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members elected to each house shall be a quorum to do business ; but a less number may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as shall be prescribed by law.

Sec. 7. The mode of organizing the House of Representatives, at the commencement of each regular session, shall be prescribed by law.

Sec. 8. Each house, except as otherwise provided in this constitution, shall choose its own officers, may determine its own rules of proceeding, punish its members for disorderly conduct; and with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member, but not the second time for the same cause ; and shall have all other powers necessary to provide for its safety, and the undisturbed transaction of its business.

Sec. 9. Each house shall keep a correct journal of its proceedings, which shall be published. At the desire of any two members, the yeas and nays shall be entered upon the journal ; and, on the passage of every bill, in either house, the vote shall be taken by yeas and nays, and entered upon the journal ; and no law shall be passed in either house without the concurrence of a majority of all the members elected thereto.

Sec. 10. Any member of either house shall have the right to protest against any act or resolution thereof; and such protest, and the reason therefor, shall, without alteration, commitment, or delay, be entered upon the journal.

Sec. 11. All vacancies which may happen in either house shall, for the unexpired term, be filled by election, as shall be directed by law.

Sec. 12. Senators and Representatives, during the session of the General Assembly, and in going to and returning from the same, shall be privileged from arrest in all cases except treason, felony, or breach of the peace ; and for any speech or debate, in either house, they shall not be questioned elsewhere.

Sec. 13. The proceedings of both houses shall be public, except in cases which, in the opinion of two-thirds of those present, require secrecy.

Sec. 14. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than two days, Sundays excluded ; nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be in session. Sec. 15. Bills may originate in either house ; but may be altered, amended, or rejected in the other.

Sec. 16. Every bill shall be fully and distinctly read on three different days ; unless, in case of urgency, three-fourths of the house in which it shall be pending, shall dispense with this rule. No bill shall contain more than one subject, which shall be clearly expressed in its title, and no law shall be revived or amended unless the new act contain the entire act revived, or the section or sections amended, and the section or sections so amended shall be repealed.

Sec. 17. The presiding officer of each house shall sign pub. licly, in the presence of the house over which he presides, while the same is in session, and capable of transacting business, all bills and joint resolutions passed by the General Assembly.

Sec. 18. The style of the laws of this State shall be, "Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio."

Sec. 19. No Senator or Representative shall, during the term for which he shall have been elected, or for one year thereafter, be appointed to any civil office under this State which shall be created or the emoluments of which shall have been increased during the term for which he shall have been elected.

Sec. 20. The General Assembly in cases not provided for in this Constitution, shall fix the term of office and the compensa tion of all offices; but no charge therein shall affect the salary of any officer during his existing term, unless the office be abolished.

Sec. 21. The General Assembly shall determine, by law, before what authority, and in what manner, the trial of contested elections shall be conducted.

Sec. 22. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, except in pursuance of a specific appropriation, made by law; and no appropriation shall be made for a longer period than two years.

Sec. 23. The House of Representatives shall have the sole puwer of impeachment, but a majority of the members elected must concur therein. Impeachments shall be tried by the Senate; and the Senators when sitting for that purpose, shall be npon oath or affirmation to do justice according to law and evidence. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators.

Sec. 24. The Governor, judges, and all State officers, may be impeached for any misdemeanor in office; but judgment shall not extend further than removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office, under the authority of this State. The party impeached, whether convicted or not, shall be liable to indictment, trial and judgment, according to law.

Sec. 25. All regular sessions of the General Assembly shall commence on the first Monday of January biennially.

Sec. 26. All laws, of a general nature, shall have a uniform operation throughout the State ; nor shall any act, except such as relates to public schools, be passed, to take effect upon the approval of any other authority than the General Assembly, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution.

Sec. 27. The election and appointment of all officers, and the filling of all vacancies not otherwise provided for by this Constitution, or the Constitution of the United States, shall be made in such manner as may be directed by law, but no appointing power shall be exercised by the General Assembly, except as prescribed in this Constitution, and in the election of United States Senators; and in these cases the vote shall be taken • viva voce.”

Sec. 28. The General Assembly shall have no power to pass retroactive laws, or laws impairing the obligation of contracts ; but may, by general laws, authorize courts to carry into effect, upon such terms as shall be just and equitable, the manifest intention of parties and officers, by curing omissions, defects and errors in instruments and proceedings arising out of their want of conformity with the laws of this State.

Sec. 29. No extra compensation shall be made to any officer, public agent, or contractor after the services shall have been rendered or the contract entered into ; nor shall any money be paid, on any claim, the subject matter of which shall not have been provided for by pre-existing law, unless such compensation or claim be allowed by two-thirds of the members elected to each branch of the General Assembly.

Sec. 30. No new county shall contain less than four hundred square miles of territory, nor shall any county be reduced below that amount; and all laws creating new counties, changing county lines, or removing county seats, shall, before taking effect, be submitted to the electors of the several counties to be affected thereby, at the next general election after the passage thereof, and be adopted by a majority of all the electors voting at such election, in each of said counties; but any county now or here. after containing one hundred thousand inhabitants, may be divided whenever a majority of the voters residing in each of proposed divisions shall approve of the law passed for that purpose ; but no town or city within the same shall be divided, nor shall either of the divisions contain less than twenty thousand inhabitants.

Sec. 31. The members and officers of the General Assembly shall receive a fixed compensation, to be prescribed by law, and no other allowance or perquisites, either in the payment of postage or otherwise ; and no change in their compensation shall take effect during their term of office.

Sec. 32. The General Assembly shall grant no divorce, nor exercise any judicial power not herein expressly conferred.

ARTICLE III.

Ececutive.

Sec. 1. The executive department shall consist of a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, Auditor of State, Treas. urer of State, and an Attorney-General, who shall be elected on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, by the electors of the State, and at the places of voting for members of the General Assembly..

The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, and Attorney-General shall hold their offices for two years, and the Auditor for four years. Their terms of office shall commence on the second Monday of January next after their election, and continue until their successors are elected and qualified.

Sec. 3. The returns of every election for the officers named in the foregoing section shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of government, by the returning officers, directed to the president of the Senate, who, during the first week of the session, shall open and publish them, and declare the result, in the presence of a majority of the members of each house of the General Assembly. The person having the highest number of votes shall be declared duly elected ; but if any two or more shall be highest,

and equal in votes for the same office, one of them shall be chosen by the joint vote of both houses.

Sec. 4. Should there be no session of the General Assembly in January next after an election for any of the offices aforesaid, the returns of such election shall be made to the Secretary of State, and opened and the result declared by the Governor, in such manner as may be provided by law.

Sec. 5. The supreme executive power of this State shall be vested in the Governor.

Sec. 6. He may require information, in writing, from the officers in the executive department, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and shall see that the laws are faithfully executed.

Sec. 7. He shall communicate at every session, by message, to the General Assembly, the condition of the State, and recommend such measures as he shall deem expedient.

Sec. 8. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the General Assembly by proclamation, and shall state to both houses, when assembled, the purpose for which they have been convened.

Sec. 9. In case of a disagreement between the two houses in respect to the time of adjournment, he shall have power to adjourn the General Assembly to such time as he may think proper, but not beyond the regular meetings thereof.

Sec. 10. He shall be commander-in-chief of the military and naval forces of the State, except when they shall be called into the service of the United States.

Sec. 11. He shall have power, after conviction, to grant reprieves, commutations and pardons for all crimes and offenses, except treason and cases of impeachment, upon such conditions as he may think proper ; subject, however, to such regulations, as to the manner of applying for pardons, as may be prescribed by law. Upon conviction for treason he may suspend the execution of the sentence and report the case to the General Assembly, at its next meeting, when the General Assembly shall either pardon, commute the sentence, direct its execution, or grant a further reprieve. He shall communicate to the General Assembly, at every regular session, each case of reprieve, com

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