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BEAL, WILLIAM (1815–1870), re- Southampton, : : . as also James, Lord ligious writer, was born in 1815, and edu- Wriothesley, London, 1625; a copy of which cated at King's College, London, and Trinity is in the Grenville Library. The poem is College, Cambridge. He took the degree reprinted in Malone's “Shakspeare' (1821), of B.A. in 1841 ; in the same year he was xx. 452. ordained deacon, and he was made vicar of

[Brit. Mus. Cat.; Hunter's MS. Chorus Vatum Brooke near Norwich in 1847. The degree in MSS. Addl. 24489 f. 285.] S. L. L. of LL.D. was conferred on him by the university of Aberdeen. He is best known as BEALE, JOHN, D.D. (1603-1683 ?), the promoter of harvest homes for country scientific writer, was descended from a good districts in 1854. At Norwich he was vice- family in Herefordshire, in which county he president of the People's College, and corre- was born in 1603, being nephew of Sir Wilsponding member of the Working Men's Con- liam Pye, attorney in the court of wards gregational Union. He died in 1870. He (BOYLE, Works, v. 429). He was educated was the editor of the West of England Maga- first at Worcester School, and afterwards at zine' and author of the following works : Eton, whence he proceeded in 1629 to 1. “An Analysis of Palmer's Origines Litur- King's College, Cambridge, where he read gicæ (1850). 2. “The Nineveh Monuments philosophy to the students for two years and the Old Testament.' 3. "A Letter to (HARWOOD, Alumni Etonenses, 228). At the Earl of Albemarle on Harvest Homes.' his entrance into that university he found 4. “A First Book of Chronology' (1846). the writings of the Ramists in high esteem, He edited with a preface "Certain godly from which they sunk within three or four Prayers originally appended to the Book of years after, without the solicitation of any Common Prayer.

party or faction, or other concernment, [Men of the Time, 7th ed.; Brit. Mus. Cat.]

merely by the prevalence of solid truth and A. G-N.

reasonable discourse. And the same fate soon

after befel Calvinism in both universities' BEALE, FRANCIS (f. 1656), was the (BIRCH, Hist. of the Royal Society, iv. 235). author of the Royall Game of Chesse Play, From childhood Beale had been diligent in sometimes the Recreation of the late King cultivating the art of memory, and he himwith many of the Nobility, illustrated with self has left us an account of the marvellous almost one hundred Gambetts, being the study proficiency which he attained. He says: of Biochimo, the famous Italian, London, By reading Ovid's “ Metamorphoses” and 1656. A portrait of Charles I, engraved by such slight romances as the “Destruction of Stent, forms the frontispiece of the volume; Troy,” and other discourses and histories the dedication is addressed to Montague, Earl which were then obvious, I had learned a of Lindsey. The book is translated from promptness of knitting all my reading and Gioacchimo Greco's famous work on chess ; studies on an everlasting string. The same was reissued in 1750, and again in 1819 (with practice I continued upon theologues, logiremarks by G. W. Lewis). He contributed cians, and such philosophers as those times a poem to** The Teares of the Isle of Wight yielded. For some years before I came to shed on the tombe of . . . Henrie, Earle of Eton, I did (in secret corners, concealed from VOL. IV.


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others' eyes) read Melancthon's Logicks, elected a fellow on the 21st of the same Magirus's Physica, Ursin's Theologica, which month. In 1665 he was appointed chaplain was the best I could then hear of; and (at to King Charles II. In his last letter to first reading) by heart I learned them, too Boyle, dated 8 July 1682, he mentions that perfectly, as I now conceive. Afterwards, in he was then entering into his eightieth year, Cambridge, proceeding in the same order and and adds that ‘by infirmities I am constrained diligence with their logicians, philosophers, to dictate extempore, and do want a friend and schoolmen, I could at last learn them by to assist me. It is probable that he did not heart faster than I could read them—I mean, live long after this. by the swiftest glance of the eye, without Samuel Hartlib, writing to Boyle in 1658, the tediousness of pronouncing or articula- says of Beale: "There is not the like man ting what I read." Thus I oft-times saved in the whole island, nor in the continent my purse by looking over books in stationers' beyond the seas, so far as I know it-I mean, shops. . . . Constantly I repeated in my bed that could be made more universally use of, tó (evening and morning) what I read and do good to all, as I in some measure know heard that was worthy to be remembered; and could direct' (BOYLE, Works, v. 275). and by this habitude and promptness of His works are: 1. 'Aphorisms concerning memory I was enabled, that when I read to Cider,' printed in John Evelyn's ‘Sylva, or a the students of King's College, Cambridge Discourse of Forest Trees,' 1644, and entitled (which I did for two years together, in all in the later editions of that work, ‘General sorts of the current philosophy), I could pro- Advertisements concerning Cider.' 2. Herevide myself without notes (by mere medita- fordshire Orchards, a Pattern for all Engtion, or by glancing upon some book) in less land, written in an Epistolary Address to time than I spent in uttering it; yet they Samuel Hartlib, Esq. By I. B., Lond. 1656, were then a critical auditory, whilst Mr.Bust 8vo; reprinted in Richard Bradley's New was schoolmaster of Eton' (BOYLE, Works, Improvements of Planting and Gardening, v. 426).

1724 and 1739. 3. Scientific papers in the Beale, who graduated B.A. in 1632, M.A. Philosophical Transactions. 4. Letters to in 1636, and was subsequently created a the Hon. Robert Boyle, printed in the 5th doctor of divinity, spent some time in foreign / volume of that philosopher's works. travel, being at Orleans in 1636, when he

[Information from the Rev. Dr. Luard; Birch's was thirty-three years of age. His love of Hist. of the Royal Society, iv. 235; Gough's learning brought him into frequent corre- British Topography, i. 415, ii. 221, 225, 391, spondence with Samuel Hartlib and the 634; Boyle's Works, v. 275, 277, 281, 346, Hon. Robert Boyle. Two of his letters to 423–510, Harwood's Alumni Eton. 228; WorthHartlib on 'Herefordshire Orchards' were ington's Diary, i. 122; Birch's Life of Boyle, printed in 1656, and produced such an effect, 115; Collinson's Somersetshire, iii. 212 ; Felton, that within a few years the author's native on the Portraits of English Authors on Gardencounty gained some 100,0001. by the fame ing, 2nd ed. 21; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 447, iv. of its orchards (Gough, Brit. Topog. i. 415). 256; Addit. MȘS. 6271, f. 10, 15948, ff. 80, 136, In the preface Beale makes the following 138; Thomson's History of the Royal Society

T. C. autobiographical remarks: My education Append. xxiv.] was amongst scholars in academies, where BEALE, MARY (1632-1697), portrait I spent many years in conversing with painter, born in Suffolk in 1632, was the variety of books only. A little before our daughter of the Rev. J. Cradock, vicar of wars began, I spent two summers in travel- Walton-upon-Thames. She is said to have ling towards the south, with purpose to know learned the rudiments of painting from Sir men and foreign manners. Since my return Peter Lely, but it is more probable, as Vertue I have been constantly employ'd in a weighty thought, that she received instruction from office, by which I am not disengaged from Robert Walker, and only copied the works of the care of our public welfare in the peace Lely, who was supposed to have had a tender and prosperity of this nation, but obliged to attachment to her, and through whose inflube the more solicitous and tender in preserv- ence she obtained access to some of the finest ing it and promoting it.'

works of Van Dyck, by copying which she acBeale resided chiefly in Herefordshire until quired that purity of colouring for which her 1660, when he became rector of Yeovil, in portraits are remarkable. She married Charles Somersetshire, where he spent the remainder Beale, the lord of the manor of Walton, in of his life. He was also rector of Sock Buckinghamshire, who had some employment Dennis in the latter county. He was an under the board of green cloth, and took great early member of the Royal Society, being de- interest in chemistry, especially the manufacclared an honorary one on 7 Jan. 1662-3, and ture of colours, in which he did business with Lely and other painters of the day. His BEALE, ROBERT (1541-1601), diplodiaries, from 1672 to 1681, contain notes of matist and antiquary, is said to have been matters connected with art and artists, and descended from a family settled at Woodafford the fullest account of Mrs. Beale's life bridge in Suffolk. Of his parents, however, and works during that period. The extracts we know nothing but their names, Robert and given by Walpole prove that she copied many Amy. He married Edith, daughter of Henry of Lely's pictures, and some of these have St. Barbe, of Somersetshire, sister of the wife doubtless been assigned to that painter. of Sir Francis Walsingham. Apparently, he There were above thirty of these pocket-books, very early formed decided opinions upon the but the greater number appear to have theological controversies of his age; for he been lost. Mrs. Beale was one of the best seems to have been obliged to quit England female portrait painters of the seventeenth at some date during Queen Mary's reign, and century, and was employed by many of the not to have returned until after the accession most distinguished persons of her time. She of Elizabeth. It is probably to this period painted in oil, water-colours, and crayons; that he refers when, at a much later date, he ħer heads being very often surrounded by an writes that in his youth he took great pains oval border painted in imitation of carved in travelling in divers countries on foot for stone. Her price was five pounds for a head, lack of other abilities. In 1562 Lord John and ten pounds for a half-length. Mrs. Beale Grey consulted him concerning the validity died in Pall Mall, London, 28 Dec. 1697, and of the marriage of his niece with Edward Seywas buried under the communion-table in St. mour, earl of Hertford, and Beale in conseJames's Church. She was of an estimable quence made a journey to the continent for the character and very amiable manners, and had purpose of laying the case before the learned among her contemporaries some reputation as Oldendorpius and some eminent Italian canona poet. Dr. Woodfall wrote several poems in ists. The opinion which Beale formed after her honour, under the name of Belesia. Her consultation with these sagacious persons, and portrait, from a painting by herself, is engraved which he subsequently maintained in a Latin in the Strawberry Hill edition of Walpole's tract, has stood the test of time; for though a • Anecdotes of Painting. Portraits by her royal commission, with Archbishop Parker at of King Charles II., Abraham Cowley, Arch its head, pronounced the marriage void, its bishop Tillotson, and Henry, sixth duke of validity was established in 1606, and has Norfolk, are in the National Portrait Gallery ; never since been questioned. another of Archbishop Tillotson is at Lambeth In 1564 he obtained some post in conPalace; those of Dr. Sydenham and Dr. Croone nection with the English embassy in Paris. are in the Royal College of Physicians; that of What was the precise nature of his duties Bishop Wilkins is at the Royal Society; that does not appear; but they seem to have of John Milton at Knole; that of James, duke sometimes carried him into Germany. Apof Monmouth, at Woburn Abbey ; her own parently, Walsingham found him in Paris on portrait is in the gallery of the Marquis of his appointment as ambassador-resident there Bute ; and other portraits by her are in the in 1570, and made him his secretary. In the collections of Earl Spencer, the Duke of Rut- correspondence between Burghley and Walland, and the Earl of Ilchester.

singham of this period he is frequently menMrs. Beale had two sons, BARTHOLOMEW, tioned as carrying despatches to and fro bewho commenced life as a portrait painter, but tween Paris and London. He appears to afterwards studied medicine under Dr. Syden- have been a witness of the massacre of St. ham, and practised at Coventry; and CHARLES, Bartholomew two years later (24 Aug. 1572), who followed his mother's branch of art. He which furnished him with material for a ‘Diswas born 28 May 1660, and after studying course by way of Letter tothe Lord Burghley,' under Thomas Flatman, the miniature painter written "shortly after the event. The same and poet, assisted his mother in draperies and year he succeeded Robert Monson, then raised backgrounds. He painted portraits both in to the bench, as M.P. for Totnes

. It must oil and in water-colours, and some few in have been about this time that he was apcrayons, but soon after 1689 he was compelled pointed clerk to the council, as in a letter by weakness of sight to relinquish his profes- dated 1591 he states that he had then held sion, and died in London, but in what year is that post nineteen years. In April 1575 he not known. There are portraits of Archbishop' was sent to Flushing to recover goods which Burton and Bishop Burnet engraved after him the Flushingers had seized, consisting partly by Robert White.

of merchandise and partly of property of the [Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting (ed. Wor- Earl of Oxford; and in the following year num), 1849, ii. 537-44; Scharf's Catalogue of the he accompanied Admiral Winter to the Low National Portrait Gallery, 1884.] R. E. G. Countries to demand the liberation of the

English merchant ships on which the Prince “often used to launch out into the praises of of Orange had laid an embargo in the Scheldt | matrimony.' in retaliation for acts of piracy committed by According to Beale's account he was very English privateers upon Dutch shipping. ill provided with funds for this journey, while The ships were set free at once, but a pecu- his royal mistress, of course, complained of niary indemnity for the detention, which his extravagance. In a letter to the lord Beale was instructed to claim, was the subject treasurer vindicating himself from the charge of much dispute, and apparently was never he says : · And I protest upon my allegiance conceded. In June 1576 Augustus, elector of that the gifts I gave at the Duke of BrunSaxony, had summoned to Torgau a conven- swick's in ready money and money's worth tion of Saxon divines for the purpose of set- for her majesty's honour, being her gossips, tling certain disputed questions of theology, in and having had nothing to my knowledge particular, whether omnipresence was or was sent unto them (and in other places), came to not an attribute of the physical body of Jesus. better than 1001. And whoso knoweth the The result of their labours was seen in the fashions and cravings of these princes' courts Book of Torgau,' which, after revision at Ber- may well see that, having been at so many gen in the following year by James Andreä, or places, I could not escape with less. My Andreas, chancellor and provost of the univer- charges came in this voyage to 9321. one way sity of Tübingen, and certain other eminent or another. Before my going over I sold a theologians, was issued under the title, “For- chain which I had of the Queen of Scots for mula of Concord,'as the only authoritative ex- 651. The fact that Beale received a token of position of the orthodox creed of Saxony. This esteem from Mary Stuart is interesting in work not only explicitly affirmed the ubiquity connection with his subsequent relations with of the body of Jesus to be an integral part of that unfortunate lady. During Walsingham's the creed, but declared all such as denied absence in the Netherlands in the summer of that doctrine (Cryptocalvinists, as they were 1578 Beale acted as secretary of state, as also called) to be heretics. At this juncture in 1581 and 1583, on occasion of Walsingham's Elizabeth saw fit to despatch Beale on a kind missions to France and Scotland in those of circular tour to visit the courts of the years. In the autumn of 1580 he took part Lutheran princes of Germany, and put in a in the examination of Richard Stanihurst, plea for toleration in favour of the Crypto- the jesuit, touching the conveying of the calvinists. We learn from one of his papers late Lord Garret [Gerald Fitzgerald, Lord that, for the purposes of this mission, 'he Offaley] into Spain at the instigation of made a long and winter journey, making a Thomas Fleming, a priest,' and in 1581 circuit to and fro of 1400 English miles at was one of the commissioners who took the the least, repairing personally to nine princes, depositions of Edmund Campion before his and sending her majesty's letters to three trial. It is significant, however, that the others.' Elsewhere he says that he obtained commission under which he acted extended that which he was sent for, i.e.that the Elector only to threatening with torture. When it of Saxony and Palatine would surcease from was determined to have actual recourse to proceeding to a condemnation of other re- that method of persuasion, Beale's name was formed churches that did not agree with the omitted (doubtless at his own request) from ubiquitaries. Languet, in a letter to Sidney, the commission. This year Walsingham, being dated Frankfort, 8 Jan. 1577-8, is able to write: appointed governor of the Mines Royal, made

Master Beale has met with no small difficul- Beale his deputy,. According to the latter's ties in going through his appointed task, but own account he did his duty in this post for by his prudence and dexterity he has so sur- fifteen years, keeping the accounts with regumounted them that I hope our churches are larity, without receiving any remuneration. saved from the perils which threatened them Between 1581 and 1584 he was employed in from the movements of Jacobus Andreas and negotiating with the Queen of Scots at Shefsome other theologians. In the same letter field. Camden suggests that he was chosen Languet praises Beale's “agreeable conversa- for this business on account of his notorious tion,' and his character, genius, and manifold bias in favour of puritanism, designating him experience. Beale was at that time return hominem vehementem et austere acerbum, ing to England, and Languet's letter, with quo non alter Scotorum Reginæ præ reliwhich he was entrusted, was to serve as an gionis studio iniquior.' However this may introduction to Sidney. Writing of marriage, have been, it is certain that he soon came to Languet observes : Take the advice of Mas- be suspected of secret partiality to the cause ter Beale on the matter. He believes that of Mary, and of something like treachery a man cannot live well and happily in celi- to the council. Of these negotiations he bacy. In another letter he writes that Beale gives the following account: Six several

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