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At the first meeting of the Medico-chirurgical Society, after the death of Dr. Marcet, an eloquent eulogium was pronounced by Dr. Cooke on the character, talents, and acquirements of Dr. M. the original founder of the society. Sir Gilbert Blane, Dr. Baillie, Mr. Charles Bell, and some other members followed, and a resolution was unanimously passed that a portrait of Dr. Marcet, by one of the first artists, should be procured and hung up in the society's. house, as a tribute to his memory, a mark of their esteem, and a memento of the loss they had sustained by his death. In further respect to their deceased member and founder, they unanimously agreed to wave all other business for the evening, and adjourn till that day week.

DR. THOMAS SEEDS. We have to deplore the death of this very promising and zealous young physician, who died lately of fever at New York. He was the son of Mr. Seeds of Portsea, and, to our knowledge, united very superior talents with a most ardent zeal for, and love of his pro

ssion. As a correspondent, as a friend, and as a physician, we have long entertained for this able and estimable young gentleman the most sincere respect and esteem. Would that we were able to pour the balm of consolation into the wounds of his afflicted parent, who has sustained an irreparable loss in the death of such a son! ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS.

TIE COUNCIL. President-Sir Wm. Blizard, Kt. Surgeon to the London Hospital,

Devonshire Square. Vice Presidents-Henry Cline, Lincon's-In-Fields; and William

Norris, Old Jewry. Thompson Forster, Surgeon to Guy's Hospital, Southampton Street; John Heaviside, George Street, Hanover Square; Sir David Dundas, Bt. Serjeant Surgeon to the King, Richmond ; Sir Everard Home, Bt. Surgeon to Chelsea and St. George's Hospitals, and Serjeant Surgeon to the King, Sackville Street; John Adair Hawkins, Great Marlborough Street; Francis Knight, Saville Row; Sir Ludford Harvey, Kt. Surgeon to St. Bartholomew's Hospital Bedford Place; William Lynn, Surgeon to the Westminster Hogpital, Parliament Street; John Abernethey, Surgeon to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Bedford Row; William Lucas, Surgeon to Guy's Hospital, Threadneedle Street; Sir Astley P. Cooper, Bt. Surgeon to the King, and Surgeon to Guy's Hospital, Spring Gardens; Sir Anthony Carlisle, Kt. Surgeon Extraordinary to thc King, and Surgeon to the Westminster Hospital; Thomas Chevalier, Surgeon Extraordinary to the King, South Audley Street; John Gunning, Surgeon to St. George's Hospital, and Surgeon Extraordinary to the King, Lower Grosvenor Street; Honoratus L. Thomas, Leicester Place. Leicester Square; Richard C. Headington, Surgeon to the London Hospital, Broad Street Buildings; Robert Keate, Surgeon to St. George's Hospital, Albemarle Street; John P. Vincent, Surgeon to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Lincoln's Inn-Fields.

Additional Subscribers since last Quarter. Belchor, Doctor-name but not re- Lucas, Mr. Surg. Church-street,

sidence left with Burgess & Hill Soho Burrows, Mr. Samuel, Surgeon, Macintyre, W. (M.D.) Surg. R.N. Bishopgate-street-within

Moor, Mr. J. Surgeon, Castleton, Birch, William, Esq. (jun.)

Yorkshire Bowdoin College, United States Mayer, Dr. Professor of Anatomy Baker, Mr. Park-lane, Camberwell in the University of Bonn, on the Brander, Mr. James M. Edinburgh Rhine; Corrrespondent for the Brown, R. Esq. Fellow of the Royal North of Germany

College of Surgeons of London Marsden, Mr. Wm. Chemist and Bell, Mr. Thomas, Assistant Surg. Druggist, Holborn-hill

H.M.S. Impregnable, Plymouth Marchant, Mr. Surgeon, North Callaway Mr. High-street, South- Curry, Somersetshire wark

Nicoll, Deputy Inspector of HosCayell, Mr. Henry, Assist. Surg. pitals, M.D. Dinapore

Prall, (mis-stated Pratt) Mr. KingCorbet, David, M.D. Falkirk

street Craw, Mr. Surgeon, Bombay Esta- Porter, Mr. Thaddeus, Assist. Surg. blishment

Royal Navy, to Mediterranean Cordukes, Mr. H.C. Burlington, Pell, Mr. Surgeon, Alford Yorkshire

Richmond, Mr. John, Surgeon, &c. Cowen, H. Esq. M. D. Surgeon, Grimsby, Linconshire 41st Regiment

Roulston, Mr. Tooley-street Crisp, Mr. Surgeon, Northampton Root, Mr. G. Surgeon, Ross Drummond, John, Esq. Surg. R.N. Swan, Jos. Esq. Surgeon to the Grangemouth

County Hospital, Lincoln Davies,

Mr. William, Apothecary, Schaw, James, Esq. Surgeon, R.N. Beckford-row, Walworth, Surry Falkirk Dix, Mr. Surgeon, Northampton Sinclair, Dr. Samuel, Royal Tyrone Dulhụnty, John, Esq. late Surgeon Regiment

of His Majesty's Naval Hospital Southwell, Mr. Oxford-street,

at Plymouth, Russel-street, Bath Whitechapel Fawcett, John, Esq. Surg. Sligo, Stevens, Dr. Ely Ireland

Salmon, Wm. M.D. Read House, Forge, Francis, M. D. Great Sut- Gloucestershire field

Waterworth, Mr. C. Surg. DoverHolme, Mr. William, Surg. &e. place, New Kent Road Barton, Lincolnshire

Williams, Robert, Esq. Surg. Royal Hacket, William, M. D. Inspector Navy, Tenby, South Wales of Health, Quebec

Wardrop, John, Esq. Surg. R. N. Howell, Mr. Wandsworth

Falkirk Hamilton, C. M. Esq. Staples-Inn Walker, Dr. William, Richmond, Buildings, Holborn

Surrey Hicks, Mr. Surgeon, Hodsden Wallas, Mr. Darlington lliff, Mr. W.T. Surgeon, &c. Lam- Welch, Mr. Apothecary to the Ply, beth-road

mouth Dock Public Dispensary Jagoe, Doctor, (name but not re- Willams, D. (M D.) Liverpool

sidence left with Burgess & Hill) Williams, Mr. Surgeon, Wigton, Jones, Mr. John, Surgeon and Cumberland Apothecary, Ilfracombe

Waller, Mr. Surg. Lewton, Bed-
Jones, J.J. Esq. Surg Hereford fordshire
Kerr, Dr. William, Northampton

Dr. James Veitch from Pimlico to Regent Street.
Dr. Salemi to Grenville Street, Brunswick Square.

Medico-Chirurgical Review,



( Analytical Series.)

“ Nec Aranearum textus ideò melior, quia ex se fila fingunt ; nec noster vilior, quia ex alienis libamus, ut apes."

Vol. III.]

MARCH 1, 1823.

[No. 12.

I. De la Folie, &c. Reflections on Insanity, its Seat and

Symptoms, Mode of Action of its Causes, its Progress and Termination, the Differences by which it is distinguished from Acute Delirium, the proper Methods of Treatment, with Pathological Researches. By M. GEOR

GET, M.D. &c. Paris, 1820. Those " written troubles of the brain" in which “ words are not thought, nor thought the mind," have been hid in vast lazar-bouses of human woe, rather as fitted for eternal concealment and for one hopeless course, than as subjects of medical speculation. Mental diseases, however, are now matters of scientific regard, and we hail this as one of the most fortunate essays at discovery and illustration. The author has observed mental alienation for many years in a vast establishment.

“ Continually residing," says he, “in the midst of 1200 patients, I have witnessed, repeatedly, every fact advanced, and I have endeavoured to offer such opinions as are founded upon observation."

This is precisely the probationary method of preparation which most entitles an anthor to regard, and the sort of experience which is stamped with authenticity.

His work commences with some metaphysical reasonings in support of the anatomical doctrines of Gall and Spurzheim: —but it will be obviously irrelevant for us to hesitate in immediately procecding to an analysis of the more important and interesting parts, which form the professed topic of the publication.

Chap. I.- Symptoms. Insanity has its peculiar and inseparable concurrence of phenomena, and certain negative symptoms common to other affections. Want of discrimination between the two, has given

Vol. III. No. 12. 4 X

birth to voluminous writings on simple varieties of the same phenomena, many of which are mere romances, descriptive of the external deportment of madness, to the exclusion of pathological enquiry or classification. The symptoms are, Ist, local, essential, idiopathic, and cerebral; 2d, general, remote, or sympathetic. The brain is the immediate seat; delirium, vigilance, disagreeable sensations in the head, as heat, tension, weight, diminution of sensibility and of muscular contractility, variations of the color and temperature of the skin of the face and liead, congestion and inflammatory irritation of the same parts, epitomize general symptoms.

1. Delirium.-Expression and intellectual physiognomy are too irregular to merit observation. Those whose faculties are alienated, seldom mistake men for women, but in a stranger they see either a friend or an enemy, in a house a palace; others think they hear voices in the air, to which they reply, &c. and, however false the perception, persuasion to the contrary never convinces; the patient always has a ready subterfuge. Sentiment and the natural affections are generally alienated from the nearest tics, and jealousy, indifference, and dislike, are substituted without external motive. The taste for different pursuits, &c. vary. Symptoms of return to the latter, are very favourable indications. The exaltation of any moral or physical passion, greatly aggravates insanity; thence satyriasis, nymphomania, and insane royalty. Vivacious insanity is most rare, misanthropical most abundant. The powers of comparison are defective, the ideas being scattered, incoherent, and unconnected with the present sensations. Mono-maniacs reason, but always upon some imaginary basis. Thus, the hallucinè argues with fancied beings, &c. Mono-maniacs are distinguished by being mad on particular topics only—and reason very sanely on all others, chiefly endeavouring to convince individuals that their health is sound. Retrospective memory is generally alienated, or cir. cumstances are perpetually recalled and perverted. The recollection of events in the period of delirium, is preserved after recovery, with the motives of actions. The majority conceive themselves well, feel indignant at their state, and attribute errors in conduct to their unjust confinement; many perceive and ridicule the want of reason in their companions. Some few acknowledge their malady. This disposition, with gratitude for what has been done for them, are most favorable manifestations. They occasionally commit actions without motive, or are impelled by false ideas of the tendency,—thus the mother kills her child that it may go to Heaven. (Dr. Creighton would remark, that self is rather the object in these actions, and perhaps more correctly,--as frequently instanced by the homicides of the religionis insane in this country.) The mental faculties are often exalted by a morbid excitement of the imaginative faculty; this class calculate, invent, &c. but in the former, they are much oftener weakened or obliterated. M. Esquirol attributes intellectual disorders to impaired attention, but this is effect and not cause. Intensity and extent of the symptoms enumerated, vary infinitely in degree from the slightest insanity to the most outrageous-but any of these sufficiently identify the disease, -in whatever degree present. M. Georget adopts M. Pinel's classification, with some slight modifications. The first is:

Idiotcy. Defective development of the intellectual faculties, want of ideas; sensations and affections partially bestowed. “Between the want of intelligence up to an extraordinary development of this function, so many degrees exist, that a scale may casily be graduated, the last step of which would be occupied by the idiot, and the first by the most extraordinary genius."

Idiots may be classed thus: 1st. Those who neglect even the gratification of the animal appetites, -and are prone to perish by self neglect. 2lly. Those that suggest their wants but never seek to gratify them. 3dly. Those that possess the qualities in which the two first species are wanting, and betray some sentiment and intelligence. Individuals of these, like David Galbetlie, sing wild catches, &c. 4thly. The imbecile, a common variety, are capable of going on errands, and performing such offices as require little effort of understanding. These possess all the mental faculties in a degree, and, also, the natural passions,—and propagate if permitted.

II. Mania.-Delirium; sensations and ideas confused, incoherent, and following in rapid succession. Excitement and agitation, expressed by disordered motions, cries, sing. ing, menaces, and fury.

'Tis a tale told by an idiot,

Full of strange words and fury. The description of mania is rather eloquent.

“ The maniac seems to live in another world; he has forgotten every event of his existence, and the objects of his affections; if he recalls either to his secollection, it is transiently, and without an apparent intention. The exercise of the intellectual faculties represents a chaos. Schemes are formed inordinately, without motive or end ; judgment is erroneous, resolutions are vague, and he is alike careless as to the past or the future.” 106.

Mania admits of long intermissions of calmness, and of

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