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CHAPTER 1. A declaration of the rights of the inhabitants of the State of Ver

mont. Article 1. All men born free; their natural

rights; slavery prohibited. 2. Private property subject to pub

lic use; owner to be paid. 3. Freedom in religion; right and

duty of religious worship. 4. Remedy at law secured to all. 6. People by the Legislature, to

regulate internal police. 6. Officers servants of the people. 7. Government for the people; they

may change it. 8. Elections to be free and pure;

rights of freemen therein. 9. Citizen's rights and duties in

the State. - Bearing arms.

Taxation. 10. Rights of persons accused of

crime. Personal liberty. 11. Search and selzure regulated. 12. Trial by jury to be held sacred. 13. Freedom of speech and of the

press. 14. Immunity for words spoken in

legislative debate. 15. Legislature only may suspend

laws. 16. Right to bear arms; standing

armies; military power subor

dinate to civil. 17. Martial law restricted. 18. Regard to fundamental princi

ples and virtues, necessary to

preserve liberty. 19. Right to emigrate. 20. Right to assemble, instruct and

petition. 2:. No transportation for trial.

Section 2. Superseded. 3. Superseded. 4. Courts of justice in each county;

judges. 5. Courts of chancery may be

erected. 6. Legislative, executive and judi.

ciary departments to be dis

tinct. 7. Town representation. 8. Election of representatives. 9. Powers of the Legislature. 10. Election of Governor, Lieuten

ant-Governor and Treasurer. 11. Governor and executive power. 12. Representative's oaths. 13. Doors of general assembly to be

open, 14. Journals, with yeas and nays to

be printed. 15. Style of laws. 16. Superseded. 17. Only money appropriated by

act of legislation to be drawn

from treasury. 18. Residence of representatives. 19. Represeutatives not to act as

counsel or take fee for advo

cating bill. 20. Legislature not to declare any

guilty of treason or felony. 21. Freeman's qualifications and

oath. 22. Inhabitants to be armed and

trained.-officers of militia. 23. Form of commissions; State

seal. 24. Impeachments; all officers liable

to; no bar to prosecution at

law. 25. Officers of profit forbidden.

Officers to have reasonable compensation. — Fees to be lessened. Receiving Illegal

fees. 26. Incompatible offices. - Federal

officers ineligible.


Plan or frame of government. Section 1. Superseded.



Article 27. Superseded.

7. Senate to try impeachments.28. Treasurer's accounts to be aud.

Extent of judgment. ited.

8. Governor supreme executive, 29. Oaths of allegiance and office.

his powers.-May appoint secEvery officer to take and sub

retary of civil and military scribe them.

affairs. 30. Eligibility of Governor and

9. General assembly canvass Lieutenant-Governor.

votes for Governor, Lieuten31. Trials of proper issues to be by

ant-Governor and Treasurer; jury.

and to elect these officers 11 32. Form of prosecutions and indict

the freemen do not. ments.-Fines.

10. General assembly to elect Sec33. Imprisonment for debt restrict

retary of State and certain ed.--Prisoners bailable.-No ex.

other officers. cessive bail.

11. Bills to be sent to the Governor; 34. Elections to be free and volun

to be signed by him if apo tary; punishment for corrup

proved.-Veto and proceedings tion.

thereon.-Bills not returned. 35. Deeds to be recorded.

12. Writs of habeas corpus not to 36. Entails to be regulated.

be suspended. 37. Punishment for crimes not capi. 13. Effects of certain amendments tal to be hard labor.

to the Constitution. 38. Suicide's estate not to be for- 14. Freemen to elect assistant feited.-No deodand.

judges of the County Court. 39. Citizenship, how obtained.

15. Freemen to elect sheriffs and 40. Liberty to hunt, fowl and fish

high bailiffs. 41. Laws to encourage virtue and

16. Freemen to elect State's attor prevent vice to be kept in

neys. force. - Schools to be main

17. Freemen to elect judges of protained and religious societies

bate. encouraged.

18. Freemen to elect justices of the 12. Declaration of rights not to be

peace.-Number of justices in violated.

each town. 13. Abrogated.

19. Officers named in five preceding

sections to be elected by balARTICLES OF AMENDMENT.


20. Election of assistant judges of Article

the 1. Foreigners to be naturalized be

County Court, sheriffs, fore becoming freemen.

high bailiffs, State's attorneys, 2. House of Representatives.

judges of probate, and justices 3. General assembly; like powers

of the peace; the Governor to

commission them. of Senate and House in legislation. Revenue bills. — Ad- 21. Legislature to provide for yajournment.

cancy in offices of Governor,

and 4. Superseded.

Lieutenant - Governor. 5. Election of Senators; duties of

Governor may appoint a treas. several officers therein.—Legis

urer to fill a vacancy. lature may regulate the elec- 22. Securities to be given by treation.

surer, sheriffs and high bail6. Powers of the Senate.-Lieuten

iffs. ant-Governor to be present 23. Senators; their number, qualifiand have casting vote.

cations and apportionment.

24. Sec. 1. Biennial sessions.-Sec. 2.

Biennial elections. - Sec. 3.
Term of office of the Governor, 1
Lieutenant - Governor

Treasurer.-Sec. 4. Term of of-
fice of Senators and Represen-
tatives.Sec. 5. Term of office

of county officers.
25. Sec. 1 Mode of amending Consti-

tution.-Sec. 2. General assem-
bly may direct manner of vot-


ing on amendments. - Sec. 3. House of Representatives may order impeachments. - Sec. 4.

Council of censors abolished. 26. Term of office of judges of the

Supreme Court. 27. Additional oath to representa

tives. Construction of words

in oath. 28. Election of Secretary of State

and auditor of accounts.

Chapter 1.

ARTICLE I. A Declaration of the Rights of the Inhabitants of the State of

Vermont. That all men are born equally free and independent, and have certain natural, inherent and unalienable rights, amongst which are the enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety. Therefore, no male person born in this country, or brought from over the sea, ought to be holden by law, to serve any person as a servant, slave or apprentice, after he arrived to the age of twenty-one years, nor female in like man. ner, after she arrives to the age of eighteen years, unless they are bound by their own consent, after they arrive to such age, or bound by law for the payment of debts, damages, fines, costs, or the like.

ARTICLE II. That private property ought to be subservient to public uses when necessity requires it; nevertheless, whenever any person's property is taken for the use of the public, the owner ought to receive an equivalent in money.

ARTICLE III. That all men have a natural and unalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences and understandings, as in their opinion shall be regulated by the word of God; and that no man ought to, or of right can be compelled to attend any religious worship, or erect or support any place of worship, or maintain any minister contrary to the dictates of his conscience, nor can any man be justly deprived or

abridged of any civil right as a citizen on account of his religious sentiments or peculiar mode of religious worship; and that no authority can or ought to be vested in, or assumed by, any power whatever, that shall in any case interfere with, or in any manner control the rights of conscience, in the free exercise of religious worship. Nevertheless, every sect or denomination of Christians ought to observe the Sabbath or Lord's day, and keep up some sort of religious worship, which to them shall seem most agreeable to the revealed will of God.

ARTICLE IV. Every person within this State ought to find a certain remedy, by having recourse to the laws, for all injuries or wrongs which he may receive in his person, property or character; he ought to obtain right and justice, freely and without being obliged to purchase it, completely and without any denial, promptly and with. out delay, conformably to the laws.

ARTICLE V. That the people of this State, by their legal representatives, have the sole, inherent and exclusive right of governing and regu. lating the internal police of the same.

ARTICLE VI. That all power, being originally inherent in and consequently derived from the people, therefore, all officers of government, whether legislative or executive, are their trustees and servants, and at all times, in a legal way, accountable to them.

ARTICLE VII. That government is, or ought to be, instituted for the common benefit, protection and security of the people, nation or community, and not for the particular emolument or advantage of any single man, family, or set of men, who are a part only of that community; and that the community hath an indubitable, unalienable and indefeasible right to reform or alter government in such manner as shall be, by that community, judged most conducive to the public weal.

ARTICLE VIII. That all elections ought to be free and without corruption, and that all freemen, having a sufficient, evident, common interest

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