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Section 6. Counties falling below the new
ratios to be attached to other
counties for representation, 6. Ratios for Senators, how ascer
tained. 7. Present Senatorial districts, 8. Rule for apportioning of Sena
torial districts to be similar to
that for Representatives. 9. Counties, when entitled to sepa
rate Senatorial representation. 10. First apportionment of Repre
sentatives to be as provided in
schedule. 11. Governor, Auditor and Secretary
of State to determine the ratio of causes to be published.
Judicial apportionment. 12. Present judicial districts. 13. New counties to be attached to
such districts, as may be most convenient.
Section 4. Property of corporations liable
to taxation the same as of in
dividuals. 5. No right of way to be appropri
ated until full compensation
in money is paid. 6. Organization of cities and vil
lages by general laws.-Re
strictions upon their credit. 7. Laws authorizing banking pow
ers to be submitted to the people,
Jurisprudence. 1. Three commissioners to be ap
pointed.-Their tenure, pay and mode of filling vacancies to be
fixed. 2. To revise, reform, simplify and
abridge the practice, pleadings, forms and proceedings of
Courts of Record. 3. Proceedings of Commissioners to
be reported to General Assembly.
ARTICLE XII. Finance and Taxation.
1. Poll taxes forbidden. 3. Taxation to be uniform.-Public
property exempted.-Personal property to what extent ex
empted. 8. Taxation upon banks and bank
ing. 4. Revenue to be raised sufficient
to defray expenses of State
and interest on State debt. 3. No tax to be levied except by
law.-The object of every tax.
Law to be specified. 6. State not to contract debt for
Miscellaneous. 1. Columbus to be the seat of gov
ernment until otherwise di.
rected by law. 2. Public printing to be let on con
tract to the lowest responsible
bidder. 3. Receipts and expenditures to be
published. 4. None but electors to hold office. 5. Duelling to disqualify from hold
ing office. 6. Lotteries illegal. 7. Oath of office to be taken before
entering upon duties. 8. Bureau of Statistics to be estab
lished in Secretary's office,
Corporations. 1. General Assembly to pass no
special act conferring corporate
powers. 3. Corporations may be formed
under general laws.-Such laws
may be altered or repealed. 8. Dues from corporations, how se
cured.--Liability of stockholderg.
Amendments. 1. Amendments, how made by the
General Assembly.--To be submitted to the people at elections.
Section 2. Conventions.-How called to re
vise Constitution. 3. Question of a convention to be
submitted in 1871 and every twentieth year thereafter.
SCHEDULE. 1. Laws in force September 1, 1851,
continued until amended if not inconsistent with the Consti
tution. 2. First election of members to
General Assembly. 8. First election for Governor and
other State officers.-When to
take office. 4. First election of judges.--Terms.
When to commence, etc. 6. Certain officers not otherwise
provided for to continue in office until terms expire, unless otherwise provided by the
General Assembly. 6. Superior and Commercial Courts
of Cincinnati, and Superior Court in Cleveland continued, but not after second Monday
in February, 1853. 7. County and township cfficers
continued until expiration of
terms. 8. Vacancies in office after Septem
ber 1, 1851, to be filled as law now directs, etc.
Section 9. Constitution to take effect Sep
tember 1, 1851. 10. All officers to continue until suc
cessors are chosen and quali
fied. 11. Suits pending In Supreme Court
in banc to be transferred to the Supreme Court under this con
stitution. 12. District Courts in counties to be
successors of the present Su
preme Court, 13. Courts of Common Pleas to be
successors of present Churts of
Common Pleas. 14. Probate Courts to be successors
of present Court of Common
Pleas. 15. Elections to be held and re
turned, as provided, for Gov. ernor until otherwise pro
vided by law. 16. Where two counties adjourn, the
returns to be made to the county having the largest
population. 17. Constitution to be submitted to
the electors. 18. Separate submission of license
question. 19. Present apportionment of House
PREAMBLE. We, the people of the State of Ohio, grateful to Almighty God
for our freedom, to secure its blessings and promote our common welfare, do establish this Constitution.
Bill of Rights. Section 1. All men are, by nature, free and independent, and have certain inalienable rights, among which are those of enjoy. ing and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing and pro tecting property, and seeking and obtaining happiness and safety.
Sec. 2. All political power is inherent in the people. Govern. ment is instituted for their equal protection and benefit, and they have the right to alter, reform, or abolish the same, whenever they may deem it necessary; and no special privileges or immunities shall ever be granted, that may not be altered, revoked, or repealed by the General Assembly.
Sec. 3. The people have the right to assemble together, in a peaceable manner, to consult for their common good; to instruct their Representatives; and to petition the General Assembly for the redress of grievances.
Sec. 4. The people have the right to bear arms for their defense and security; but standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, and shall not be kept up; and the military shall be in strict accordance to the civil power.
Sec. 5. The right of trial by jury shall be inviolate.
Sec. 6. There shall be no slavery in this State, nor involuntary servitude, unless for the punishment of crime.
Sec. 7. All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own con science. No person shall be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or maintain any form of worship, against his consent; and no preference shall be given, by law, to any religious society; nor shall any interference with the rights of conscience be permitted. No religious test shall be required as a qualification for office, nor shall any person be incompetent to be a witness on account of his religious belief; but nothing herein shall be construed to dispense with oaths and affirmations. Religion, morality and knowledge, however, being essential to good government, it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to pass suitable laws to protect every religious denomination in the peaceable enjoyment of its own mode of public worship, and to encourage schools and the means of instruction.
Sec. 8. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety require it.
Sec. 9. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses where the proof is evident, or the presumption great. Excessive bail shall not be required; nor excessive fines imposed; nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Sec. 10. Except in cases of impeachment, and cases arising in the army and navy, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger, and in cases of petit larceny and other inferior offenses, no person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous, crime, unless on presentment or indictment of a grand jury. In any trial, in any court, the party accused shall be allowed to appear and defend in person and with counsel; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him, and to have a copy thereof; to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to procure the attendance of witnesses in his behalf, and a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the county or district in which the offense is alleged to have been committed; nor shall any person be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself, or be twice put in jeopardy for the same offense.
Sec. 11. Every citizen may freely speak, write and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of the right; and no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech, or of the press. In all criminal prosecutions for libel, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury, and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter charged as libelous is true, and was published with good motives, and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted.
Sec. 12. No person shall be transported out of the State for any offense committed within the same; and no conviction shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture of estate.
Sec. 13. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor, in time of war, except in the manner prescribed by law.
Sec. 14. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrant shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, particularly describing the place to be searched and the person and things to be seized.
Sec. 15. No person shall be imprisoned for debt in any civil action, or mesne or final process, unless in cases of fraud.
Sec. 16. All courts shall be open, and every person, for an injury done him in his land, goods, person or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law; and justice administered with out denial or delay.
Sec. 17. No hereditary emoluments, honors, or privileges, shall ever be granted or conferred by this State.
Sec. 18. No power of suspending laws shall ever be exercised, except by the General Assembly.
Sec. 19. Private property shall ever be held inviolate, but subservient to the public welfare. When taken in time of war or other public exigency, imperatively requiring its immediate seizure, or for the purpose of making or repairing roads, which shall be open to the public, without charge, a compensation shall be made to the owner, in money, and in all other cases, where private property shall be taken for public use, a compensation therefor shall first be made in money, or first secured by a deposit of money, and such compensation shall be assessed by a jury, without deduction for benefits to any property of the owner.
Sec. 20. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people ; and all powers, not herein delegated, remain with the people.
Legislative. Section 1. The legislative power of this State shall be vested in a General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
Sec. 2. Senators and Representatives shall be elected biennially by the electors of the respective counties or districts, on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November ; their term of office shall commence on the first day of January next thereafter, and continue two years.
Sec. 3. Senators and Representatives shall have resided in their respective counties or districts one year next preceding their election, unless they shall have been absent on the public business of the United States or this State.
Sec. 4. No person holding office under the authority of the United States, or any lucrative office under the authority of this State, shall be eligible to or have a seat in the General Assembly; but this provision shall not extend to township officers, justices of the peace, notaries public, or officers of the militia.
Sec. 5. No person hereafter convicted of an embezzlement of the public funds shall hold any office in this State ; nor shall any person holding public money for distribution or otherwise, have a seat in the General Assembly until he shall have accounted for and paid such' money into the treasury.
Sec. 6. Each house shall be judge of the election, returns, and qualifications of its own members; a majority of all the