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the rebellion in Ireland,—and the alarm of an invasion ;-by the dazzling career of Napoleon, his final overthrow at Waterloo, and the capture of Paris ;-by the military achievements of Granby, Wolfe, Eliott, Coote, Albemarle, Clive, Lake, Cornwallis, Abercromby, Wellington, Moore, Anglesea, Hill, and other distinguished commanders ;-by the naval victories obtained by Rodney, St. Vincent, Howe, Hawke, Duncan, Hood, and Nelson ;- by the successful labours of Cook, Anson, Carteret, Bruce, and other voyagers and travellers, and the spirited endeavours made to find a north-west passage ;-by the astonishing advance of science in all its branches ;by the discovery of vaccination ;-by extraordinary improvements in manufacture, – the vast extension of commerce,—the increased spirit of speculation, the fluctuations of public credit,—the South Sea Scheme, and the Bubble Companies of 1825 ;~ by controversies of singular interest among the dignitaries of the established church, and the important foundation of Methodism ;-by political contests of almost unprecedented bitterness, many of them marked by the circumstance of the heir-apparent supporting the opposition ;-by the close imprisonment of one Queen Consort, and the introduction of a bill of pains and penalties against another ;-by the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts,-the emancipation of the Catholics, and the strenuous exertions made to obtain a change in the representation of the people;-by the number of masterly productions in literature and the arts, and by the rapid advancement of general knowledge.

The present Work includes memoirs of the most eminent persons in every influential class of life, who have flourished within this important period; and these are properly classified, and chronologically arranged in their respective divisions, so as to display a sketch of the progress of National Events and Public Affairs, Theology and Jurisprudence, Naval and Military Operations, Philosophy and Science, Political and Rural Economy, Inland and Maritime Discovery, Literature, Music, Fine Arts, and the Drama, not only during the whole of the Georgian Era, but for a considerable period previous to its commencement,-a retrospective view being necessarily taken of the career of those who were living at the accession of the Brunswick family to the throne of Great Britain,—to which event many of them were conspicuous accessories,—while the memoirs of eminent characters, still in existence, or recently deceased, are, of course, brought down only to the termination of the Era,-namely, the demise of George the Fourth.

By any other system, than that which has been pursued in these volumes, it would be impossible, perhaps, to deal justly with such a vast number of lives in so comparatively limited a space.

In a more extensive work,-a biographical dictionary, for example,—the memoirs of cotemporaries, of fellow-countrymen, of associates in arms, in enterprise, or in policy, are, on account of the alphabetical arrangement, posited far apart; the compiler is, therefore, necessarily compelled to repeat at length the narrative of those public transactions, in which they individually bore a share: while, in these volumes, the lives being classified, general circumstances, after having been stated fully, in the memoir of that individual who has contributed chiefly to their consummation, are noticed briefly, whenever it becomes necessary to allude to them again.

A few memoirs of eminent persons, accidentally omitted in the body of the work, are located in Appendices to the respective classes, at the end of each volume, among summary sketches of those who have been mere satellites to their more illustrious cotemporaries.

All the lives have been originally compiled, and entirely rewritten ; and many of the memoirs, particularly those of recent worthies, are, in the strictest sense of the term, original; so that, however brief they may appear, they compose all that can be gathered, worthy of record, relative to the individuals of whom they treat.

Every possible exertion has been made, both on the part of the Editor and his assistants to elucidate doubtful points, to reconcile conflicting authorities, and to rectify the errors of preceding writers. No public event, or private anecdote, of interest or importance, has been either negligently omitted, or wilfully concealed; so that, it is hoped, the volumes may be said to form at once a work of entertainment and reference. Reliance has never been placed on any single biography; various authorities have invariably been consulted, and existing memoirs of cotemporary characters have been corrected by careful comparison with each other. A judicious use has also been made of the valuable diaries, autobiographies, and original letters of eminent persons, which have recently been brought to light. Wherever information was suspected to lurk, there it has been diligently sought: in addition to the more grave and obvious sources, anecdotal, miscellaneous, and periodical works,

,-even fugitive pieces, and foreign literature,—have been adventurously explored. In many cases,

reference has been made, with material advantage, to the existing relatives of departed worthies; and, in some, an inspection of important family papers has been obtained.

The Editor fearlessly asserts an unimpeachable claim to strict impartiality; in summing up the characters, he has acted under no influence but that of his own judgment. Not only has he spurned any truckling to party feeling, but that lamentable transmission of error, as well with regard to opinion as matter of fact, from generation to generation, which arises from the ready faith reposed in the statements of distinguished authors, he has, in numerous cases, successfully checked. Laurels, originally awarded by private friendship, bigoted admiration, or political partisanship, are, in the present Work, torn from the brows of the undeserving, and transferred to those of such meritorious individuals as have been visited wi obloquy, either through ignorance of their merits, personal pique, public clamour, or party bitterness. Many persons of great abilities have met with no literary advocates; while others, of doubtful claims, have had their

nothings monstered” by adulatory biographers, although treated with apathetic indifference by those who were most competent to judge of their qualities :- :-an attempt has been made to remedy such evils in these volumes; the judgment pronounced on each individual, being, it is sincerely hoped, commensurate with his merits, however it may differ from his standard reputation.

London,

January, 1832.

CONTENTS.

THE ROYAL FAMILY.

Page Adelaide, Duchess of Clarence ....

135 Adolphus Fred. Duke of Cambridge 139 Alfred, Prince..

473 Amelia, Princess

141 Amelia Sophia, Princess

54 Anne, Princess of Orange

53 Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick .. 62 Augusta, Duchess of Cambridge 139 Augusta, Princess of Wales

47 Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex 139 Caroline Augusta, Princess.

473 Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark 103 Caroline, Princess

473 Caroline, Queen of George II. ....

29 Caroline, Queen of George IV. 105 Charlotte, Princess, of Saxe Coburg 141 Charlotte, Queen of Wirtemberg .. 137 Edward Augustus, Duke of York..

100 Edward, Duke of Kent......

138 Elizabeth Adelaide, Princess

473 Elizabeth Caroline, Princess

55 Elizabeth Caroline, Princess ......

473 Elizabeth, of Hesse Homberg

473 Elizabeth, Princess

473 Ernest Aug. Duke of Cumberland..

138 Frederica Charlotte, Duchess of York 129 Frederica, Duchess of Cumberland 138

Page Frederick Augustus, Duke of York 129 Frederick, Prince of Wales

47 Frederick William, Prince ........ 473 George the First ..

17 George the Second..

29 George the Third

63 George the Fourth..

105 George Frederick, Prince

473 George, Prince

473 George William, Prince

473 Henry Fred. Duke of Cumberland 101 Louisa Anne, Princess.....

103 Louisa, Queen of Denmark

61 Mary, Duchess of Gloucester.. 140 Mary, Princess of Hesse

61 Octavius, Prince...........

473 Sophia Charlotte, Q. of George III. 63 Sophia Dorothea, Queen of George I. 17 Sophia Dorothea, Queen of Prussia 46 Sophia Matilda, P. of Gloucester.. 473 Sophia, Princess

473 Victoria, Duchess of Kent

138 Victoria, Princess

473 William Aug. Duke of Cumberland 55 William Fred. Duke of Gloucester

140 William Henry, Duke of Gloucester 101 William Henry, Duke of Clarence.. 135

THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS.

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478

Page Anderson, Robert

478 Balmerino, Lord

179 Bernardi, John

474 Berwick, Duke of

474 Cameron, Archibald

186 Cameron, James, of Lochiel ...... 1 85 Carnwath, Earl of ...

175 Coppock, Thomas Cromartie, Earl of....

192 Dawson, James

479 Derwentwater, Earl of.

182 Dickson, Serjeant..

478 Forbes, Lord ......

179 Forster, Thomas

175 Grant, Colquhoun..

479 Johnstone, Chevalier de...

478 Keith, James

476 Kenmure, Viscount

165 Kilmarnoch, Earl of..

188 Lovat, Lord .......

169 Macdonald, Angus, of Keppoch.. 477 Macdonald, Flora

480

Macgregor, Malcolm.. Mackintosh, Brigadier Mar, Earl of Marischal, Earl Murray, Lord Charles Murray, Lord George Nairn, Lord ...... Nithisdale, Earl of. Ormond, Duke of Perth, Earl of.. Ratcliffe, Charles Stewart, Andrew, of Inverhayle Strathallan, Viscount Stuart, James Frederick Edwal, Stuart, Charles Edward Tullibardine, Marquess of Wharton, Duke of.. Widdrington, Lord Wintoun, Earl of Wogan, Nicholas York, Cardinal

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