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Noah, had any private dominion, any property in the creatures, exclusive of his posterity, as they should successively grow up into need of them, and come to be able to make use of them.
$. 40. Thus we have examined our author's argument for Adam's monarchy, founded on the blessing pronounced, i.Gen. 28. Wherein I think it is impossible for any sober reader, to find any other but the setting of mankind above the other kinds of creatures, in this habitable earth of ours.
It is nothing but the giving to man, the whole species of man, as the chief inhabitant, who is the image of his Maker, the dominion over the other creatures. This lies so obvious in the plain words, that any one, but our author, would have thought it necessary to have shewn, how these words, that seemed to say the quite contrary, gave Adam monarchical absolute power over other men, or the fole property in all the creatures ; and methinks in a business of this moment, and that whereon he builds all that follows, he should have done something more than barely cite words, which apparently make against him ; for I confess, I cannot see any thing in them, tending to Adam's monarchy, or private dominion, but quite the contrary. And I the less deplore the dulness of my apprehension herein, since I find the apostle seems to have as little notion of any such private dominion of Adam
as I, when he says, God gives us all things richly to enjoy, which he could not do, if it were all given away already, to Monarch Adam, and the monarchs his heirs and succeflors. To conclude, this text is so far from proving Adam sole proprietor, that, on the contrary, it is a confirmation of the original community of all things amongst the fons of men, which appearing from this donation of God, as well as other places of feripture, the sovereignty of Adam, built upon his private dominion, must fall, not having any
foundation to support it.
§. 41. But yet, if after all, any one will needs have it so, that by this donation of God, Adam was made sole proprietor of the whole earth, what will this be to his fovereignty? and how will it appear, that propriety in land gives a man power over the life of another ? or how will the possession even of the whole earth, give any one a sovereign arbitrary authority over the persons of men ? The most specious thing to be said, is, that he that is proprietor of the whole world, may deny all the rest of mankind food, and so at his pleasure starve them, if they will not acknowledge his sovereignty, and obey his will. If this were true, it would be a good argument to prove,' that there never was any such property, that God any such private dominion ; since it is more reasonable to think, that God, who bid man
kind increase and multiply, should rather himself give them all a right to make use of the food and raiment, and other conveniences of life, the materials whereof he had so plentifully provided for them; than to make them depend upon the will of a man for their subfiftence, who should have power to destroy them all when he pleased, and who, being no better than other men, was in fucceffion likelier, by want and the dependence of a scanty fortune, to tie them to hard service, than by Liberal allowance of the conveniences of life to promote the great design of God, increase and multiply : he that doubts this, let him look into the absolute monarchies of the world, and see what becomes of the conveniences of life, and the multitudes of people.
§. 42. But we know God hath not left one man so to the mercy of another, that he may starve him if he please : God the Lord and Father of all has given no one of his children such a property in his peculiar portion of the things of this world, but that he has given his needy brother a right to the furplusage of his goods ; so that it cannot justly be denied him, when his pressing wants call for it : and therefore no man could ever have a just power over the life of another by right of property in land or possessions ; since it would always be a sin, in any man of estate, to let his brother perish for want of affording him relief out of his plenty. As
so charity gives every man ati
justice gives every man a title to the product of his honeft industry, and the fair acquifitions of his ancestors descended to him
man a title to so much out of another's plenty, aš will keep him from extreme want, where he has no means to fubfift otherwise : and a man can no more justly make use of another’s necessity, to force him to become his vaffal, by with-holding that relief, God requires him to afford to the wants of his brother, than he that has more strength can seize upon a weaker, master him to his obedience, and with a dagger at his throat offer him death or slavery.
Should any one make so perverse an use of God's blessings poured on him with a liberal hand ; should any one be cruel and uncharitable to that extremity, yet all this would not prove that propriety in land, even in this case, gave any authority over the perfons of men, but only that compact night; since the authority of the rich proprietor, and the subjection of the needy beggar, began not from the poffefsion of the Lord, but the consent of the poor man, who preferred being his subject to starving. And the man he thus submits to, can pretend to no more power over him, than he has consented to, upon compact. Upon this ground a man's having his stores filled in a time of scarcity, having money in his pocket, being in a vessel at sea, being able to swim, &c may as well be
the foundation of rule and dominion, as being poffeffor of all the land in the world; any of thefe being sufficient to enable me to save a man's life, who would perish if such affistance were denied him; and any thing, by this rule, that may be an occafion of working upon another's neceflity, to save his life, or any thing dear to him, at the rate of his freedom, may be made a foundation of love. reignty, as well as property. From all which it is clear, that though God should have given Adam private dominion, yet that private dominion could give him no fovereignty ; but
we have already sufficiently proved, that God gave him no private dominion.
CHA P. V. Of Adam's Title to Sovereignty by tbe Subjection
of Eve. HE next place of scripture we
find our author builds his monarchy of Adam on, is iii. Gen. 26. And thy defire shall be to thy busband, and he shall rule over thee. Here we have (says he) the original grant of government, from whence he concludes, in the following part of the page, Observations, 244. That the supreme power is settled in the fatherhood, and limited to one kind of government, that is, to monarchy. For let his premises be what they will, this is always the conclufion; let rule, in any text, be but once named, and presently absolute n?oE