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districts which belong to Moravia, though CHAP. * included by the upper Silesia. In like man- III. er ner her majefty yielded to the King of Prufija, mm

the city and castle of Glatz, and all the coun- 1742. 66 ty of that name. And in return, his Pruffian *6 majesty renounced all pretensions whatsoever 86 on the Queen of Hungary.

By the 6th article, « The King of Prussia a.66 greed to preserve the catholic religion in its

present ftate, as also the inhabitants of the 66 country in their poffeffions, liberties; rights,

and privileges, without derogation to an en66 tire liberty of conscience granted to proteft. 56 ants, and the rights of the sovereign.

By the 7th article, ..66 The King of Prussia 66 charged himself, wholly, with the repayment But of what was lent by the English merchants on os the security of the revenues in Silefia, by the “.contract of London, dated the 21ft of Janu66 ary 1735. . By the 8th article, " A general amnesty was ..66 declared on both sides, and hostilities imme66 diately to cease; and that such inhabitants of 6. Silesia as should chuse to leave the country, 66 should be allowed five years to sell their ef

- fects, without being subject to any tax or imtot position.

AND by the 11th article, 66 The two con* tracting parties agreed to comprehend in these A66 preliminaries of peace, his Britannic majesty, * both in his regal quality, and as Elector of 46 Hanover, the Empress of Russia, the King .66 of Denmark, the States General, the house 136 of Wolfenbuttle, and the Elector of Saxony:

provided, that within sixteen days after the sc notification of the signing of this treaty, the 26 Elector of Saxony should withdraw his forces Fff2

66 from

· PART “ from the French' army in Bohemia, and out

III. " of all the dominions of the Queen of Hunw " gary.” 1742.

By this treaty the politics of France were entirely eluded; the King of Pruffia and Queen of Hungary were no longer divided ; and this was accomplished by the British negociations. Though, necessary as it was, the Queen of Hungary now yielded up the whole province of Silesia to his Prussian majesty, a province 200 miles in extent, well inhabited, and furnishing 300,000 l. annual revenue, only for his neutrality; and if her majesty, in the preceding year, had but ceded to the king the bare moiety of this duchy, she might then have obtained his whole strength and assistance, in maintaining the pragmatic fanction, and all his interest in promoting the Grand Duke of Tuscany to the imperial throne. She was now the more inclined to relinquish fo great a part of her rights, in a confidence of future support from the British nation, in return for this extraordinary concession; and, though the King of Prussia was readily inclined to accept of an advantage he never expected, yet he the more cạgerly embraced it, manifestly from an apprehension of the ifsue of the contest, which grew precarious, upon the exeption of the British power. France was indeed deluded by this treaty, as she determined nothing less than to canton out every territory of the house of Austria amongst the confederates; and her disappointment was increased, when the found the Elector of Saxony also disjointed from the Nymphenburgh alliance, in pursuance of these preliminaries: but though, by this defertion of Pruffia and Saxony, the balJance of the war was turned, and at least 50,000 men taken away from the scale of France, yet

all her projects were not disconcerted; for if the CHAP. could not totally, yet she greatly, diminished III. the power, possessions, and revenue of the house of Austria.

1742. This preliminary treaty, and the cessions thereby made, were fully renewed, confirmed, and ratified, in favour of his Prussian majesty, by the definitive treaty of peace between the fame powers, concluded and signed at Breslau, . the 28th of July following; of which preliminary and definitive treaty, his Britannic majesty guaranteed the execution, the first on the 24th of June 1742, and the latter by the defensive treaty of alliance, concluded between their Britannic and Prussian majesties at Westminster, the 18th of November following.

As soon as the notification of the preliminary treaty was made to the Elector of Saxony, his troops in Bohemia were immediately ordered to halt, till further instructions. A negociation was set on foot, and a peace concluded between him and the Queen of Hungary, which was proclaimed at Dresden the 17th of September ; and by which, the queen yielded to - his Polish majesty, as Elector of Saxony, some places in the circles of Elnbogen, Satzer, Leutmeritz, and Buntzlaw in Bohemia; in consideration whereof the elector guaranteed to her the rest of Bohes mia.

WHILE these important negociations were cara rying on, the French and Bavarians were left to contend by themselves. Prince Charles of Lorrain, after the battle of Czaslaw, marched towards Budweis, and joined Prince Lobkowitz. in the camp at Wesell, where the two armies formed a body of 60,300 men; and having, for feyeral days, endeavoured in vain to bring the


PART French to a battle, out of their camp at Frauen

III. berg, at last, upon the 5th of June in the evenn ing, Prince Charles was informed that Marshal 1742. Broglio had detached a body of 5,000 men, most

of them horse and dragoons, on the other side of
the Moldau, under the command of the Duke
of Boufflers, in order to make himself master of
Tein, Lomnitz, and some other posts in the
neighbourhood of Budweis. Upon this, Prince
Charles decamped that evening, and advanced
towards Tein; next morning he marched, with
four battalions and fifteen squadrons of cuirassiers
and husfars, to attack the Duke of Boufflers; and
found the French drawn up in order of battle,
advantageously posted, having their infantry and
some field pieces in the center. Prince Charles
himself attacked them at the head of the cuiras-
fiers, with such fury, that he foon put their in-
fantry and part of their cavalry into disorder.
At last the French carabineers, fustained by
their dragoons, repulsed the Austrian cavalry;
but the Austrians rallying, and coming a second
time to the charge, the shock was so great, that
not only the French carabineers and dragoons,
but the whole corps was broken, and fled with
great precipitation, leaving behind them their
cannon, ammunition, and the greatest part of
their baggage, and above 2,000 men killed or
taken prisoners, and amongst the latter was the
Marquis de Villemur. Several regiments of
horse and husfars, together with large bodies of
Croats and Waradens, were immediately detached
to pursue them, who killed great numbers, and
took many prisoners. When Marshal Broglio
heard of this defeat, he decamped with such pre-
cipitation, that the military chest, and a great
part of the baggage, were left in the camp, and


became a prey to the Auftrians, who immedi-CHAP. ately entered the camp, and soon after took the III. fortresses of Frauenberg, Piseck, and other places, where the French had posted small garrisons to 1742. favour their retreat to Prague, which they effect: ed, in small parties, with the greatest confusion and timidity, and never ventured to look back, till they found themselves under the protection of the cannon of Prague; where they were joined by Marshal Belleisle, on his return from Dresden. Prince Charles foon advanced with his army towards Prague ; and the French marshals, apprized of the treaty of Breslau, endeavoured to give the strongest security to their army, against the attack of the Austrians.

This city, fo remarkable for the extraordinary fiege sustained there by the French, under the Marshals Broglio and Belleille, is the metropolis of Bohemia, pleasantly situated on the large river Moldau, 150 miles N. W. of Vienna, 100 N. E. of Ratisbon, and 70 S. of Dresden. Few cities in Europe have a larger extent than Prague, which is divided into three parts, called the old, the new, and the middle city. The old city, on the east of the Moldau, is very populous, and full of handsome, but old-fashioned houses; in which stands the university, one of the most celebrated in Europe: and in this quarter, great numbers of wealthy Jews have their residence. The new city was formerly separated from the old by a wall, but now only by a chitch, into which the river can be let at pleasure. The lesfer town lies on the west of the Moldau, and joins to the old town by a bridge of fixteen arches, being in all 1,700 feet long, and 35 broad, with two large gates under two spacious towers, one at each end, which makes this · bridge one


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