Insects as Natural Enemies: A Practical Perspective

Front Cover
Mark A. Jervis
Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 26, 2007 - Science - 748 pages

Over the past three decades there has been a dramatic increase in theoretical and practical studies on insect natural enemies. The appeal of insect predators, and parasitoids in particular, as research animals derives from the relative ease with which many species may be cultured and experimented with in the laboratory, the simple life cycles of most parasitoids, and the increasing demand for biological pest control.

There is now a massive literature on insect natural enemies, so there is a great need for a general text that the enquiring student or research worker can use in deciding on approaches and techniques that are appropriate to the study and evaluation of such insects. This book fulfils that demand. A considerably updated and expanded version of a previous best-seller, it is an account of major aspects of the biology of predators and parasitoids, punctuated with information and advice on which experiments or observations to conduct, and how to carry them out. Guidance is provided, where necessary, on the literature that may need to be consulted on particular topics.

While researchers can now refer to several books on parasitoids and predators, Insects as Natural Enemies is unique in emphasising practicalities. It is aimed at students and professional working in universities and both government and commercial institutes in the fields of pest management, agriculture, horticulture and forestry.

 

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Contents

FORAGING BEHAVIOUR
1
12 METHODOLOGY
2
13 THE TREATMENT OF PARASITOIDS PRIOR TO THEIR USE IN EXPERIMENTS
8
14 HANDLING BEHAVIOURAL DATA
10
15 HOSTPREY LOCATION BEHAVIOUR
11
16 CLUTCH SIZE
34
17 HOSTFEEDING
37
18 HOST DISCRIMINATION
38
35 QUANTITATIVE GENETICS
201
MATING BEHAVIOUR
219
42 GENERAL METHODOLOGY
222
43 PAIR FORMATION AND COURTSHIP
227
44 COPULATION AND INSEMINATION
244
45 POSTMATING EVENTS
249
46 COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF MATING BEHAVIOUR
257
47 CONCLUSION
260

19 SEX ALLOCATION
45
110 FUNCTIONAL RESPONSES
49
111 SWITCHING BEHAVIOUR
54
112 PATCH TIME ALLOCATION
56
113 PATCH DEFENCE BEHAVIOUR
60
114 DISTRIBUTION OF PARASITOIDS OVER A HOST POPULATION
61
115 MEASURING ENCOUNTER RATES
65
116 LIFEHISTORY TRAITS AND FORAGING BEHAVIOUR
66
117 THE COST OF REPRODUCTION
67
119 FORAGING BEHAVIOUR AND TAXONOMY
68
121 INSECT NATURAL ENEMY FORAGING BEHAVIOUR AND COMMUNITY ECOLOGY
69
122 CONCLUDING REMARKS
70
123 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
71
THE LIFECYCLE
73
23 FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
77
24 MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
92
26 LOCATING EGGS IN HOSTS
93
27 FECUNDITY
94
28 ADULT LONGEVITY
108
29 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF IMMATURES
114
210 SURVIVAL OF IMMATURES
140
211 INTRINSIC RATE OF NATURAL INCREASE
154
212 DORMANCY
159
213 INVESTIGATING PHYSIOLOGICAL RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND DYNAMICS
162
214 TRACKING RESOURCES
164
215 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
165
GENETICS
166
33 GENETICS OF REPRODUCTIVE MODE
185
34 GENETICS OF SEX DETERMINATION AND SEX RATIO
190
MATING SYSTEMS
261
53 METHODS OF STUDYING MATING SYSTEMS
264
54 UNRAVELLING PARASITOID MATING SYSTEMS
271
55 PREDATOR MATING SYSTEMS
292
56 CONCLUSIONS
297
57 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
298
POPULATIONS AND COMMUNITIES
299
62 FIELD SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
301
63 DETERMINING TROPHIC RELATIONSHIPS
366
64 GENETIC VARIABILITY IN FIELD POPULATIONS OF NATURAL ENEMIES
417
65 WOLBACHIA BACTERIA AND OTHER INTRACELLULAR SYMBIONTS AND PARASITOIDS AND PREDATORS
419
66 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
434
POPULATION DYNAMICS
435
73 THE ROLE OF NATURAL ENEMIES IN INSECT POPULATION DYNAMICS
455
74 SELECTION CRITERIA IN CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
504
76 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
523
PHYTOPHAGY
525
82 WHAT PLANT MATERIALS DO NATURAL ENEMIES FEED UPON AND FROM WHAT SOURCES?
527
83 DO NATURAL ENEMIES SHOW SPECIFICITY IN THE PLANT FOOD SOURCES THEY EXPLOIT?
532
84 INTERPRETING PATTERNS OF RESOURCE UTILISATION
535
85 INSECT PREFERENCES AND FORAGING ENERGETICS
536
A DIRECTED APPROACH
541
87 NATURAL ENEMIES AS POLLINATORS AND THE USE OF FLOWER VISITATION WEBS
548
88 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
550
REFERENCES
551
AUTHOR INDEX
687
GENUS AND SPECIES INDEX
713
SUBJECT INDEX
722
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Page 686 - Karr, TL, and Hunter, MS (2001). A newly discovered bacterium associated with parthenogenesis and a change of host selection behaviour in parasitoid wasps.

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