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DEFEAT OF FRENCH AND INDIANS.

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15. After this battle, several skirmishes ensued. In one of these, Capt. Evan Shelby, of Frederick county, killed, with his own band, one of the lead. ing chiefs of the enemy.

16. The Indians now abandoned their allies, and left the fort, saying it was an easy matter to deal with the regulars, but impossible to withstand the provincials. On the 22d of November, after a painful march, the English succeeded in reaching Fort Duquesne, which they found had been abandoned and burnt by the French. A new fort was built, named Fort Pitt.

17. Gov. Sharpe, in sympathy with the joy that filled the colony, appointed a day of public thanksgiving and praise. The Assembly appropriated money to be divided among the brave men who had served in their forces.

18. From this time, Maryland had little concern in the war, and the principal features of its history are of a pacific and legislative character. Yet that legislative history is full of interest, for it is the history of that continuous struggle for the rights of the people, that led eventually to the war of the Revolution:

Questions.-15. Who was killed? 16. What did the Indians do ? When did the English reach the fort? What did they find? 17. What is said in this section? 18. And what in this ?

CHAPTER XIX.

TAE DAYS BEFORE THE REVOLUTION- The Democratic

and the Aristocratic Elements - Claims of the Two Houses-Peace Debt-Condition of MarylandInfiuence of the French War- The Old Controversy Revived - Preparatory Steps to the Stamp Act.

1. The Charter of Maryland contained the germs of two contending principles — the aristocratic and the democratic. From the earliest period of its history, there had been contests between the parties representing these principles.

2. The result of the contest, in every stage, was in favor of the democratic element. The spirit of the people, and the necessities of the times, contributed to its vigorous growth. The contest was now verging to its final issue.

3. The representatives of the people, who sat in the lower house, insisted upon the right to frame and amend bills for raising money. The upper honse, consisting of the governor and his council, claimed for themselves a share in the imposition of taxes.

4. As long as danger was threatening the existence of the colony, the commons did not insist upon

Questions.—1. What is said of the charter? 2. What was the reBult of every contest? 3. Upper and lower houses? 4. What was the claim of the commons

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their claim, but when the war was over, they planted themselves firmly upon their old position—"that the people could only be taxed by their own con. sent."

5. Peace was declared in 1763, and the French colonies were ceded to England. But to counterbalance this acquisition, she found herself laboring under a heavy war debt. To aid her in managing this, she turned her eyes towards the colonies, all of whom, excepting Maryland alone, which had resisted, had been compelled to furnish requisitions.

6. The condition of Maryland was prosperous. In 1761, its population amounted to 164,000 per

The greatness of its resources was undisputed. Its people were frugal and industrious, and had spread themselves almost to the utmost limits of the province. Its physical features made it peculiarly. fitted for commerce and navigation ; its soil was rich, and exuberantly productive to the labor of the husbandman and planter. This condition of prosperity being shared by the other colonies, England determined to avail herself of their increasing wealth to replenish her own exbausted coffers.

7. Disastrous as the French war apparently was to the colonies, it was not without great advantage to them. The spirit of independence and

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Questions.-5. When was peace declared? What was the condi. tion of England ? 6. Condition of Maryland ? Character of her people? What further is said ? 7. Influence of French war?

self-reliance had had time to grow, and opportuni- . ties to develop itself. With an active and watchful enemy ready to seize upon the colonies, England was too dependent upon them to offend them.She, therefore, in a measure, closed her eyes to the growing spirit of independence, while the colonies learned their power to maintain that spirit.

8. Now that the war was over, England on the one hand was determined to make the colonies feel her authority, and the colonies, on the other, resolved to re-assert their old rights. It was a contest for supremacy on one side, and for freedom on the other.

9. In 1763, the English government began to take preparatory steps. The Prime Minister gave notice to the colonies that, at the ensuing session of Parliament, he intended to propose a duty on stamps for the purpose of raising a revenue from the provinces to defray the expenses of the war. The colonies had always insisted that they should not be taxed without their own consent. The Minister hoped they would propose a compromise, and thus commit themselves to an abandonment of their principle by negotiating instead of resisting.

10. In the session of Parliament which followed, a resolution to the same effect was adopted, but not yet executed. The trade of the colonies was

Questions.—7. Effect upon mother country? 8. What controversy now arose ? 9. What steps did the English government take? 10. What is said in this section?

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interfered with and injured. But all this, instead of arousing the spirit of compromise, had the contrary effect. The indignation of the people was aroused. They saw the design was to deprive them of their liberties and make them the mere subjects of the British Parliament.

CHAPTER XX.

STAMP ACT—Stamp Act Imposed-Maryland Assembly

ProroguedNo Stamps in Maryland- Protest of Assembly - Treatment of Hond Acts of AssemblyFrederick County Court-"Sons of Liberty?'-Repeal of Stamp Act.

1. On the 22d of March, 1765, the Stamp Act was finally passed. The interval between its first proposal and final passage had enabled the people to gather their energies for universal resistance. 2. In

open manifestation Massachusetts and Virginia took the lead, but the silence of Maryland was not the result of lukewarmness. Her assembly was disabled from declaring its hostility to the measure, as its meeting was prevented by prorogation.

Questions.- 1. When was the stamp act imposed ? 2. Why could not Maryland declare her hostility?

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