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entertained him and his companions, giving up his own rude bed for the accommodation of the governor.

12. Having carefully examined the surrounding country, and finding it possessed of many advantages which rendered it an eligible site, Calvert determined to commence, at this place, his first settlement. The ship and pinnace which he had

. left at St. Clement's, were ordered to join him at Yo-a-comico.

13. To prepare the way for a peaceable admission into the country, he presented the Werowance and principal men with clothes, axes, hoes and knives, in return for which they granted him about thirty miles of territory, which he called Augusta Carolina, afterwards the county of St. Mary's.

14. The character of these presents to the Werowance indicates the desire of the colonists, namely, to introduce among the savages the first rudiments, as it were, of civilizatiouấthe implements of agriculture.

15. The Indians further agreed to give up to the settlers, for their immediate accommodation, one-half of their village, and corn grounds which they had already commenced to plant, reserving

13. What preso

Question8.-12. What did he determine upon ? ents did he make? 14. What did these presents indicate ? 18. What agreement did the Indians make ?

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the other part for their own use, until the harvest should be gathered, when the whole of the purchased territory was to be surrendered to the colonists. Upon the 27th day of March, 1634, the governor took possession of the place, and named the town St. Mary's.

16. The purpose in founding this colony was to enjoy, without molestation, liberty of conscience, and to secure religious toleration on the American continent. The American historian, Bancroft, in speaking of Calvert, says that "he deserves to be ranked among the most wise and benevolent lawgivers of all ages. He was the first in the history of the Christian world to seek for religious security and peace by the practice of justice and not by the exercise of power.”

17. While they lived in company with the natives at St. Mary's, the greatest harmony prevailed. The natives hunted with the English for deer and turkeys, and received from them in return knives, beads, and such other trifiles as they desired. The women and children became domesticated in the English families. In the treatment of the sav. ages of Maryland, the colony was always governed by the most exalted principles of Christianity and philanthropy.

Questions.—15. When did the governor take possession? What did he call the place ? 16. What does Bancroft say of Calvert? 17. Describe the life of the colonists with the natives?

18. The right of the natives to their own land, and other property, was scrupulously respected, and earnest and persistent efforts were made to teach them religious truth and the arts of civilized life. Their lands were not taken from them by force and without their consent, but by honorable negotiation and purchase. The colonist purchased the rights of the aborigines for a consideration which gave them satisfaction. They extended to the Indians words and acts of love and mercy.

19. Fair and beautiful then was the origin of the State. No wrong or injustice towards the native stained the hands of its founders; no persecuting domination or exclusive franchise was reared upon its shores, but around the rough-hewn cross on the island of St. Clement's, gathered Catholic and Protestant, hand in hand, friends and brothers, equal in rights and secure alike in the free and full enjoyment of either creed. It was a day that should make the Maryland heart bound with pride and pleasure.

20. The descendants of other colonies have not only had the happiness of having historians, but also of making literature a basiness and a trade,

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Questions.—18. What is said of the rights of the natives? What did the colonists try to teach them? How were the lands oba tained from them? 19. What is said in this section? 20. What happiness have other colonsts enjoyed ?



and have supplied the whole country with histories of their own making. Hence, at least, in school histories of our country one section has appropriated a very large share, and the other sections have been treated of in a very few chapters.

To such an extent is this true, that these histories of the United States are very much like an ancient Chinese map of the world, the Celestial Empire occupying all but the small corner that is left for the rest of mankind. In this way, the claim that Maryland has to be regarded as the pioneer of Civil and Religious liberty have been made less prominent than those of other colonies, who have, almost with the consent of her own citizens, snatched from her the honor that is justly her own.

21. The first altar to religious liberty on this Continent was erected in MARYLAND; and the « Freedom of Conscience " that was established by the pilgrims of St. Mary's, was complete. The colony was established not only for the benefit of those who would think with the founders, but for an asylum to the oppressed of every name.

22. For the first time in the history of the colonies, the savages were treated with justice and mercy in Maryland. Their land was bought from them, and their condition was improved. There is

Questions.-21. Where was the first altar to religious liberty raised? What kind of freedom of conscience was in Maryland ? 22. What is said in this section?

no national historical painting to perpetuate the memory of this treaty of amity and good will, but, assuredly, when on this first altar of religions liberty, the fires ascended to heaven amid the blessings of the savage, the memory of such a people “should not pass away from their descendants as an idle dream."


1634-1638 — CLAIBORNE'S REBELLION Claiborne, the

Evil Genius of the Colony-His Claim-Excites the Indians-Resorts to Violence-Flees to Virginia-Sent to EnglandFirst Legislative Assembly-Division of Land.

1. The friendly relations which subsisted between the natives and the English were first disturbed by the improper insinuations circulated by Claiborne, called by historians the Evil Genius of the colony.

2. Before the charter had been issued, but probably after Lord Baltimore's visit to the Chesapeake, Claiborne had established a trading post on Kent Island. This he had done in virtue of a license to traffic with the natives, and thereupon, claimed a


Questions.-1. What first disturbed the friendly relations of the natives? 2. Where had Claiborne established trading posts?

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