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settlements existed at the time Lord Baltimore visited the Chesapeake, and there can be none that he was perfectly honest in describing the country as “ hitherto uncultivated " It seems that these words in the recital, or preamble to the charter itself, were very general in their appli. cation, and, in this sense, the region marked out by the charter, was uncultivated. The trading station on Kent Island could, with no show of reason, be claimed as rendering a country cultivated.

6. The Dutch settlements were afterwards included in the colony of Delaware, and gave no trouble. They were, however, made the plea apon which William Penn deprived the Maryland colony of a large and fertile territory. But Claiborne, basing his claim upon the words, hitherto uncultivated, asserted his independence of Calvert's grant.

7. The territories described by the charter, extended from Watkins's Point, opposite the mouth of the Potomac river, northward to the fortieth degree of north latitude, and from the Atlantic ocean and Delaware bay on the East, to the Potomac river on the West. By examining a map it will be seen that this included a part of what is now Pennsylvania and the whole of Delaware.

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Questions.-5. What of Kent Island ? 6. What, of the Dutch settlements ? Of Claiborne? 7. What were the boundaries of the province, by the charter ?

CHAPTER IV.

EARLY SETTLEMENT OF MARYLAND- Preparations

Leonard Calvert Embarkation The "Ark" and Dove" Landing Explorations - Interview with Indians Treaty with them - Treatment of them. Advantages enjoyed by other colonies-The striking features of this colony.

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1. As soon the grant was obtained, Cecil Calvert commenced his preparations for the establisment of a colony. originally his intention to accompany it, but deeming that the interest of the enterprise demanded his remaining in

England, he conLEONARD CALVERT.

fided his colony to his brother, Leonard Calvert, whom he constituted lieutenant general, or governor.

2. The colony was soon prepared for embarkation, and on the 22d of November, 1633, it de

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Questions.—1, Did Cecil Calvert accompany his colony? Whom did he send? 2. Date and place of embarkation ?

LEONARD CALVERT.

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parted from the Isle of Wight. The company consisted of about two hundred persons, who embarked in two vessels, THE ARK, and THE DOVE.

3. These names are not so familiar to the people of the country, or even of Maryland, as would be expected, when we reflect upon the character and mission of these vessels. They should be enshrined in the memory of every Marylander, bringing as they did, to our shores those germs of liberty of which we are enjoying the fruits. The pilgrims of St. Mary's left their homes, their friends and relations, not only that they might enjoy their own freedom of conscience, but, also, with the nobler motive of opening an asylum where others could evjoy the privileges they sought for themselves. Mary. land has been scarcely just to herself and her history to allow their names to sink into forgetfulness.

4. Though they have bad neither poet nor painter to celebrate from 'sea to sea their heroic motive, their pious devotion of themselves to the care of Him who rules the raging of the sea, their no less pious thanksgiving on their landing, theirs was none the less a mighty undertaking, standing out in history as an era in the progress of mankind.

Questions.-2. Names of the vessels ? & What is said of these names? 4. What further is said ?

5. After many difficulties and some dangers, these two vessels, though separated by storms on the ocean, arrived safely off Point Comfort, in Virginia, on the 24th of February, 1634. Having remained in Virginia a few days, they set sail for the banks of the Potomac, where they found mighty forests, a soil rich and fertile ; the air sweet and balmy; and they returned thanks to God for the beautiful land which he had given them—for this was MARYLAND.

6. Although they beheld groups of armed savages prepared to prevent their landing, and making other demonstrations of hostility, they succeeded in establishing confidence in the breasts of the natives. Having satisfied them of their peaceful intentions, they, at length, purchased from them the territory they required. Maryland was almost the only State whose early settlement was not stained with the blood of the natives

7. They landed on the 25th of March on an island, to which they gave the name of St. Clement's (now Blackiston's.) The colonists took solemn possession of Maryland, with religious services, conducted according to the usages of the Roman Catholic church, and erected a cross as an emblem of Christianity and Civilization,

Questions.-6. When did they arrive at Point Comfort ? What further is said ? 6. What did they see on the shores? How did they obtain the land ? 7. When did they land ? What did they, op landing?

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both of which they were about to plant on those shores.

8. In order to make further discoveries, Governor Leonard Calvert proceeded further up the Potomac, near to the place now called New Marlboro', where there was an Indian village governed by Archihu, uncle to the king, or Wero-wance, who was still an infant.

9. When the governor asked the Indian chief if he were willing that his people should settle in his country, he replied, “I will not bid you go, neither will I bid you stay, but you may use your own discretion." Using this discretion the gove ernor concluded it was not safe to settle so high up the river.

He, therefore, returned down the Potomac to St. Clement's Island, and thence to a small river on the north side of the Potomac, which he called St. George.

10. He explored the St. George about twelve miles upwards, and anchored at the village of the Yo-a-comico Indians. The Governor explained to the chief, or Wero-wance, his object in coming to his country.

11. The Wero-wance, after the custom of the Indians, made but little answer to the proposition of Governor Calvert; but, nevertheless, hospitably

Questions.—8. Where did the governor then go? 9. What did the governor ask, and what did the chief reply? What did the governor do? 10. What river did he explore ? 11. How did the chief receive him?

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