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Sec. 3. That the people of this State have the inherent, sole and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and police thereof, and of altering and abolishing their Constitution and form of government whenever it may be necessary for their safety and happiness; but every such right should be exercised in pnrsuance of law, and consistently with the Constitution of tle United States.

Sec. 4. That thís State shall ever remain a member of the American Union; that the people thereof are a part of the American Nation; that there is no right on the part of the State to secede, and that all attempts, from whatever source or upon whatever pretext, to dissolve said Union, or to sever said Nation, ought to be resisted with the whole power of the State.

Sec. 5. That every citizen of this State owes paramount allegiance to the Constitution and Government of the United States, and that no law or ordinance of the State in contravention or subversion thereof can have any binding force.

Sec. 6. The State shall never assume to pay, or authorize the collection of any debt or obligation, express or implied, incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; nor shall the General Assembly assume or pay, or authorize the collection of any tax to pay, either directly or indirectly, express or implied, any debt or bond incurred, or issued, by authority of the conven. tion of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, nor any debt or bond, incurred or issued by the Legislature of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, either at its special session of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, or at its regular session of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight and one thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine, and one thousand eight hundred and seventy, except the bonds issued to fund the interest on the old debt of the State, unless the proposing to pay the same shall have first been submitted to the people and by them ratified by the vote of a majority of all the qualified voters of the State, at a regular election held for that purpose.

Sec. 7. No man or set of men are entitled to exclusive or separate emoluments or privileges from the community but in consideration of public services.

Sec. 8. The legislative, executive and supreme judicial powers of the government ought to be forever separate and distinct from each other.

Sec. 9. All power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by any authority, without the consent of the representatives of the people, is injurious to their rights, and ought not to be exercised.

Sec. 10. All elections ought to be free.

Sec. 11. In all criminal prosecutions, every man has the right to be informed of the accusation against him and to confront the accusers and witnesses with other testimony, and to have counsel for his defense, and not be compelled to give evidence against himself or to pay costs, jail fees, or necessary witness fees of the defense, unless found guilty.

Sec. 12. No person shall be put to answer any criminal charge, except as hereinafter allowed, but by indictment, presentment or impeachment.

Sec. 13. No person shall be convicted of any crime but by the unanimous verdict of a jury of good and lawful men in open court. The Legislature may, however, provide other means of trial for petty misdemeanors, with the right of appeal.

Sec. 14. Excessive bail should not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel nor unusual punishments inflicted.

Sec. 15. General warrants, whereby any officer or messenger may be commanded to search suspected places, without evidence of the act committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, whose offense is not particularly described and supported by evidence, are dangerous to liberty and ought not to be granted.

Sec. 16. There shall be no imprisonment for debt in this State, except in cases of fraud.

Sec. 17. No person ought to be taken, imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties or privileges, or outlawed or exiled, or in any manner deprived of his life, liberty or prop erty, but by the law of the land.

Sec. 18. Every person restrained of his liberty is entitled to a remedy to inquire into the lawfulness thereof, and to remove the same, if unlawful; and such remedy ought not to be denied ar delayed.

Sec. 19. In all controversies at law respecting property, the ancient mode of trial by jury is one of the best securities of the rights of the people, and ought to remain sacred and inviolable.

Sec. 20. The freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks of liberty, and therefore ought never to be restrained, but every individual shall be held responsible for the abuse of the same.

Sec. 21. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended.

Sec. 22. As political rights and privileges are not dependent upon, or modified by, property, therefore no property qualification ought to effect the right to vote or hold office.

Sec. 23. The people of the State ought not to be taxed, or made subject to the payment of any impost or duty without the consent of themselves, or their representatives in the General Assembly freely given.

Sec. 24. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed; and, as standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up, and the military should be kept under strict subordination to, and gov. erned by, the civil power. Nothing herein contained shall justify the practice of carrying concealed weapons, or prevent the Legislature from enacting penal statutes against said practice.

Sec. 25. The people have a right to assemble together to consult for their common good, to instruct their representatires, and to apply to the Legislature for redress of grievances. But secret political societies are dangerous to the liberties of a free people, and should not be tolerated.

Sec. 26. All men have a natural and inalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences, and no human authority should, in any case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience.

Sec. 29. The people have the right to the privilege of educa. tion, and it is the duty of the State to guard and maintain that right.

Sec. 28. For redress of grievances, and for amending and strengthening the laws, elections should be often held.

See, 29. A frequent recurrence to fundamental principles is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty.

Sec. 30. No hereditary emoluments, privileges or honors ought to be granted or conferred in this State.

Sec. 31 Perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the genius of a free State, and ought not to be allowed.

Sec. 32. Retrospective laws, punishing acts committed before the existence of such laws, and by them only declared criminal, are oppressive, unjust and incompatible with liberty; wherefore no ex post facto law ought to be made. No law taxing retrospectively sales, purchases, or other acts previously done, ought to be passed.

Sec. 33. Slavery and involuntary servitude, otherwise than for crime, whereof the parties shall bave been duly convicted, shall be and are hereby forever prohibited within this State.

Sec. 34. The limits and boundaries of the State shall be and remain as they now are.

Sec. 35. All courts shall be open; and every person for an injury done him in his lands, goods, person or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law, and right and justice administered without sale, denial or delay.

Sec. 36. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner prescribed by law.

Sec. 37. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people; and all powers not herein delegated remain with the people.


Legislative Department. Section 1. The legislative authority shall be vested in two distinct branches, both dependent on the people, to wit: A Senate and House of Representatives.

Sec. 2. The Senate and House of Representatives shall meet biennially on the first Wednesday after the first Monday in January next after their election; and, when assembled, shall be denominated the General Assembly. Neither house shall proceed upon public business unless a majority of all the members are actually present.

Sec. 3. The Senate shall be composed of fifty Senators, biennially chosen by ballot.

Sec. 4. The Senate districts shall be so altered by the General Assembly, at the first session after the return of every enumeration by order of Congress, that each Senate district shall contain, as near as may be, an equal number of inhabitants, excluding aliens and Indians not taxed, and shall remain unaltered until the return of another enumeration, and shall at all times consist of contiguous territory; and no county shall be divided in the formation of a Senate district, unless such county shall be equitably entitled to two or more Senators. Sec. 5. The House of Representatives shall be composed of

5 one hundred and twenty representatives, biennially chosen by ballot, to be elected by the counties respectively, according to their population, and each county shall have at least one repre. sentative in the House of Representatives, although it may not contain the requisite ratio of representation; this apportion. ment shall be made by the General Assembly at the respective times and periods when the districts of the Senate are herein. before directed to be laid off.

Sec. 6. In making the apportionment in the House of Repre. sentatives, the ratio of representation shall be ascertained by di. viding the amount of the population of the State, exclusive of that comprehended within those counties which do not severally contain the one hundred and twentieth part of the population of the State, by the number of Representatives, less the number assigned to such counties; and in ascertaining the number of the population of the State, aliens and Indians not taxed shall not be included. To each county containing the said ratio, and not twice the said

ratio, there shall be assigned

representative; to each county taining two but not three times the said ratio, there shall be assigned two representatives, and so on progressively, and then the remaining representatives shall be assigned severally to the counties having the largest fractions.

Sec. 7. Each member of the Senate shall not be less than twenty-five years of age, shall have resided in the State as a citizen two years, and shall have usually resided in the district from which he is chosen, one year immediately preceding his election.

Sec. 8. Each member of the House of Representatives shall be a qualified elector of the State, and shall have resided in the



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