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Legislature, be elected to Congress, or appointed to any office, civil or military, under the government of the United States, or under any city government, his acceptance thereof shall vacate his seat.

Sec. 9. The elections of Senators and Members of Assembly, pursuant to the provisions of this Constitution, shall be held on the Tuesday succeeding the first Monday of November, unless otherwise directed by the Legislature.

Sec. 10. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business. Each house shall determine the rules of its own proceedings, and be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members; shall choose its own officers; and the Senate shall choose a temporary president, when the Lieutenant-Governor shall not attend as president, or shall act as Governor.

Sec. 11. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish the same, except such parts as may require secrecy. The doors of each house shall be kept open, except when the public welfare shall require secrecy. Neither house shall, with. out the consent of the other, adjourn for more than two days.

Sec. 12. For any speech or debate in either house of the Legislature, the members shall not be questioned in any other place.

Sec. 13. Any bill may originate in either house of the Legis lature, and all bills passed by one house may be amended by the other.

Sec. 14. The enacting clause of all bills shall be “The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows," and no law shall be enacted except by bill.

Sec. 15. No bill shall be passed unless by the assent of a majority of all the members elected to each branch of the Legislature, and the question upon the final passage shall be taken immediately upon its last reading, and the yeas and nays entered on the journal.

Sec. 16. No private or local bill, which may be passed by the Legislature, shall embrace more than one subject, and that shall be expressed in the title.

Sec. 17. No act shall be passed which shall provide that any existing law, or any part thereof, shall be made or deemed a

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part of said act, or which shall enact that any existing law, or any part thereof, shall be applicable, except by inserting it in such act.

Sec. 18. The Legislature shall not pass a private or local bill in any of the following cases:

Changing the names of persons.

Laying out, opening, altering, working or discontinuing roads, bighways or alleys, or for draining swamps or other low lands.

Locating or changing county seats.
Providing for changes of venue in civil or criminal cases.
Incorporating villages.
Providing for election of members of boards of supervisors.

Selecting, drawing, summoning or impaneling grand or petit jurors.

Regulating the rate of interest on money.

The opening or conducting of elections or designating places of voting.

Creating, increasing or decreasing fees, percentage or allowances of public officers, during the term for which said officers are elected or appointed.

Granting to any corporation, association or individual the right to lay down railroad tracks.

Granting to any private corporation, association or individual any exclusive privilege, immunity or franchise whatever.

Providing for building bridges, and chartering companies for such purposes, except on the Hudson river below Waterford, and on the East river, or over the waters forming a part of the boundaries of the State.

The Legislature shall pass general laws providing for the cases enumerated in this section, and for all other cases which, in its judgment, may be provided for by general laws. But no law shall authorize the construction or operation of a street railroad except upon the condition that the consent of the owners of onehalf in value the property bounded on, and the consent also of the local authorities having the control of that portion of a street or bighway upon which it is proposed to construct or operate such railroad be first obtained, or in case the consent of such property owners cannot be obtained, the General Term of the Supreme Court, in the district in which it is proposed to be constructed, may, upon application, appoint three commissioners who shall determine, after a hearing of all pårties interested, whether such railroad ought to be constructed or operated, and their determination, confirmed by the court, may be taken in lieu of the consent of the property owners.

Sec. 19. The Legislature shall neither audit nor allow any private claim or account against the State, but may appropriate noney to pay such claims as shall have been audited and allowed according to law.

Sec. 20. Every law which in poses, continues or revives a tax shall distinctly state the tax and the object to which it is to be applied, and it shall not be sufficient to refer to any other law to fix such tax or object.

Sec. 21. On the final passage, in either house of the Legislature, of any act which imposes, continues or revives a tax, or creates a debt or charge, or makes, continues or revives any appropriation of public or trust money or property, or releases, discharges or commutes any claim or demand of the State, the question shall be taken by yeas and nays, which shall be duly entered upon the journals, and three-fifths of all the members elected to either house shall, in all such cases, be necessary to constitute a quorum therein.

Sec. 22. There shall be in the several counties, except in cities whose boundaries are the same as those of the county, a board of supervisors, to be composed of such members, and elected in such manner, and for such period, as is or may be provided by law. In any such city the duties and powers of a board of supervisors may be devolved upon the common council or board of aldermen thereof.

Sec. 23. The Legislature shall, by general laws, confer upon the boards of supervisors of the several counties of the State such further powers of local legislation and administration as the Legislature may, from time to time, deem expedient.

Sec. 24. The Legislature shall not, nor shall the common council of any city, nor any board of supervisors, grant any extra compensation to any public officer, servant, agent or contractor.

Sec. 25. Sections seventeen and eighteen of this article shall not apply to any bill, or the amendments to any bill, which shall be reported to the Legislature by commissioners who have been appointed pursuant to law to revise the statutes.


Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in a Governor, who shall hold his office for three years; a Lieutenant-Governor shall be chosen at the same time, and for the same term. The Governor and Lieutenant-Governor elected next preceding the time when this section shall take effect shall bold office during the term for which they were elected.

Sec. 2. No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor or Lieutenant-Governor, except a citizen of the United States, of the age of not less than thirty years, and who shall have been five years, next preceding his election, a resident of this State.

Sec. 3. The Governor and Lieutenant-Governor shall be elected at the times and places of choosing members of the Assembly. The persons respectively having the highest number of votes for Governor and Lieutenant-Governor shall be elected; but in case two or more shall have an equal and the highest number of votes for Governor, or for Lieutenant-Governor, the two houses of the Legislature, at its next annual session, shall, forthwith, by joint ballot, choose one of the said persons so having an equal and the highest number of votes for Governor or Lieutenant-Governor.

Sec. 4. The Governor shall be Commander-in-Chief of the military and naval forces of the State. He shall have power to convene the Legislature (or the Senate only) on extraordinary occasions. At extraordinary sessions no subject shall be acted upon, except such as the Governor may recommend for consideration. He shall communicate by message to the Legislature at every session the condition of the State, and recommend such matters to them as he shall judge expedient. He shall transact all necessary business with the officers of government, civil and military. He shall expedite all such measures as may be resolved upon by the Legislature, and shall take care that the laws are faithfully executed. He shall receive for his services an annual salary of ten thousand dollars, and there shall be provided for his use a suitable and furnished executive residence.

Sec. 5. The Governor shall have the power to grant reprieves, commutations and pardons after conviction, for all offenses except treason and cases of impeachment, upon such conditions and with such restrictions and limitations, as he may think proper, subject to such regulations as may be provided by law relative to the manner of applying for pardons. Upon conviction for treason, he shall have power to suspend the execution of the sentence, until the case shall be reported to the Legislature at its next meeting, when the Legislature shall either pardon, or commute the sentence, direct the execution of the sentence, or grant a further reprieve. He shall annually communicate to the Legislature each case of reprieve, commutation or pardon granted; stating the name of the convict, the crime of which he was convicted, the sentence and its date, and the date of the commutation, pardon or reprieve.

Sec. 6. In case of the impeachment of the Governor, or his removal from office, death, inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, resignation or absence from the State, the powers and duties of the office shall devolve upon the Lieutenant-Governor for the residue of his term, or until the disability shall cease. But when the Governor shall, with the consent of the Legislature, be out of the State, in time of war, at the head of a military force thereof, he shall continue Com. mander-in-Chief of all the military force of the State.

Sec. 7. The Lieutenant-Governor shall possess the same qualifications of eligibility for office as the Governor. He shall be president of the Senate, but shall have only a casting vote therein. If during a vacancy of the office of Governor, the Lieutenant-Governor shall be impeached, displaced, resign, die, or become incapable of performing the duties of his office, or be absent from the State, the President of the Senate shall act as Governor until the vacancy be filled, or the disability shall cease.

Sec. 8. The Lieutenant-Governor shall receive for his services an annual salary of five thousand dollars, and shall not receive or be entitled to any other compensation, fee or perquisite for any duty or service he may be required to perform by the Constitution or by law.

Sec. 9. Every bill which shall have passed the Senate and Assembly shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the Governor; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it with his objections to the house in which it shall have originated, which shall enter the objections at large on the journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of the members elected to that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent together with the objections to the other house by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; and

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