district called Ajautncra, to which belongs the famous well El U'ggela, called "surret el Hodh," on account of its being at an equal distance, viz., five days, from Tishit, Walata, Tagnnet, and Baphenn. Besides these, some of the most famous wells of this district are Ajwcr, alrms: at its northern extremity, Fogis, Bif-Derge, Bir cl Hawashar, Ajosh, Gonneu, H Bc'adh, these latter near Ergebe. The N. border of El Hodh, stretching along the base of the kodia between Walata and Tishit, is called El liatn. There are besides several districts in El Hodh called Aukar, a Berber name identical with A ktla. and meaning a waterless district consisting of isolated sand-hills. One Aukar. perhaps that meant by El Bckri in his description of Ghanata, lies a short distance west from Walata, near Teziight; another district of this name lies between Ti»fci: and Mcsila, to the north of Ajaiimcra. I now proceed to enumerate the tribes fettled in El Hodh.

The A'gclal, in several sections, viz.:

Welad Ahmed, subdivided into the following divisions or "lefkhat:" A'hel Talcb Jiddu, A'hel Khalifa, A'hel A'hmed c' Taleb, A'hel Taleb Sidi Ahmed, Wed (sir) Yebifi, Welad Sidi (El Kobctat, A'hel Malum, A'hel Jsma'afl, the Soltana, El A'niera).

Weliid Mtisa, subdivided as follows: Welad II«j 'Abd c' Rahman, Welad II»j .1 Amin, Weliid Miisa, properly so called.

Weliid Melek, subdivided: A'hel Abd-Allahi Wclcd Taleb I brabim, A'hel Haj A'hmedu, A'hel Boghadije.

The Weliid Mohammed of Walata, in several sections, of whom a great part originates from Tishit, while the sheikh family belongs originally to the Biduktl. Their present chief is All Weled Nawari cl Kuntawi, whose mother is the daughter of the Sheikh of the Legis: Abel Tiki, Welad Lcgas c' Shiiikh, Lemwak»h. Weliid e' dhfli, Targiilet, Deragela (belonging originally to the Brakcno), Welad rj Mojiir, Weliid el horma, Kekakcna, A'hel e' Taleb Mustuf (a family of "toJba"k I'dc Miisa, Weliid AilL Weliid Alii, Welad Sekic, Liikariit.

The Weliid c' Nasir, very powerful, and divided into the following sections:

Welad 'Abd cl Keriiu Weled Mohammed cl M'atu'k, with Bakr Weled Senehe as their chief.

Weliid Mas'aifd Weled M'atu'k, subdivided: El A'vasiit, El I'kemamera, Beririha, (iheraber, A'hel Miisa (the Shiiikh, with the powerful chief 'Othman el HaU1<).

We hid Yahia Weled Matiik.

Welad Mohammed Weled M'atu'k.

The J'afero, the "jim" pronounced like the French,; in jour.

The 'Atnris, here and in Baghena.

The I jumiin, divided into several sections, of which I only learned the names rf three: I'jnman el 'Arab, I'juman e' tolbu, A'hel Mohammed.

The Mcshediif, not independent, and, as it seems, of almost pure Berber origin, and a section of the Limtiina, being most probably identical with thr Mastifa, a Berber tribe so often mentioned by the Arab writers, such as El Bekrf, E hn ButtfTRIBES IN TAGANET. 713

ta, &c, as settled between Sfjilmesa and Timbuktu. They are divided into several sections: Lahmennad, Welad Maham, Ujenabjc, and others, as the Welad Yo'aza. The Laghallal, a considerable tribe, divided into five khomais.


Taganet is a largo and well-favored district, bordering toward the E. and S.E. on El Hodh, or rather the kddia encircling and forming El Hodh; toward the S.W., where there is a considerable group of mountains, bordering on Aftot, by which it is separated from Fiita, and toward the W. or W.N.W. separated from A'derar by ranges of hills running parallel to each other, called "e' dheloa," or "the ribs." Taganet—evidently a Berber name, contrasting as a correlative with the name A'gan—is divided by nature into two distinct regions, viz., Taganet el kahela, or Black Taganet, comprehending the southern part of it, and consisting of fertile valleys, full of palm-trees, nebek, &c, excellent for the breeding of cattle and sheep, but infested by numbers of lions and elephants, while it is fit for the camel only in the dry season; and Taganet cl bedha, White Taganet, called in Aze'riye, or the language of Tishft, "Ger e' kiille," consisting of white desert sand, with excellent food for the camel, and with plantations of palm-trees in a few favored spots, which contain the villages or ksifr.

Of these there are three:

Tcjfgja, four days W.N.W. from Tishft, inhabited by the Idaw 'All and the Ghalli.

Rashi'd, one day from Tejif-ja, W.N.W., in the possession of the Kunta.

Kasr el Barka, the most considerable of the three, two days W.S.W. from Teji'gja, and three days from the mountain pass Nnfni, which gives access to it by way of Aftot, likewise inhabited by the Kunta, who are the traveling merchants of this part of the desert, and supply Shinghit and all those quarters.

Besides these three ksiir, there is, at the distance of one day from Tejigja and three days from Tishit, another plantation of date-trees, but without a ksar, called El Gobbu or El Kubba from the sanctuary of a Weli of the name of 'Abd-Allah, and belonging to the Idaw 'All.

As for the Arab tribes not settled in the ksu'r, but wandering about in Taganet, there are first to mention:

The Zcnagha, or Senhaja, or Idaw-'Aish, a mixed Berber tribe, who form a conspicuous group in the history of this part of Africa, and have been the principal actors also in the destruction of the empire of the liinna or Erma. They are at present divided into several sections, all called after the sons and grandsons of Mohammed Shcn, a fanatic man, who arose among this tribe a little more than a century ago and usurped the chieftainship. His eldest son, Mohammed, who succeeded him, left at his death the office of chief vacant, when there arose a sanguinary civil war between his brother Mukhtar, whose partisans were called Sheratit, and his eldest son, Swe'd A'hmed, and his party, who were called Abakak, from the red fruits of the talha, on which they were obliged to subsist. The latter, having at length gained the upper hand, killed all his uncles, and was succeeded after his death by his son Bakr, who is ruling at the present time. The chief of the Sheratit is E' Rasifl Weled 'Ali Weled Mohammed Shcn.

Hel 'Omar Weled Mohammed Shcn, the Soltana kabfla of the Zcnagha, subdivided as follows: Hel 'All Baba Weled 'Omar, Bd-Bakr Weled 'Omar, Rasul Weled 'Omar, Hel 'Ali Weled Mohammed She'n, A'hel Swe'd (this is the strongest cf the divisions of the Zcnagha), A'hel Resiil Weled Alimbugga, Hel Bakr Weled Mohammed She'n, A'hel Resiil Weled Mohammed She'n.

Besides these, there are also the sons of Mohammed c' Sghir, viz.: Mohammed, Mukhtar, Bii-Sef, 'Ah, Si'di el Ami'n, Henniin, who have given their names to various sections of the great tribe of the Zcnagha. In consequence of their intestine feuds, however, this tribe has sunk from the first rank which they occupied among all the Arab tribes; for, though decidedly of Berber origin, they are yet considered as Arabs, owing to the tongue which they now speak.

The Kunta, part of this widely-scattered tribe distinguished by their learning and their sanctity, and divided, as far as they live in Taganet, into the following sections:

Welad Bii-Sef (the most warlike tribe of the Kunta).

Welad Si'di Bd-Bakr.

Welad Si'di Haiballa (properly Habib-AUahi), subdivided: El Nogu'dh, Welad cl Bah, E'rkabat, these latter being probably the tribe found, according to Scott's statement, not far from the N.W. shores of Lake Dehu, and who can not be the K. rgebat, as Mr. Cooley suspects, who never leave their homes in El Gada; else Scon never saw that lake.

AVelad Sidi Wafi, subdivided as follows: Welad Si'di Bii-Bakr el kahcL, Weia*! Sidi Bii-Bakr cl be'dh.


A'dercr is a rather elevated district, composed of sand-hills grouped round m considerable range of hills, as its name, meaning the mountain range, indicates, which is the same as that of the district lying between A'zawad and Air, bcinp distinguished from it only by a slight difference in the pronunciation. It is encircled toward the north by the awful zone of immense sand-hills called " Maghte'r,'" and toward tho south by another similar but less sterile girdle called "Waran," both of these districts joining toward the east of A'dere'r, at a point culled "El Gedatn," at tho distance of six days from Wadan, in going from cast to west: Metwe*hnvr. first day; Maderas hasi, second; Amasi't, third; Zwfri we"n Zwemra, fourth; Vfadan, sixth day, having passed a good many wells. Between A'dercr and El Hodh, and separated from that district of El Hodh which is called El Batn by a range of hills to the north of Taganet, there is a very extensive valley or valley-plain railed Khat e' dem, running, as it seems, about east and west along the northern foot of the ridge of A'dere'r, at the south foot of which lies El Hodh, with abundance of wells, and even a couple of ksiir, or perpetually inhabited villages. The following is a list of a few of these localities:

Mochdnge, shallow well, with a ksar belonging to tho Gesfma. Belle, well, and ksar inhabited by Bambara (Aswanck?). These on the south side of the Khat, where there are a number of shallow but full wells, of which the group called Khat el Moina is one of the most considerable. In the middle course of the Khat there is O'fain', a large dhaye or tank; Fetele, Kebi, Zorifgo, all tanks; but the lnrprst of these tanks is U'm el Mcdek, which lies on the road from the celebrated Bir Nwal to Wadan, then Tweshtair and El Bahe'ra, also largo tanks; on the west side of the Khat there is the large well Tishti. The breadth of this celebrated valley, with whose excellence the wandering Arab is as much enchanted as a European b with the most romantic spots of Switzerland and Italy, is indicated by the distance of three days between the well Talemist and the famous well Bd-Scftye, on the road from Tisbi't to Wadan.

A'derer, according to the different nature of its various parts, is divided into "A'dere'r c' temar" and "A'dere'r BUttuf." In A'dere'r Proper there arc four kstfr. or towns, the most considerable of which, nnd the only one known in Europe, is Wadan, a town smaller than Tisbit, but at least, till recently, when it has likewise suffered from intestine broils, better inhabited than tho latter, and was evidently so even in the first half of the sixteenth century, when tho Portuguese established here a factory for a couple of years. Wadan, as well as Tishit, was originally a place of the Azer, and the Azcriyo is still the language of its indigenous inhabitants. It has, besides, a considerable Arab population, belonging to the following tribes:

El Arzazir.

Idaw el Haj, probably tho founders of the empire of Glmnatn, a tribe of great importance in the history of African civilization, and divided into the following sections, as fur as they live in A'dere'r: A'hcl Sfdi Makhmiid (the Soltana tribe, to whom belongs the Chief of Wadan, 'Abd Allah W. Sidi Makhmud), Ide Yakcfc, Sfyam, A'hel cl Imam; while two other sections of them live in Ergehe, viz: El U'tetad, El Ido-Gcja.

As for the Uayan in Waddn, they are tho khoddeman of tho Idaw cl Haj. The Mcdraml>oiin, one of tho tribes of the Kunta.

Wadan has a pretty plantation of date-trees of different sorts, of better quality than those of Tishit, and the names of which are as follow: Sckani, Tennasidi, tl Hommor, Tipibirt, Owcte'rdel, Bezal el Bagra.

The town, composed of houses built of stone and mnd, lies on the cast side of the valley, on stony and elevated ground. Its population docs certainly not exceed 6000, who supply themselves with necessaries from Tishit, as they do not seem to frequent in person the market of Nyamina or other places.

Shiny/til, a small place built of stone, the same size as the town of Dal in Bight


na, two days S.W. from Wadan,* which has obtained a great name in the East, all the Arabs of the western desert being called after it. Shinghit, situated in the millst of small sand-hills, where a little salt is found, has a handsome plantation of date-trees, where the ti'ggedirt and the sukkan are produced. It seems to have no Negro population, all the inhabitants being Arabs belonging to the following tribes • Welad Jahe' ben 'Othman, divided into the following sections: Welad 'Othman (to whom belongs the despotic chief of the town, called A'hmed ben Sfdi Ahmed ben 'Othman), El A'wcsiat (who speak the dialect of the Zemigha, and have a chief of their own), E' Redan, Welad Bii Lahie, Welad E'gshar, Idaw 'All.

A tar, a well-inhabited little town or ksar, said by some to be larger than Shinghit, situated two days nearly east from the latter place, the track descending along the district called El O's, where date-trees and water are met with in several spots. A'tar lies at the foot of a kodia, where the water collects, feeding a small plantation of date-trees. No negroes.

Ojiift, a ksar not so well inhabited as the two foregoing ones, two days S.E. from Shinghit, and one from A'tar S.S.W., likewise with a palm grove. Its principal inhabitants are E' Sme"sid or Smasida, Zwaye. The inhabitants of Ojiift, with the exception of the Smasida, do not travel, but receive every thing by way of Kasr el Barka, where the people carry on some trade.

Besides the Arab tribes mentioned as living partially in the kstfr, there are still the following tribes to be mentioned as having their encampments principally or exclusively in A'dere'r.

The Tajakant are regarded as belonging to the Himyaritic stock, and wear the gubba; they are a large tribe, and are of great importance in the whole commerce between the W. part of Morocco or "E' Sahel" and Timbtiktu, which is entirely in their hands. At present, in consequence of their feud with the E'rgcbat, they are embroiled in a civil war among themselves, while with the Kunta they are at peace. I mention them here with regard to A'dere'r, though, as far as they are settled in this district, they have been greatly weakened, and part of them at least seem to have their principal abode in Gidi; they wander also in El Giblah. With Taganet, with which place their name has been connected, they have nothing whatever to do. Tajakant is the collective form, a single individual being called Jakani, fem. Jakaniye. Their chief is Merabet Mohammed el Mukhtar, an excellent man. They are divided into the following sections: E' Rumadhin or El Armadhin, subdivided: 'Ain el Kohol, Welad Sidi el Haj, El Msaid, Welad S'aid. Welad Musanni, in two divisions, whose names I did not learn. El U'jarat. A'hel e' sherk. Dr'awa.

The three latter tribes form at present one faction of the Tajakant, the two preceding, together with the Merabet, the other. Altogether they are certainly able to bring into the field 2000 muskets, but they do not appear to be strong in cavalry. The Sidi Mohammed, another division of the Kunta.

In general the Kunta and the Weldd e' Nasir form one group in opposition to the Tajakant, Idaw el Haj, and the Zenagha.


The whole tract of the desert between A'dere'r and the sea, in a wide sense, is called Tiris, but in a proper and restricted one this name is applied only to the northern part of it, the middle tract of it being called "Magh-teY," and the southern one "El Giblah;" but care must be taken not to confound this district with what the Arabs of A'zawid and Timbuktu call "El Giblah," with which very vague name, signifying in their dialect "the west," they indicate all that part of the desert W. of them, from Walata as far as the sea. El Giblah is bordered toward the N. by Magh-te"r, toward the E. by A'dere'r, toward the S.E. by El Abiar, and toward the S. by the Senegal; this more favored southern tract, however, bearing the particular name of Shcmmamah, is covered with thick forests of the gum-tree, while another portion of it, consisting of ranges of sand-hills, is called Igi'di or E' Swc'hel. El Giblah, as well as all Tiris, has no permanent wells, being extremely dry and sterile, but in the rainy season water is found just under the surface. A few of the

• The position of these places, as laid down In my original map, had to bo changed a little from my own data given In the itineraries, and from the data of M. Panet'a route to Shinghit, published in the " Revue Oolonlale," 1861.

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