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Part scription of their state and manners, for the bet

I. ter explaining of those actions in which they were w concerned ; especially, as this may be depended 1740. upon to be, the most natural and perfect account

of these nations, than has hitherto been delivered into the hands of the public. In this province there are three considerable nations, the one called the Cherokees, inhabiting amongst the mountains from whence the river Savanna descends; these are not the most warlike, nor of the larger stature, but are more accustomed to labour and live upon corn, than to procure their sustenance by hunting; they have about 5,000 warriors or hunters; for the Indian nations are divided into two kinds of men; those who they call warriors or hunters, are like the antient gentlemen in Europe, whose · single profession was arms and chace. The next nation is the Chickafaws, a warlike and bold people, large of stature, patient of fatigues, and of generous and noble sentiments; who have difputed the Misfilippi river with the French, and after many bloody engagements, still keep posfefsion of the banks of that river, and hinder the free communication of the French in Canada with those of the Louisiana. The third nation are the Indians called Creeks by the English, because their country lies chiefly amongst rivers, which the American English call creeks; the real name of these is Uschesees; their language is the foftest and most copious of all the Indians, and looked upon to be the radical language ; for they can make themselves understood by almost all the ocher Indians of the continent: they are divided into three people, upper, lower, and middle Creeks, the two former governed by their respective chiefs, whom they honour with a royal denomination, who are, nevertheless, in the most


material part of their government, subordi- CHAP. nate to the chief of the latter, who bears an V. imperial title : their country lies between the Spanish Florida and the Cherokee mountains, 1740. and from the Atlantic ocean' to the gulph of Mexico: they are a tall, well-limbed people, very brave in war, and are, as it were, the spartans of that part of the world; being as much refpected in the south, as the five nations or Iroquois are in the north part of America. The Indi. ans look upon the end of life to be, living happily; for this purpose their whole customs are calculated to prevent avarice, which they say imbitters life, and nothing is a severer reflection as mong them, than to say, that a man loves his own: to prevent the rise and propagation of such a vice, they, upon the death of any Indian, burn all that belongs to the deceased, that there may be no temptation for the parent to hoard up a fuperfluity of arms, and domestic conveniencies, their chief treasures, for his children: they strengthen this custom by a superstition, that it is agreeable to the souls of the deceased to burn all they leave, and that afflictions follow them who use any of their goods: they cultivate no more land than is neceffary for their plentiful subsistance, and hospitality to strangers; they use neither horses nor plows in agriculture, but, instead of plowing or digging, hoe their fields by common labour. The rest of the year they spend in hunting; and when they are injured by any other nation, as supposing one of their own nation to be killed, they send to demand satisfaction ; but if this is refused, they make reprizals upon the first they can take of the nation that committed the injury : and thus their wars begin ; which are very frequent, and carried on with great rage, VOL. I.



PART there not being any people in the world braver,

1. or more dextrous in the use of their arms, and w manner of fight amongst woods and mountains, 1740. none more patient of labour, nor swifter of foot.

These people were, with difficulty, gained by General Oglethorpe to assist in the war against the Spaniards, and it was so much the harder to accomplish, because the Creeks had frequent intercourse and friendship with them; but the general sending them the marks of the blood shed by the Spaniards, and acquainting them that they had killed some of his men on the land which the Creeks had by treaty conceeded to the English, they looked upon themselves as injured in their right of hospitality, and sent to demand justice from the governor of Augustine, who ill treated their messengers, and they then engaged in the war for the English.

When the war broke out, there was in Georgia and Carolina but one regiment of regular troops, consisting of 600 men, cominanded by General Oglethorpe ; and the country to be then defended was of above 400 miles extent, upon the sea coast. In Carolina there was a militia of about 3,000 men, and the armed people of Georgia were about 1,500; but there being above 40,000 negroe saves in Carolina, it was looked upon that it would be a hard task to contain such a number of negroes within their duty, in case of an invasion from the Spaniards. Therefore General Ojlethorpe thought that the most prudent, way of defending such a vast extent of country, was by attacking the Spaniards; and the majority of the assembly of Carolina, and the greatest , and most prudent part of the people were of the fame opinion: for if chat finall body of troops, were to be dispersed to defend all parts of ihe


was of ab and the cour

the sea

country, they would have been but a handful, CHAP. easily subdued in each place; and the Naves of V. Carolina would have revolted if favoured by an invading enemy: but if they acted offensively, 1740. the Naves would not be able, nor think of stirring, when they saw their masters have power to invade their enemies; the Indians would join them, and the Spaniards be prevented from attacking, by being forced to defend.

GENERAL OGLETHORPE, in January, acquainted the assembly, that if they could, by March following, join the regiments upon the river St Mathea, or St John's, with 600 white men, a troop of horse, a troop of rangers, and 600 negroes for pioneers, with a proper train of artillery and neceffaries, as they had promised to do, there might be a probability of taking Augustine, at least a certainty of hindering the Spaniards from undertaking any thing against Carolina; provided the men of war would block up the port of Augustine from receiving succours by sea.

THERE ftill subfifts amongst the Spaniards in America, a strong party for the house of Auftria ; some of these were men of quality of Mexico, and at this time officers in Augustine, fent thither because they were in disgrace; a command at that distance being, among them, in the nature of a banishment. General Oglethorpe had frequent intercourse with some of these principal officers, and had influenced them entirely to his interest, and at this time received intelligence, by some considerable people in the garrison of Augustine, of the state and condition of the town, which was then in want of provisions, and their half gallies were gone to Cuba


PART to fetch men and provisions, so that the river

I. of St Augustine was undefended.

w When General Oglethorpe imparted this ma. 1740. terial intelligence to the assembly of Carolina,

they voted to support him with a sum of money equal to what was wanted; but delayed fo long that the general was obliged to go up him. felf to Charles-Town, and hasten them in their resolutions.

CAPT. WARREN, since deservedly promoted to a superior rank in the British navy, with fe- . veral other commanders of the men of war on the northern station, came also into the port of Charles-Town, to consult measures for the expedition ; but the affembly, through their indolence and inactivity, delayed them so long, that the month of March was already past, before they had concluded any thing; and by the time they had passed their act, and before they would let Capt. Warren and General Ogle. thorpe set out, the man of war, who had been posted there till Capt. Warren's return, left the station off the bar of Augustine, and the half gallies got into the harbour, with succours of provisions and men from the Havanna ; which was certainly the chief thing that contributed to the prefervation of the place. Capt. Warren, not knowing of the arrival of the gallies, went and lay off the port of Augustine, in order to prevent their coming in; but in the dark of a calm night, fix half gallies came out from Augustine, and attacked him, to his great surprize ; notwithstanding the great superiority they had, by the weight of their cannon, which carried double the shot his guns did, the number of their men, and the advantage a calm gives to rowing vef


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