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1683. cord and dispatch, that they sat but three weeks;

and, at least, seventy laws were passed without one dissent, in any material thing. But of this, more

hereafter, being yet raw and new, in our gear. Their re- However I cannot forget their singular respect to proprietor, me, in this infancy of things; who, by their own

private expences, so early considered mine, for the public, as to present me with an impost, upon certain goods imported and exported. Which after my acknowledgment of their affection, I did

as freely remit to the province, and the traders to Courts of it. And for the well government of the said counjutice, &c. ties, courts of justice are established in every coun.

proper officers, as justices, sheriffs, clerks, constables, &c. which courts are held every two Peace-ma- months. But, to prevent law suits, there are

. three peace makers chosen by every county court, pointed,

in the nature of common arbitrators, to hear and

end differences betwixt man and man. And spring An orphans and fall there is an orphans' court, in each county to court, &c. inspect and regulate the affairs of orphans and

widows. of Phila XXXII. 6

Philadelphia, the expectation of those, delphia. that are concerned in this province, is, at last,

laid out, to the great content of those here, that are any ways interested therein. The situation is a neck of land, and lieth between two navigable rivers, Delaware and Sculkil; whereby it hath two fronts upon the water, each a mile; and two from river to river. Delaware is a glorious river; but the Sculkil, being an hundred miles boatable above the falls, and its course north cast, towards the fountain of Sufquahanna (that tends to the heart of the province, and both sides our own) it is like to be a great part of the settlement of this

age. I say little of the town itself, because a plat* See page form* will be fhewn you by my agent; in which 241, &c. those who are purchasers of me, will find their

names and interests. But this I will say, for the good providence of God, that, of all the many

places,

Number of

places, I have seen in the world, I remember not 1683. one better seated; so that it seems to me to have been appointed for a town, whether we regard the rivers, or the conveniency of the coves, docks, springs, the loftiness and soundness of the land, and the air, held by the people of these parts to be very good. It is advanced, within less than a year, to about four score houses and cottages, houses in such as they are; where merchants and handicrafts Philadel

phia, &c. are following their vocations, as fast as they can; while the country men are close at their farms, The farsome of them got a little winter corn in the ground mers fuclast season; and the generality have had an hand-ccss, &c. fome fummer-crop, and are preparing for their winter corn. They reaped their barley, this year, in the month called May; the wheat in the month following; so that there is time, in these parts, for another crop of divers things, before the winter season. We are daily in hopes of shipping, to add to our number; for, blessed be God, here is both room and accommodation for them: The stories of our necessity being either the fear of our friends, or the scare-crows of our enemies: For the greatest hardship, we have suffered, hath been falt meat; which by fowl, in winter, and fish, in summer, together with some poultry, lamb, mutton, veal, and plenty of venison, the best part of the year, hath been made very passable. I bless God, I am fully satisfied with the country and entertainment I got in it: well pleafFor I find that particular content, which hath al-ed with the ways attended me, where God, in his providence, hath made it my place and service to reside. You And much cannot imagine my station can be, at present, free employed

in settling of more than ordinary business; and, as such, I may say, it is a troublesome work. But the me- lating it, thod, things are putting in, will facilitate the charge, and give an easier motion to the adminia ftration of affairs. However, as it is fome men's duty to plow, some to sow, some to water, and Come to reap; fo it is the wisdom, as well as the

W. Peng

country.

duty,

and reguo

&c.

Of the in

a

your

a

1683. duty, of a man, to yield to the mind of Providence,

and chearfully, as well as carefully, embrace and follow the guidance of it.

XXXIII. “ For your particular concern, I might property of entirely refer you to the letters of the President of the Free fo- the society; but this I will venture to fay, your ciety of tra- provincial settlements, both within and without ,

the town for situation and foil, are without exception. Your city lot is a whole street, and one side of a street, from river to river, containing near one hundred acres, not easily valued; which is befides four hundred acres, in the city liberties, part of your twenty thousand acres in the country. Your

Your tannery hath such plenty of bark, the faw mill, for timber, and the place of the glass house, are so conveniently posted for water carriage, the city lot, for a dock, and the whalery, for a found and fruitful bank, and the town Lewis, by it, to help your people, that, by God's blessing, the affairs of the society will naturally grow in their reputation, and profit. I am sure, I have not turned my back upon any offer, that tended to its prosperity; and though I am ill at projects, I have sometimes put in for a share with her officers, to countenance and advance her intereft. You are already informed what is fit for you further to do; whatsoever tends to the promotion of wine, and to the manufacture of linen, in these parts, I cannot but wish you to promote; and the French people are most likely, in both respects, to answer that design. To that end I would advise you to send for some thousands of plants out of France, with some able Vinerons, and people of the other vocation: But because, I believe, you have been

entertained with this, and some other profitable sub*Nicholas jećis by your President,* I shall add no more, but to

assure you, that I am heartily inclined to advance your just interest, and that you will always find me

Your kind cordial friend,

WILLIAM PENN. Philadelpbia, the 16th of the Sixth month, called Auguft, 1683.".

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CHAPTER VI.

The difficulty and dispute between William Penn and

Lord Baltimore, respecting the boundaries between their territories.--A proclamation of the latter William Penn's letter to the Lords of plantations.---Lord Baltimore's commission to Colonel George Talbot, with a demand of the latter. William Penn's answer to said demand.-Incurfron from Maryland, attempting forcible entry.-Difficulty to restrain the Indians from strong liquors.--Names of the members of Assembly in 1684.

.

The two

land and

WILLIAM PENN's endeavours, foon after 1683. his first arrival, to cultivate a friendly and good understanding with his neighbour, the Lord Baltimore, and to get the boundaries, between their respec. Proprietors

• tive provinces, amicably determined, have already of Marybeen mentioned; for which purpose likewise it ap- Pennsylvapears he had appointed his relation and deputy, nia disagree Captain William Markham to treat with the faid about the

boundaries, Lord Proprietary of Maryland, before he arrived &c. himself; and afterwards repeatedly used attempts, See page for the same end. But these endeavours had not 208, & all the desired success, which, so far as appears, might have been reasonably expected. [34]

The

*

* The conduct of the late Lord Baltimore, on this occasion, may, in part, appear from the following proclamation, dated, May 15th. 1683, viz. 66 C. Baltimore.

« For as much as taking up of land by rights, within this our province of Maryland, hath proved not only grievous and burdensome to the inhabitants of this our laid province, as well for want of such rights, upon their occasions, as for the paying for the same extra pagans and ex

tortions

Of the dir

pute be

1683 The concern of the Proprietary of Pennsylvania

for a good, convenient and independant communication, by water, between his province and the

sea, for the benefit of its trade, appears to have tween Penn been his principal reason for fixing his southern more, &c. boundary by charter, so far fouth, as the begin

ning of the fortieth degree of north latitude, intending thereby to include, at least, so much of the head, or upper part, of Chesapeak bay, within

his

and Balti

torticus rates, when to be procured; but also very injurious and preju. dicial to ourself, by undue and unjust probate, made of such rights, as we have seen and becn informed: We do, therefore, as well for the ease, benefit, and certainty of the inhabitants of this our province, and other persons inhabiting, trading, or refrting within the fame, as also for the preservation of our own just right and property, hereby fully resolve, determine and ordain, that no right shall hereafter be proved, admitted, or allowed of; for the taking up of land, within our said proa vince, as formerly, by the conditions of plantation of our late father Cecilius, of noble memory, hath been accustomed; but, for the encouragement of any person, or persons, adventurer or adventurers, or others, inhabiting, residing, or trading within this province, we do resolve, determine and ordain, and hereby declare, publish and make known, that any person, or persons, adventuring, trading, inhabiting, or reliding within this our province, and willing to take up any land here, fhad, for every fifty acres of land, he, or they shall design to take up, as afores said, pay, or cause to be paid, to us, or our heirs, the just quantity of one hundred pounds of tobacco, in cafk, together with two shillings iterling yearly rent; unless on the sea-board fide, or the Whorekills; for every fifty acres whereof, any person, or persons, taking up such land, shall only pay for the fame, as aforesaid, the sum of fifty pounds of tobacco, in cask, together with one filling ferling, yearly rent; and fo proportionably for any greater, or lesser quantity; he, or they, first applying themselves to our secretaries of this our province, or other officer, or officers, thereunto appointed, and giving good and fufi:cient caution for the fame, as to him, or them, shall seem meet: hereby willing and requiring our said secretaries, or other officer, or officers, as aforesaid, upon such caution, or security, given, to iffue out warrants under the lefser feal of this province, for any quantity of land, to any person, or persons, suitor, or fuitors, for the same, in manner aforesaid: and, to the end that this our will and pleasure may be made known, we do hereby stridly charge and command all and singular the Sheriffs of this our province forthwith, upon receipt hereof, to make public proclamation hereof, in the most public and convenient place, within their several and respective counties.

Given at qur city of St. Mary's, under the great feal of this okt

province, the 15th day of May, in the eighth year of our dominion, &c. Annoque Domini one thousand fix hundred eighty and three.

66 Wera Copia,

( WILLIAM SMITHSON,

« Sber.count. Dorset:

To the Sheriff of Dorchester county,

or bis Deputy Thefe."

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