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his province, as would furnish, from thence, a 1683.
good, open and sufficient communication to the
ocean, as well as by the Delaware. The nature
and state of the controversy, about this time, be-
tween the two Proprietaries, on this subject, more
fully appear from the following letter of William
Penn to the Lords of the committee of plantati-
ons, in London; to which board the Lord Baltia
more seems to have been beforehand with him, viz.

Philadelphia, the 14th. of the Sixth-month, 1683.
“ THOUGH it be a duty, I humbly own, to W. Penn's
inform the Lords of the committee of plantations, Lords of
of what concerns his majesty's interest in the suc- plantation
cess of this province, I thought myself equally &c.
obliged to be discreet and cautious in doing it.
To write, then, there was need, and not to trou-
ble persons, of their honor and business, with
things trivial, at least, raw and unfinished for their
view. This hitherto put me by giving any account
of the state of our affairs, to say nothing of the
mighty difficulties, I have laboured under, in the
settlement of six-and-twenty fail of people, to con-
tent, within the space of one year, which makes
my case singular, and excufable, above


other of the King's plantations.

“ But because my agent has informed me that the Proprietor of Maryland has been early in his account of our conference about fixing our bounds, and made a narrative of my affairs, as well before, as at that time, a little to my disadvantage, and the rather, because my silence might be interpreted neglect, I am necessitated to make some defence for myself; which, as it will not be hard to make, fo I hope it will be received as just.

“I humbly say, then, first, that it seemed to me improper to trouble the Lords with my tranfactions with this Proprietor, till we were come to some result; which we were not: for we parted till spring; and even then were but to meet about the methods of our proceedings.

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letter to the
Lords of

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“ Next, This narrative was taken by the Lord's w orders, without my confent, or knowledge, in a W. Penn's corner of a room by one of his own attendants.

“ And, lastly, upon when notice was given of plantations, this usage, I complained to him, he promised,

upon his word and honor, it should go not far: ther; and that it was for his own fatisfaction he did it; I told him that mitigated the thing a little; but if he should divulge it before I saw and agreed to the copy, he must pardon me, if I looked upon it as a most unfair practice.--What that Lord has done, and what to call it, I leave to my betters; but the surprize and indigestion of the whole will, I hope excuse me of neglect, or disrespect: for though I am unceremonious, I would, by no means, act the rude, or undutiful,

“ This said, I humbly beg that I may give a brief narrative of the matter, as it then paffed, since has been, and now stands, without the weakness and tautology his relation makes me guilty of.

“ So soon as I arrived, which was on the 24th. w. Penn's of October last, I immediately dispatched two perarrival, &c. fons to the Lord Baltimore, to ask of his health,

offer kind neighbourhood, and agree a time of meeting the better to establish it: While they were gone of this errand, I went to New-York, that I might pay my duty to the Duke, in the visit of his

government and colony. At my return, which was towards the end of November, I found the messengers, whom I had sent to Maryland, newly arrived, and the time fixed, being the 19th. of December. I prepared myself in a few days for that province. The 11th. of the month I came to west river; where I met the Proprietor, attended fuitable to his character; who took the occafion, by his civilities, to fhew me the greatness of his power: The next day we had conference about our business of the bounds, both at the same table, with our respective members of council.

'Time of

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“ The first thing I did was to present the King's 1683. letter; which consisted of two parts:-One, that the Lord Baltimore had but two degrees; and the other, W. Penn's that, beginning at Watkins's point, he should ad- Lords of ineasure his faid degrees, at 60 miles to a degree. plantations, This being read by him, first privately, then publicly, he told me, the King was greatly mistaken, and that he would not leave his patent, to follow the King's letter, nor could a letter void his patent; and by that he would stand.

66 This was the substance of what he said from first to last, during the whole conference. To this I answered, the King might be misinformed rather than mistaken, and that I was afraid the mistake would fall on his fide; for though his patent begins at Watkins's point and goes to the fortieth degree of north latitude, yet it presumed that to lye in the 38th. else Virginia would be wronged, which should extend to that degree; however this I assured him, that when I petitioned the King for five degrees north latitude and that petition was referred to the Lords of the committee of plantations; at that time, it was urged by some present, that the Lord Baltimore had but two degrees; upon which the Lord President, turning his head to me, at whose chair I stood, said, Mr. Penn, will not three degrees serve your turn? I answered, I submit both the what, and how, to the honour. able board."

“ To this his uncle, and chancellor, returned, that to convince me his father's grant was not by degrees, he had more of Virginia given him, but being planted, and the grant intending only land not planted, or poffeffed, but of favage natives, he left it out, that it might not forfeit the reft: Of which the Lord Baltimore takes no notice, in his narrative, that I remember.--But, by that answer, he can pretend nothing to Delaware; which was at, and before, the passing of that pa

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letter to the
Lords of


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1683. tent, bought and planted by the Dutch; and so
ir could not be given: -But, if it were, it was for-
W. Penn's feited, for not reducing it, during twenty years,

under the English sovereignty; of which he held
pantations, it; but was at last reduced by the King, and there.

fore his, to give as he pleafeth.

* Perceiving that my pressing the King's letter was uneasy, and that I had determined myself to dispose him with utmost softness to a good compliance, I waved that of the two degrees, and pressed the admeasurement only, the next part of the letter:-For though it were two degrees and a half from Watkins's point to sforty degrees, yet let it be measured at fixty miles to a degree, and I would begin at forty degrees, fall as it would: My defign was, that every degree being seventy miles, I fhould get all that was over sixty, the proportion intended the Lord Baltimore, by the grant, and computation of a degree, at that time of the day:--Thus he had enjoyed the full favour intendéd' him, and I had gained a door of great importance to the peopling and improving of his majesty's province.

« But he this also rejected;--I told him, it was not the love, or need, of the land, but the water; that he abounded in what I wanted, and access and harbouring, even, to excess; that I would not be thus importunate, but for the importance of the thing, to fave a province; and because there was no proportion in the concern; if I were an hundred times more urgent and tenacious, the case would excuse it; because the thing insisted on was more than ninety-nine times more valuable to me than to him; to me the head, to him, the tail.--I added, that, if it were his, and he


it me, planting it would recompence the favours, not only by laying his country between two thriving provinces, but the ships, that come yearly to Maryland for tobacco, would have the bringing of



letter to the
Lords of


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both our people and merchandize; because they 1683.
can afford it cheaper; whereby Maryland would, m
for one age or two be the mart of trade. But this W. Penn's.
also had no other entertainment, but hopes that I
would not insist on these things at our next meet- plantations
ing; after three days time we parted; and I return-
ed to this province.

“ When the spring came I sent an express to
pray the time and place, when and where I should
meet him, to effect the business, we adjourned to,
at that time. I followed close

I followed close upon the messenger,
that no time might be lost. But the expectation,
he twice had, of the Lord Culpepper's visit, disap
pointed any meeting on our affairs, till the month
called May, he then sent three gentlemen to let
me know, he would meet me at the head of the
bay of Chesapeak; I was then in treaty with the
kings of the natives for land; but three days after
we met ten miles from New-castle, which is thirty
from the bay. I invited him to the town, where
having entertained him, as well as the town could
afford, on so little notice, and finding him only
desirous of speaking with me privately, I pressed
that we might, at our distinct lodgings, sit seve-
rally with our councils, and treat by way of writ-
ten memorials; which would prevent the mistakes,
or abufes, that may follow from ill designs, or ill
memory; but he avoided it, saying, “ He was not
well, and the weather sultry, and would return
with what speed he could, reserving any other
treaty to another season."--Thus we parted, at that
time. I had been before told by divers, that the
faid Baltimore had issued forth a proclamation,* to See the
invite people, by lower prices, and greater quan- noteinpage
tities of land, to plant in the lower counties; in 265, &c.
which the Duke's goodness had interested me, as
an inseparable benefit to this whole province. I
was not willing to believe it; and ihe being in
haste, I omitted to ask him: But I had not been


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