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A COLLECTION OF NOTES
ESPECIALLY DESIGNED FOR THE USE OF MINISTERS, BIBLE-
STUDENTS, AND SUNDAY-SCHOOL TEACHERS.
JAMES COMPER GRAY,
Author of "Topics for Teachers," "The Class and the Desk," &c. &c.
Containing the Epistles 1 Corinthians to mhilemon.
I. Author, St. Paul. This not disputed by any eminent critic. l. The exter. testims. to authorship numerous. (Clement of Ro., Ep. to Cor. c. 47 ; Polycarp, ad Phil. c. 11; Irenæus, adv. Hær. iv. 27; Clement Alex., Pædag. i. 33 ; Tertullian, de Præscript. adv. Hær. c. 33, etc.) 2. Internal evidence con. clusive. Complete transcript of P.'s character as found in Acts (Alford). II. Place, where written, EPHESUS, 1 Co. xvi. 8 (Cony. and How., Angus, Wheeler, etc.); or Thessalonica (Alford). The P.S., wh. gives Philippi, is incorrect; and, like other P.SS. to Epp., of no authority (Paley, Hor. P. iii. n. 12). III. Time, when written. At the close of P.'s long sojourn in E., in the spring of A.D. 57 (Cony. and How.), or autumn A.D. 57 (Alford); or if ab. time of Passo. (1 Co. v. 6–8), spring of A.D. 57 or 58. IV. For whom written. CHURCH AT CORINTH (1 Co. i. 2). Founded by P. himself on his first visit (Ac. xviii, 1–7), wh. lasted 18 mos. It was a numerous Church (Ac. xviii. 4, 8, 10), composed chiefly of Gentiles (1 Co. xii. 2), with some Jews (Ac. xviii. 8); and both were principally of the poorer classes (1 Co. i. 26 ff.), with some exceptions, as Crispus (Ac. xviii. 8; 1 Co. i. 14), Èrastus (Ro. xvi. 23), and Gaius (see also 1 Co. xi. 22). V. Design. 1. To reply to sundry inquiries—(1) On the duties of life (vii. '1); (2) On meats offered to idols (viii.---x.); (3) On the dress of women in their assemblies (xi. 3—16) ; (4) On the exercise of spiritual gifts (xii.- xiv.); (5) And on the manner of making collections for the poor (xvi. 1 ff.). 2. This being the occasion of his writing, P. seizes the opportunity to-(1) Reprove their spirit of contention (i. 10-13); (2) To rebuke them for nonreproval of a case of incest (v. 1 d.); (3) To give directions ab. litigation (vi. 1.ff.); (4) To correct irregularities in the celebration of the Lord's Supper (xi. 20—34); (5) To present the historical proofs of the Resurrection (xv.); (6) And to defend his Apostolic authority (iv.—x.), which had been impugned (iv. 17–21; ix. 1, 2). “ The two Epp. to Co. have a special interest of their own. They are, in one word, the historical Epp. The 1 Co. gives a clearer insight than any other portion of the New Test. into the institutions, feelings, opinions, of the Ch. of the earlier period of the Apostolic age. Written, with the excep. of Epp. to Thess., first of any of P.'s Epp., and, so far as we know, first of any of the writings of the New Test., it is in every sense the earliest chap. of the hist. of the Christian Ch.” (Stanley). VI. Corinth, once EPHYRE (Apollod. i. 9), which was aft. poetic name (Ovid, Met. ii. 240; Virg. Geor. ii. 264; Prop. ii. v-1), was famous and rich (Hom. Il. ij. 570; Hor. ii. 16, etc.), beautiful, commercial (Thucy. i. 13; Cic. Rep. ii. 4); under Roms. cap. of Achaia Prop. (Apul. Met. x.), sit. on Peloponnesian isthmus, betw. Ionian and Ægean seas, at foot of rock having the Acrocorinthus on summit (Strabo, viii. 379; Plut. Vit. Arat. 16; Liv. xlv. 28). It was 40 stadia in circum. Its two ports were Lechæon (Plin. iv. 5) on the W., 12 sta. dist., for Italian, and Kenchreæ (Strabo, viii. 38), etc.) on the E., 70 sta. dist., for Oriental trade. At C. arts, etc., flou. (Pind. 01. xiii. 21; Herod. ii. 167; Plin. xxxiv. 3 ; xxxv. 5; Cic. Verr. ii. 19; Suet. Tiber. 34). The people were wanton, luxurious, corrupt (Athenæus, vii. 281; xiii. 543; Alciphr. iii. 60; Strabo viii. 378, etc.). Co. was taken and destr. by L. Mummius (Flor. ii. 16; Liv. Epit. lii.), A.U.c. 608 (B.c. 146); re-established as a colony (Julia Corinthus) by Julius Cæsar, A.U.c. 710 (B.C. 44); and, with its old splendour, was, in P.'s time, the seat of the Rom. Procon. of Achaia (Ac. xviii. 18). (Condensed fr. Alford. See also Cony. and How., Lewin, Smith's Dict., Bucke's Anc. Cities, 252, Leake's Morea, iii. cap. xxxviii.)