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Sec. 27. Elections for Senators and Representatives shall be general throughout the State, and shall be regulated by law.

Sec. 28. The Legislature shall, at its first session after the publication of each United States decennial census, apportion the State into senatorial and representative districts, agreeably to the provisions of sections 25 and 26 of this article; and until the next decennial census, when the first apportionment shall be made by the Legislature, the State shall be and it is hereby divided into senatorial and representative districts as provided by an ordinance of the Convention on that subject.

Proceedings. Sec. 29. The enacting clause of all laws shall be, “Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Texas."

Sec. 30. No law shall be passed except by bill, and no bill shall be so amended in its passage through either House as to change its original purpose.

Sec. 31. Bills may originate in either House, and when passed by such House may be amended, altered or rejected by the other.

Sec. 32. No bill shall have the force of a law until it has been read on three several days in each House, and free discussion allowed thereon; but in cases of imperative public necessity (which necessity shall be stated in a preamble, or in the body of the bill), four-fifths of the House in which the bill may be pending may suspend this rule, the yeas and nays being taken on the question of suspension, and entered upon the journals.

Sec. 33. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may amend or reject them as other bills.

Sec. 34. After a bill has been considered and defeated by either house of the Legislature, no bill containing the same substance shall be passed into a law during the same session. After a resolution has been acted on and defeated, no resolution containing the same substance shall be considered at the same session.

Sec. 35. No bill (except general appropriation bills, which may embrace the various subjects and accounts for and on account of which moneys are appropriated) shall contain more than one subject, which shall be expressed in its title. But if any subject shall be embraced in an act which shall not be expressed in the title, such act shall be void only as to so much thereof as shall not be so expressed.

Sec. 36. No law shall be revived or amended by reference to its title; but in such case the act revived or the section or sections amended shall be re-enacted and published at length.

Sec. 37. No bill shall be considered, unless it has been first referred to a committee and reported thereon; and no bill shall be passed which has not been presented and referred to and reported from a committee at least three days before the final adjournment of the Legislature.

Sec. 38. The presiding officer of each house shall, in the presence of the house over which he presides, sign all bills and joint resolutions passed by the Legislature, after their titles have been publicly read before signing, and the fact of signing shall be entered on the journals.

Sec. 39. No law passed by the Legislature, except the general appropriation act, shall take effect or go into force until ninety days after the adjournment of the session at which it was enacted, unless, in case of an emergency, which emergency must be expressed in a preamble or in the body of the act, the Legislature shall, by a vote of two-thirds of all the members elected to each house, otherwise direct; said vote to be taken by yeas and nays, and entered upon the journals.

Sec. 40. When the Legislature shall be convened in special session, there shall be no legislation upon subjects other than those designated in the proclamation of the Governor calling such session, or presented to them by the Governor; and no such session shall be of longer duration than thirty days.

Sec. 41. In all elections by the Senate and House of Representatives, jointly or separately, the vote shall be given viva voce, except in the election of their officers.

Requirements and Limitations. Sec. 42. The Legislature shall pass such laws as may be necessary to carry into effect the provisions of this Constitution.

Sec. 43. The first session of the Legislature under this Constitution shall provide for revising, digesting and publishing the laws, civil and criminal; and a like revision, digest and publication may be made every ten years thereafter: Provided, That in the adoption of and giving effect to any such digest or revision, the Legislature shall not be limited by sections 35 and 36 of this article.

Sec. 44. The Legislature shall provide by law for the compensation of all officers, servants, agents and public contractors, not provided for in this Constitution, but shall not grant extra compensation to any officer, agent, servant or public contractors, after such public service shall have been performed or contract entered into for the performance of the same; nor grant, by appropriation or otherwise, any amount of money out of the treasury of the State, to any individual on a claim, real or pretended, when the same shall not have been provided for by pre-existing law; nor employ anyone in the name of the State unless authorized by pre-existing law.

Sec. 45. The power to change the venue in civil and criminal cases shall be vested in the courts, to be exercised in such manner as shall be provided by law; and the Legislature shall pass laws for that purpose.

Sec. 46. The Legislature shall, at its first session after the adoption of this Constitution, enact effective vagrant laws.

Sec. 47. The Legislature shall pass laws prohibiting the establishment of lotteries and gift enterprises in this State, as well as the sale of tickets in lotteries, gift enterprises or other evasions involving the lottery principle, established or existing in other States.

Sec. 48. The Legislature shall not have the right to levy taxes or impose burdens upon the people, except to raise revenue sufficient for the economical administration of the government, in which may be included the following purposes:

The payment of all interest upon the bonded debt of the State;

The erection and repairs of public buildings;

The benefit of the sinking fund, which shall not be more than two per centum of the public debt; and for the payment of the present floating debt of the State, including matured bonds for the payment of which the sinking fund is inadequate;

The support of public schools, in which shall be included colleges and universities established by the State; and the maintenance and support of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas;

The payment of the cost of assessing and collecting the revenue; and the payment of all officers, agents and employes of the State government, and all incidental expenses connected therewith;

The support of the blind asylum, the deaf and dumb asylum, and the insane asylum, the State cemetery and the public grounds of the State;

The enforcement of quarantine regulations on the coast of Texas;

The protection of the frontier.

Sec. 49. No debt shall be created by or on behalf of the State, except to supply casual deficiencies of revenue, repel invasion, suppress insurrection, defend the State in war, or pay existing debt; and the debt created to supply deficiencies in the revenue shall never exceed in the aggregate at any one time two hundrd thousand dollars.

Sec. 50. The Legislature shall have no power to give or to lend, or to authorize the giving or lending, of the credit of the State in aid of, or to any person, association or corporation, whether municipal or other; or to pledge the credit of the State, in any manner whatsoever, for the payment of the liabilities, present or prospective, of any individual, association of individuals, municipal or other corporation whatsoever.

Sec. 51. The Legislature shall have no power to make any grant, or authorize the making of any grant, of public money to any individual, association of individuals, municipal or other corporation whatsoever: Provided, that this shall not be so construed as to prevent the grant of aid in case of public calamity.

Sec. 52. The Legislature shall have no power to authorize any county, city, town, or other political corporation or subdivision of the State, to lend its credit or to grant public money or thing of value, in aid of or to any individual, association or corporation whatsoever; or to become a stockholder in such corporation, association or company.

Sec. 53. The Legislature shall have no power to grant, or to authorize any county or municipal authority to grant, any extra compensation, fee or allowance to a public officer, agent, servant or contractor, after service has been rendered, or a contract has been entered into, and performed in whole or in part;

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nor pay, nor authorize the payment of, any claim created against any county or municipality of the State, under any agreement or contract made without authority of law.

Sec. 54. The Legislature shall have no power to release or alienate any lien held by the State upon any railroad, or in any. wise change the tenor or meaning or pass any act explanatory thereof; but the same shall be enforced in accordance with the original terms upon which it was acquired.

Sec. 55. The Legislature shall have no power to release or extinguish, or to authorize the releasing or extinguishing, in whole or in part, the indebtedness, liability or obligation of any corporation or individual to this State, or to any county, or other municipal corporation therein.

Sec. 56. The Legislature shall not, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, pass any local or special law, authorizing

The creation, extention or impairing of liens;

Regulating the affairs of counties, cities, towns, wards or school districts;

Changing the names of persons or places;
Changing the venue in civil or criminal cases;

Authorizing the laying out, opening, altering or maintaining of roads, highways, streets or alleys;

Relating to ferries or bridges, or incorporating ferry or bridge companies, except for the erection of bridges crossing streams which form boundaries between this and any other State;

Vacating roads, town plats, streets or alleys;

Relating to cemeteries, graveyards, or public grounds not of the State;

Authorizing the adoption or legitimation of children;
Locating or changing county seats;

Incorporating cities, stowns or villages, or changing their charters;

For the opening and conducting of elections, or fixing or changing the places of voting;

Granting divorces;

Creating offices, or prescribing the powers and duties of officers, in counties, cities, towns, election or school districts;

Changing the law of descent or succession;

Regulating the practice or jurisdiction of, or changing the rules of evidence in any judicial proceeding or inquiry before

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