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CHAPTER V.

State of the English and SPANIARDS,

in the northern part of AMERICA;
and GENERAL OGLETHORPE's ex-
pedition against ST AUGUSTINE,
in 1740.

I TPON the continent of North America, thé CHAP.

U war also extended between the crowns of V. Great Britain and Spain; where the Spaniards had m long looked upon the British settlements, as terri- 1740. tories dismembered from their American enipire; for the crown of Spain, pretended a right to all America, under a grant from the Pope; and when the English began to establish Virginia, they not only protested against it, but attempted, though in vain, to dislodge them.

King Charles II. having granted a charter of the lands to the south of Virginia, which he erected into a province, and called Carolina ; this, under the fame vain pretence of the Pope's grant, the Spaniards opposed, attacking and destroying a settlement, made by Lord Cardross, in the southern part of that province, and killing most of his people. But the northern part improved, and encreased greatly; and M 2

Charles

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PART Charles Town, the capital of South Carolina,

1. became considerable; though the Spaniards, stirrw ing up the Indians to harrass them, they were 1740. eternally disquieted ; till in the year 1733, his

Britannic majesty divided the south part from the rest of Carolina, and made it a distinct province, under the name of Georgia ; which was bounded to the N. E, and separated from Carolina, by the river Savanna, and on the S. extended to the Spanish frontiers of Florida. This country was then entirely in the possession of the Indians; and was acknowledged to them, by a treaty made by the governor and people of Carolina with the Creek Indians, whereby they mutually agreed that neither party should pass the said river.

James OGLETHORPE, Esq; one of the trustees of Georgia, who led the English colony, into that province, on his arrival in 1733, concluded a treaty with all the cantons of the Creek Indians, by which they agreed to that colony's settling in their part of the province of Georgia, upon cerrain conditions ; he also concluded a treaty with the two nations of Cherokees and Chickaffaws, relating to their part of the same province; and from that time the Indians never molested the English settlement in Carolina..

MR OGLETHORPE also concluded a provisional treaty with the governor of Augustine, and general of Florida, relating to the boundaries between the English and Spaniards, till the pleasure of the two courts could be known; by which the river St Mathea, which the Spaniards called St John's, remained the limits between the two nations, being the same river mentioned in the grant of King Charles II. and

lies in 30 deg. 10 m. as the river Savanna does CHAP. in 32 deg. o m.

V. When the Spanish court in 1737, still ag-m gravated their differences with the English, Don 1740. Thomas Geraldino, the Spanish ambassador at the court of London, presented a memorial, demanding all the land to 33 deg. 30 m. N. latitude in America, and required the government to order the English subjects to withdraw; but if this could not be done, insisting that at least no troops should be sent there, and particularly remonstrated against the return of Mr Oglethorpe, who was then in England. At the same time news arrived from Commodore Dent, who commanded his Britannic majesty's ships at Jamaica ; and from Governor Bull, who commanded in Carolina ; that the Spani. ards, at the Havanna, were preparing embarkations, and 3;000 men, to invade Carolina. His Britannic majesty, upon this, immediately appointed Mr Oglethorpe general of his forces in Carolina and Georgia, ordered him to raise a regiment, and repair there ; where he arrived time enough to prevent the execution of the Spanish designs, though a considerable number of their troops had already, got to Augustine.

When the reprizals were published in America, a party of the garrison of Augustine came up and .surprized two highlanders upon theisand of Amelia, cut off their heads, and mangled their bodies with all the wantoning of inhumanity ; General Oglethorpe went immediately in pursuit of them, and with such expedition, that he followed them by land and water, above a hundred miles in less than twenty-four hours, but they escaped. However the generai, by way of reprizal, passed the river St Mathea, or St John's, into Florida, drove in the guards of Spanish horse, pofted upon that river, and ad

PART vanced as far as a place called the Canallas; at the

I. same time sending Capt. Dunbar with a party up by a the river St Mathea, to reconnoitre a fort called 1740. Pickalata, near that river, upon the lakes of Flori

da, twenty miles from the sea ; which they attacked, but, having no artillery, were repulsed : notwithstanding they accomplished the general's intentions, having well viewed both that place and another fort called St Francis, upon the same lakes, ļa January, General Oglethorpe returned to Frederica, the chief town in the south of Georgia, where he met with Capt. Warren, who was lately arrived with the Squirrel man of war; and having consulied with him, Capt. Warren went and cruized off the bar of Augustine, whilst General Ogle. thorpe, with a detachment of troops on board of boats, and some artillery, went up the lakes of Florida, rowing by day and failing by night, so that he attacked the two forts of Pickalata and St Francis, and took them the fame day. From the information of the prisoners, which confirmed the other accounts the general had of the weak condition of Augustine ; he sent up to Charles Town, to desire the alistance of the people of Carolina, and to consult measures with the commanders of the men of war, in order immediately to block up Augustine, before the Spaniards could receive provisions and allistance from Cuba ; which if executed, the place must, in all probability, be foon reduced.

AUGUSTINE is the principal town of strength in Spanish Florida, situate at the mouth of the river Matanzas, about twenty leagues south of the river St Mathea, or St John's, the boundary of Georgia; whose inhabitants had shewn great indications of their inclination to infest the people of Carolina, having, by ungenerous arti

fies, been long attempting to raise an infurrec- CHAP. tion among the Naves of that province, which V. was effected in September, 1739, and twentythree of the white inhabitants massacred in a most 1740. cruel and barbarous manner ; but the militia engaging the revolters, defeated and killed, or took the greatest part of them prisoners: this, as occasioned by the inftigation of the Spaniards, created an universal concern through the province of south Carolina, for they expected nothing less than thus continually to feel the cruelty of the Spaniards; they looked on St Auguftine, in the same manner their mother country had formerly done on the African Sallee, as a den of thieves and Ruffians, and the receptacle of debtors and saves, to whom, by a proclamation published at Augustine, they had promised freedom and protection on their defertion from the English. Such a proceeding, awakened the attention of all the inhabitants of Carolina ; every one that had any relation, any tie of nature, every one that had a life to lose, was senGbly Inocked at such a danger daily impending over their heads; and to aggravate their concern, they had information that the remainder of the preparations made at the Havanna in 1737 for invading Carolina, were now ready for that pur. pose: prompted by such strong incentives, the lieutenant-governor, the council, assembly, and inhabitants of Carolina, feemed very ready to affiit General Oglethorpe, on an enterprize so promising of success, and so likely to destroy all their fears from the incursions of the Spaniards.

The Indian nations in Georgia, having also been considerably engaged in the prosecution of the war, it may be proper to give some de

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