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1681. trade, and entered into divers branches thereof

themselves; which were foon improved upon by others.

CHAPTER II.

Conditions, or concessions published. Sailing of the

first ship for Pennsylvania.- Joseph Kirkbride, &C.--The Proprietor's manner of treating the Indians.--His letter to them.---First frame of government and laws published. Part of the preface to the same.--Purport of the frame, and one of the laws.Duke of York's deed of re-leafe to William Penn.--The territories obtained, &C.--Boundary

between the territories and Maryland. THE

HE proprietary, having already made consiThe pro- derable fales of land, agreed with the adventurers publishes and purchasers on the first deed of settlement, which conditions, in part, may be regarded as an essay towards a fions, &c. constitution of government, according to the pow

ers granted him by charter. It consists chiefly of certain rules of settlement, of treating the Indians with justice and friendship; and of keeping the peace, agreeable to the customs, usages and laws of England, to be observed on their arrival in the country, and there to be altered, on occasion. This compact is published, under the title of, “ Certain conditions, or concessions, agreed upon by William Penn, Proprietary and Governor of the province of Pennsylvania; and those, who are the adventurers and purchasers, in the same province, the 11th of Yuly, 1681."* Which may be seen at length, in the appendix, No. I.

* One of the ftipulations in this instrument shews the provident care and knowledge of the proprietary, in a matter, whose continued neglect will doubtless, in future, be found more important to the country than has been imagined, vizi

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The first

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.: Three ships failed for Pennsylvania this year;

1681.
two from London, and one from Bristol. The John
and Sarah, from London, commanded by Henry
Smith, is said to have been the first that arrived
there; the Amity, Richard Dimon, master, from three thips
the same place, with passengers, was blown off, Pennsylva-
to the West-Indies; and did not arrive at the

nia, &e.

province, till the spring of the next year; the Bristol Factor, Roger Drew, commander, arrived at the place, where Chester now stands, on the rith, of December; where the passengers, seeing some houses, went on shore, at Robert Wade's landing, near the lower side of Chester-creek; and, the river having froze up that night, the passengers remained there all the winter. *

" That, in clearing the ground, care be taken to leave one acre of trees for every five acres cleared, especially to preserve oak and mulberries, for filk and shipping.

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Among the passengers, in these ships, were John Otter, Nathaniel Allen and Edmund Lovett, with their families; and several servants of Governor Penn.-7ofeph Kirkbride, then a boy, being one of them, who afterwards became a person of importance, in the province. He is an instance, among many others that might be given, in the early time of this country, of advancement from low beginning to rank of eminence and esteem, through industry,with a virtuous and prudent couduct.--The difficulties, hardships and trials of many of the well disposed early settlers, however low in the world, rather visibly tended to their promotion, and, in some respects rendered them more useful and worthy members of fociety, in this new country; while others, even possessed of handsome patrimonies, at first, but more improvident, and less accustomed to encounter with such difficulties, &c. more commonly went to ruin, or were reduced to indigence; besides, a dependance on such inheritances, even with otherwise prudent æconomy, in the early time of this country, where, and when fervants could scarcely be had, or kept, by any means, feveai ral worthy persons, who had not been used to labor, found, by forrowful experience, did not answer here, as in Europe; so that for a series of years, those who came hither more wealthy, and had before been used to a different manner of life, sometimes lost much of what they had possessed, and were reduced to greater ftraits and trials, than the more poor and laborious part of the settlers, who were generally more numerous, and got estates;- Hence it became noted for being a good poor man's country, &c.

This Joseph Kirkbride, above mentioned, was afterwards a preacher, among the Quakers; and, for many years in the magiftracy, and frequently in the Assembly. He is faid to have been an exemplary and zealous promoter of the religion of his profession; and a very serviceable person in divers respects and capacities. He lived in Buck'r county; where he died in the First month, 1737

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1681. In one of these ships failed William Markhan, ma relation of the proprietary; whom he had apa

Commis- pointed his Deputy Governor, and joined with koners sent, him certain commissioners, to confer with the In

dians, or Aboriginies, of the country, respecting their lands; and to confirm with them a league of peace. These Commissioners he enjoined to treat them with all possible candour, justice and hu

manity, Import. To cultivate a right understanding with these na

tives, by a kind, gentle and just treatment and treating the Indians usage, was an affair of great importance to the fu

turė happiness and prosperity of the province; which good policy alone, even, from views of temporal interest, in such a case, would point out; yet notwithstanding this, the unhappy effects of a contrary conduct, or a neglect in this particular, had been frequently and long experienced, in some other provinces, to their great detriment, and ruinous consequences

But William Pern appears to have acted from Penn's con higher, and more disinterested motives, in referduct respec- rence to these people, than from those of mere

temporal advantage only; which, it is manifest, he never received from the province, in any respect whatever, during a life of near thirty-seven years continuance after this time; but lost much by it. His ideas were more exalted, than to be confined within the narrow view of a temporary interest alone, and his conduct respecting these poor, ignorant and savage people, declared his regard for universal justice, and the natural rights of mankind; tending to impress on their minds, as was his concern for all others, a proper sense of eternal justice, and the happy effects of friendship, love and peace; than which nothing can have a stronger influence on the rational and considerate mind, to keep it within the due bounds of justice and truth. The first fpecimen, that I find, of his manner of treat

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ing these people, appears in the following letter, 1681.
which he fent them, on this occasion, by his dea
puty and commissioners; wherein, without per-
plexing and confusing their untutored ideas, with
fine-spun and unintelligible notions, and forms of
belief, fo common to some ecclesiastics, he adapts
his subject to their understandings, in the following
plain and simple manner.
66 London, the 18th, of the Eighth month 1681.

My Friends,
“ There is a great God and power, that hath
made the world, and all things therein; to whom
you and I, and all people owe their being, and zer to them.
well-being; and to whom you and I must one day
give an account, for all, that we do in the world.

“ This great God hath written his law in our hearts, by which we are taught and commanded to love and help, and do good to one another. Now this great God hath been pleased to make me concerned in your part of the world; and the King of the country, where I live, hath given me a great province therein; but I desire to enjoy it with your love and consent; that we may always live together, as neighbours and friends; else' what would the great God do to us, who hath made us, not to devour and destroy one another, but to live soberly and kindly together, in the world! now I would have you well observe, that I am very sensible of the unkindness and injustice, that have been too much exercised towards you, by the people of these parts of the world; who have sought themselves, and to make great advantages by you, rather than to be examples of goodness and patience unto you; which I hear hath been a matter of trouble to you, and caused great grudg. ing and animofities, sometimes to the shedding of blood; which hath made the great God angry But I am not such a man; as is well known in

my

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1681. my own country. I have great love and regard mtowards you; and desire to win and gain your love

and friendship, by a kind, just and peaceable life; William and the people I send, are of the fame mind, and ter to the hall, in all things, behave themselves accordingly;

and, if in any thing, any fhall offend you, or your people, you shall have a full and speedy fatis. faction for the same, by an equal number of just men, on both sides; that, by no means you may have just occasion of being offended against them.

“ I shall shortly come to you myself; at which time, we may more largely and freely confer and discourse of these matters; in the mean time I have sent my cominissioners to treat with you about land, and a firm league of peace; let me desire you to be kind to them, and the people, and receive these presents and tokens, which I have sent you, as a testimony of my good will to you, and my refolution to live justly, peaceably and friendly with

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frame of government and laws.

“ I am your loving friend,

" William Penn." 1682. In the beginning of the year 1682, William Penn

published his frame of government, and certain William laws, agreed on, in England, by himself and the Pean pub- purchasers under him, entitled, “ The frame of

the government of the province of Pennsylvania, in America;, together with certain laws, agreed upon, in England, by the Governor, and divers freemen of the aforesaid province. To be further explained and confirmed there, by the first Provincial Council, that Shall be held, if they see meet.Which frame, &c. may be seen in the appendix, No. II.

In the preface to this frame is exhibited a sketch of the author's sentiments on the nature of government, in general, his reflections on the different modes of it, and his inducement for forming his. It may serve to give some idea of the judg- . ment of the Quakers, in general, on this subject,

respecting

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