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turns the face of the Catechumen to the East, and laying his hand upon his head bows him forward into the water a first time, saying, such an one, the servant of God is baptized in the name of the Father, to which the company answer Amen: then bowing him a second time he says, and of the Son, answer as before Amen: then a third time, saying, and of the Holy Ghost, Amen. The baptized is then clothed, and the deacon leads him out of the baptistery and delivers him to his friends in waiting. The priest soon after goes in procession from the baptistery into the church, anoints the forehead of the newly baptized with chrism, puts on hiin a white garment, administers to him the eucharist, and then dismisses the assembly with bencdictions (5). Such rituals it is clear were composed for adult baptism.
The Nestorians do not practise exorcism, for they do not admit, nor did they ever admit the doctrine of original fin (6). They now omit the renunciation of Satan, or more properly of demonology, which was formerly a part of the baptismal service, but which when they accommodated their rituals to children, who being born of Christian parents had never lived in a profession of Paganism, they very consistently laid aside (7). They are well aware of the difficulty of answering the question: If baptism be a remission of fin, why do you baptize children, who, you say, are perfectly innocent ? and their answers are very obscure (8). They believe the salvation of infants dying unbaptized, and the office for the burial of such directs the priest to attend the corpse to the grave, to say three canticles by the way, or more according to the age of the deceased, and if he were grown up more, put earth upon him, and sign bim with the fign of the cross.
The rubrick for baptisın directs the officiating deacon to lead by the hand into Jordan (the water) such as can walk, as men and boys, and to
(5) ASSEMANI ut fup. Ton. ii. P. ii. Cap. vii. S. 9. De Baptismo. Catechumeni recitant fymbolumn Nicænum....Sacerdos, stans ad partem occidentalem Jordanis, faciem pueri vertit ad orientem, eumque in aquam immergit imponens manum fuam fuper caput ejus et dicens, baptizatur talis, &c.
(5) IBID. p. 256. Negant peccatum originale, &c.
(7) P. 258. Exorcismos in baptismo, et Satanæ abrenunciationem omittunt. ... Quum Neftoriani ordinem suum ad baptismum puerorum accommodatient, exorcismos, abrenunciationem, aliaque id genus abftulere, rati ea adultis, non pueris convenire.
(8) Timoth. ii. Patriarcha De Baptismo, Cap. iii. S. 20. ut fup. p. 256. Si baptismus in remiffionem peccatorum eft quare infantes puerofque baptizamus, qui peccato carent?..GEORGII ARBELENSIS De Baptifmo, Quaft. iii. p. 256. Quare in tomo Mar. Jefujabi præcipitur, ut baptizandum facerdos pollice lignct, nunc autem videmus eum fignari indice? Refponfio. Olim viri ac mulieres baptizabantur : et quoniam peccatis impliciti erant et a gratia ad fidem vocati, ideo facerdos illos pollice fignabat. Nunc vero filii chriftianorum Neftorianorum baptizantur, infantes fcilicet puri, nec peccatis inquinati: adeoque eos indice fignari oportet..... Timoth i. patriarcha de feptem eccles. facram. Cap. til. Seal. 20. p. 258. Ideo infantes baptizamus, etfi peccati expertes, ut a servitute liberentur, et Filii Dei fiant.
carry in his arms such as cannot : but at what time the baptisın of little
As it is well known that the oriental rituals coming into the West
(9) EBEDJESU Epifc. Sobens. feript. eccles.catalog. Cap. Ixxiv, apud AssEMAN. Tom: iii. P. i. Jesujabus Adjabenus, Bastumagi filius, in fchola Nisibena quum literis operam dedisset, monasticum inftitutum in cænobio Jacobi in Beth-Abe amplexus eft: mox Ninives episcopus, deinde Mosul et Arbelæ metropolita, demum Neftorianorum patriarcha poft Maremæ obitum electus. ....Neftorianis præfuit ab anno Chrifti 650 ad annum 660. pag. 139. Ordinavit tomum circuli, et baptismu.n, id est ritum adminiftrandi hoc facramentum.....Exftat Cod. Amid. xii. Ordo baptismi Chaldæor. Tom. i. pag. 584.
(1) j. AYMON Monumens Authentiques de la Religion des Grecs. Et de la fausate de plusieurs confellins de foi des Chretiens orientaux produites par les prelats de France. A la Haye. 1708. pref. Nous emploierons tout cela dans cet ouvrage, pour y demontrer juridiquement la faussete de plus de cinq cens attestations, &c.....RENAUDOT. Liturg. Orient. Colleet. Tom. i. præfat.
(2) Chronicon Edeffenum apud ASSEMAN. Tom. 1. p. 402. An. 739. [i.e. Græcorum, Chrifti 428.] emerfit hæresis afferentiun), peccatum naturæ insitum eife....EBEDJESU Libror. Syror. Catal, Tom. iii. Par. i. Cap. xix. Thevdorus Moprueftenus duos libros adversus afferentem peccatum in natura infitum effe. Obiit Theodorus an: Chrifti 4-9.....SABARJESU Patriarchæ vit. eapud AssemAn. Tom. ii. Par. i. Cap: xiii. Synodus Sabarjelu congregata fuit (an. Christi 596] ob quosdam monachos, qui pravas opiniones disseminabant docentes peccatum naturæ humana efle insicum..... AssEMAN. Ita fentiunt hodieque Neftoriani.
(3) Asseman. Tom. i. Index codicum Mss. quos Clemens. xi. Pont. Max. Bibl. Vatic. addicit. P. 581. Codices Amidenfes iii. Officium defunctorum juxta ritum Chaldæorum. Pro viris et mulieribus, et pro pueris baptizatis. Ritus quoque fepeliendi pueros nondum baptizatos.
(4) Le S'r dé Moni (P. Simon] Hift. Critiq. de la creance et des coutumes des nations de Levant. Franekf. 1684. p. 5. Ils rebaptisent tous les latins, qui se rangent a leur communion. Ils diffefent le baptesine des enfans jusq'a trois, quatre, cinq, fix, dix et dixhuit ans.
they have continued the office of deaconness in their churches to
CHRISTIANS OF ST. THOMAS.
The Christians of St. Thomas, as they are called, and who reside in the East-Indies, on the coast of Malabar, and Coromandel, Cochin, and other parts, are a branch of the Nestorian church, and their religion resembles that of the Protestants of Europe, much more than that of the church of Rome (5). They baptize by immersion, and often defer the baptism of their children several years (6). Learned men have not been able to ascertain whether these Chriftians were denominated from Thomas the apostle, who, it is said, preached the gospel in India, or from Thomas a Manichæan, or from an Armenian merchant named Thomas, or from some Nestorian bishop of the same name. The two last seem the most probable opinions, and Mr. Voltaire prefers the first of the two (7).
Asian Jacobites. The Jacobites, another class of oriental Christians, seceded from the Greek church in the fifth century. They received their denomination in the sixth century from Jacob Baradæus, or Zanzalus, the most able and successful of their leaders. They chiefly inhabit Syria and Mesopotamia, and in the last century were said to consist of forty or fifty thousand families (8). Their theory of the nature of Christ differs from those of the Greeks and Nestorians, but some affirm the difference is only in words. Their polity is hierarchical, and the Asian Jacobites are subject to the patriarch of Antioch, who hath a colleague called the Maphrian, that is, the Catholick or primate of the
(5) Asseman. Bibliot. Tom. iii. Par. ii. Cap. ix. De Chriftianis S. Thomæ in India : deque Neftorianis in Tartaria et vasto Sinarum imperio. ... Seet. ii. Chriftiani S. Thomæ in India.... P. Simon. Hift. Crit. Chap. viii. Des Indiens ou Chrestiens de St. Thomas.
(6) IBID. Ils differoient de plus assez souvent le baptesme plusieurs mois, et mesmes plusieurs annes.....La Croze Hift. du Chriftianisme des Indes.....DR. GEDDES Hift. of the Church of Malabar. London. 1694.....J. ALB. FABRICII Lux. Evang. Cap. xxxvi. De Orig. Chrift.... in India orientali.
(7) Gen. Hift. Cap.ii. Of the Indies.
(8) Simon. ut sup. Chap. ix. Ils ne sont tout au plus que 40 ou 50 mille families.... LEONARDIS Sidonis Epifc. apud Thomam a Jefu. Lib. vii. Par. i. Cap. xiv. Natio Jacobitica dispersa eft per civitates, terras, et oppida Syriæ, Mesopotamiæ, et Babyloniæ, mixta alis nationibus numerum quinquaginta millium domuum obtinens.....Plura vide apud AssEMAN. Tom. ii. De Monophyfitis.
East (9). The patriarch usually resides in some city of Syria, and the primate at a monastery at Mousul in Mesopotamia. Their baptism is that of nominal Catechumens by trine immersion (1), and the duration of the baptism of adults may be gathered from a canon of the patriarch Michael, which says, that there was no further need of deaconnesses, because now the church baptizes children of tender age, and not women as formerly : however, if it should be necessary in future a deaconness of such and such qualifications might be ordained (2). This patriarch died in the year eleven hundred and ninety-nine.
AFRICAN JACOBITES AND Copts.
Another large class of oriental Christians is that of the African Monophysites, or Jacobites, whose faith, worship, and government are precisely ibe same as those of the Asian Jacobites, with whom they are in ftriét communion (3). The patriarch of Alexandria is the spiritual ruler of this church, and he hath a colleague called Abbuna, or father, who presides over one division, for they are divided into Copts who inhabit Egypt and Nubia, and Abyssinians, or Ethiopians. The Copts are very
The Greek patriarch Cyril Lucar said in the last century, they were ten' times more numerous than the Greeks (4). The Abyffinians, or inhabitants of Upper Ethiopia, are incomparably more numerous than the Copts, and as they live under a Christian king, their condition is less restrained than that of the Copts. All these Christians administer baptism to children by trine immersion, and immediately after they give them the Lord's supper; for their offices for baptifm were evidently composed for adults, as all other eastern rituals
(9) Steph. Evodi AssEMANI A&. Martyr. Orient. Tom. i. Præfat. Jacobitæ primum post patriarcham fectæ suæ episcopum Catholicum Græca voce dicunt, Syriace vero Maphrianum..... Jos. Simon AssemANi Bibliot
. Orient. Clement. Vatican, Tom. ii. Dil. De Monophyfitis. p. 215. not. Maphrianus. Dignitas apud Jacobitas patriarchali inferior, metropolitica major, primatem recte vertas,
(1) IBID. Dil. de Monoph. De Baptifmo. Syri folo baptismo, inftar cæterorum Christianorum, contenti sunt, cui pro orientalium more facramentum confirmationis adjungunt, et eucharistiam demum pueris porrigunt, ut ex ritualibus compertum eft.
(2) IBID. Diaconiffarum opera antiquitus defiderabatur, ac præsertim pro baptismo mulierum
..diaconiffas jam diu in ecclefia ceffaffe comperimus....nec amplius diaconisfis opus est, quum nullæ fint mulieres quæ baptizentur, &c.
(3) RENAUDOT. Hift. Patriarch. Alexand. Paris. 1713. YUCAB five Jofephus, Patriarcha. lii. ....ASSEMAN. Dil. de Syris monoph.
(4) CYRILLI Papæ ac Patriarch. Alexandriæ D. 1. UYTENBOGAERT epift. apud Armon. Coptæ tam multi sunt [in magni Cairi civitate) ut fi Græci certatim illis numerarentur, quomodo de Græcis et Trojanis fcribit Homerus, decies Coptæ numerum fuperarent Græcorum. ,'
were (5). That which is attributed to Severus patriarch of Alexandria, was composed by Severus patriarch of Antioch. The Alexandrian Ja. cobites never had a patriarch of the name of Severus (6).
The Armenians form another large eastern hierarchy (7). The ancient and extensive kingdom of Armenia in Afia, after various revolutions fell under the dominion of the Turks and the Persians, between whom the country was divided. The inhabitants received Christianity in the Catholick form early. In the fourth century Tiridates the king established an hierarchy, and at the beginning of the fixth under the patriarch Nierses, the Armenian church seceded from other eftablishments, became independent, and embraced the theory of the Jacobites, differing from them, however, in a few articles of discipline.
The learned Schroeder, after Moses Chorenenfis, who flourished in the fifth century, describes Armenia, divides it into fifteen provinces, and subdivides them into one hundred and ninety-one dioceses. He observes the obscurity with which Greek and Latin writers through ignorance and false zeal have covered the history, the language, the writings, and the eeremonies of this ancient nation (8). The Armenians celebrate an annual festival called Cachachouran, a word half Armenian and half Perfian, which, travellers say, signifies the baptism of the cross. It is generally supposed, this is a religious ceremony, the same as the Theophany of the Greeks, and the Epiphany or twelfth day of the Roman Catholicks. It is celebrated on the sixth of January, and the terms signify manifeftation: but ecclesiasticks have not agreed whether it is in commemoration of the birth of Christ, by which God was manifested in the flesh; or of the visit
(5) Ordo Baptifmi Sec. ufum Æthiop. Sacerdos descendit in fontem....et ter mergit, dicens, Ego baptizo te. &c. . . Ordo Baptifmi Severi Patriarcha Alexandr. Et dimittit eum in baptisterium, refpiciens ad orientem, dextramque fuam capiti ejus qui baptizatur imponit, et finiftra sua ter attollit ex. aquis..... Tunc educit eum e medio aquarum.
(6) RENAUDOT. Liturg. Orient. Colletio. Tom. ii. ad liturg. SE VERI observat... Tont. i.nte in Liturg. Copticam S. Gregorii.....Hift. Patriarch. Alexand.... ..BAR-HEBRÆI vulgo ABULPHARAGII Chron. Patriarch. Jacobit. Severus apud AssemAN. Tom. ic. p. 321. Obiit an. (7) CLEMENTIS GALAni Hift. Armena, Rome. 1650. 1658. 1661.
(8) Jos. JOACHIMI SCHROEDERT De reb. Armenicis. Epit. Vide Oratio Dominica in diver fazs ornnium fere gentium linguas verfa, et propriis cujusque lingue characteribus expresja. Editor : Joan. CHÁMBERLAYNIO. Amftel. 1715. Noki, vir foruma Declaele, quam rara, quam infufficientia fint quæ de antiqua hac natione ejusque regione, lingua, libris, ritibus, aliifque, apud feriptores Latinos et Græcos, addo etiam falfa, poft exortam in sacris naxaghaar (ape inveniantur