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**that hight forward with additional beauty, and the whole of the sentence is
This is a Grecism. Tevouai signifies not only gusto, but likewise experior, periculum the mother's side; but the want of a comma in its due place after 'if he be man,' hath
Aran has however preserved the pointing of Milton's own edition, because some, tri 14, that he to join the whole together, and understand it thus : Satan had heard A man ni him, he questions if he be man even by the mother's side; “ If he be man br
1, apertainium Heaven, and knew him to be the Son of God; and now, after the trial Within mini," lle farther observes, that it is the purport of Satan, in this speech, Vhont him antagonist. It seems to me that there can be no doubt respecting this North portainly sees it in its true light : but I conceive his sense of it is
♡ may we bold our place and these mild seats
W Scre than human gifts from Heaven adorn'd,
?"** *58 273. 5. Michael Psellus, in his dialogue concerning the operame de cellules saw sof borrowed some of his notions of spirits, speaks to the
E er baas kods of demons, and of all sorts of forms and bodies ; $ 2 ITE IS & das is fall, the earth and the sea are full, and the iu most ade dunes : si ke avides them into sis kinds ; the fiery, the aery, the earbs
, the #2:, 72€ s berses, as the lacifugous, p. 45, edit. Lutet. Paris. 1615. But the deais ex des ressed in ise elements and partook of their nature, but also presived and red over thea: as Japter in the air, Vulcan in the fire, Neptune in the watet, Cybeie it the ear:1; ad Piuto under the earth.– Newton.
: I» full frequence. Milton, in his “ Asary of Es vad," has said, " The assembly was full and frequent :" and in Paradise Loss," i. i. 19:. the council of devils was " frequent and full." Here the adjective is formed into a substantive, as in b. i. 128 : and Shakspeare uses it in the same manner,“ Timon," a, T. s. 3.
Tell Athens, in the frequence of degree,
From high to low throughout.-NEWTON. facio.-DUNSTER.
• Howerer to this man inferiour far, &c. I have ventured to correct the punctuation. The passage in the first editions, and in Dr. Newton's, stands pointed thus :
However to this man inferiour far,
With more than human gifts from Heaven adorn'd, &c. On this, Mr. Calton observes: “The Tempter had no doubt of Christ's being a man 144pt support the syntax ;
If he be man, by mother's side at least (he is)."
• Taska Ain.
********* thing is the evil spirits that may lessen, but every thing that may
and which I
..! perferie, by the punctuation which I have adopted ; All phble to have been intended by Milton.-DUNSTER.
Perfections absolute, graces divine,
So spake the old serpent, doubting; and from all
c With more than human gifts from Heaven adorn'd,
Perfections absolute, graces divine,
And amplitude of mind to greatest deeds. Many lines of the “ Paradise Regained" have been censured as harsh and in harmonious; but even of these the greater part may be vindicated, (as it has been done in some instances by Mr. Thyer) by showing thai they were very far from being of that kind quas incuria fudit ; and that many of them are peculiarly expressive, and were purposely designed as kuch by the poet. The three lines above cited seem however secure from every possibility of disapprobation : they are so eminently beautiful, that they must strike every ear that is not quite devoid of feeling and of taste. Mr. Thyer particularly notices the fine effect of the last line, and the dignity and significancy of the expression “ amplitude of mind ;' which he also supposes wight have been suggested by the following passage in Tully's “ Tusc. Disput." ii. 25.-—" Hoc igitur tibi propone, amplitudinem et quasi quandam exaggerationem quain altissimam animi, quæ maxime eminet contemnendis et despiciendis doloribus, unam esse omnium rem pulcherrimam.”- DUNSTER.
d Belial, the dissolutest spirit that fell,
The sensualest; and, after Asmodai,
The fleshliest incubus. I have heard these three lines objected to as harsh and inharmonious, but in my opinion the very objection points out a remarkable beauty in them. It is true, they do not run very smoothly off the tongue; but then they are with much better judgment so contrived, that the reader is obliged to lay a particular emphasis, and to dwell for some time upon the word in each verse which most strongly expresses the character described, viz. “ dissolutest, sensualest, Aeshliest.” This has a very good effect by impressing the idea more strongly upon the mind, and contributes even in some measure to increase our aversion to the odious character of Belial, by giving an air of detestation to the very tone of voice with which these verses must necessarily be read.—THYER.
This is a just remark of Thyer; it is happy where the metre requires that the strongest accent should be thrown where it is most necessary to enforce the sense.
The character of Belial in the "Paradise Lost,” and the part he sustains there, sufficiently show how properly he is introduced upon the present occasion. He is here said to be the
fleshliest incubus after Asmodai ;” or “Asmadai," as it is written, “ Paradise Lost," b. vi. 365 ; or " Asmodeus,” b. iv. 168, the lustful angel who loved Sarah the daughter of Raguel, and destroyed her seven husbands, as we read in the book of Tobit.—Newton.
• Set women in his eye, &c. As this temptation is not mentioned in the Gospels, it could not with any propriety have been proposed to our Saviour; it is much more titly made the subject of debate among the wicked spirits themselves. All that can be said in praise of the power of beauty, and all that can be alleged to depreciate it, is here summed up with greater force and elegance, than I ever remember to have seen in any other author.—Newton.
Perhaps Milton remembered the description of beauty in “Solomon's Song,"ch, vi. 4:
In the same manner, Milton, in his description of Eve, “ Paradise Lost,"b, viii. 504:** pata Mt. Hver thinks, from a passage in the “ Andria" of Terence, a. iv. s. 1;
42 ng inazhters of men the fairest found:
Darca: w credamus desire", and lead
1 Nang are in esck region, &c. Mun missed compesure, appears to have been no stranger to the stros proepers of the passicofisse. `In bis firs: Elegy he speaks feelingly of the power of beauty, re. 13
Ah' quoties digne stupui miracula formæ, &c. In the seven:b Ernt, ut ea xe see of nineteen, he mentions the first time of his falling in love. He me: an ozonat fär on some public walks, in or about London ; was suddenly and violentis caparatai éc: Lad no epportunity of declaring his affection and gaining her acquaintance. He in ven a decut wishes to see her again, and flatters his imagination that her heart is not sie of adonantFive of his Italian Sonnets, and his Canzone
, are amatorial ; and were perhaps insured or Leonora, (Baroni.] a young lady whom he had heard sing at Rome, and wtom be celebrates in three Latin epigrams. But these were among the vanities of his routh. Yet at a much later and cooler period, when he wrote" the present poem, we find him deeply impressed with at least a remembrance of the various and irresistible allurements of beauty. These exquisite lines, ver. 155 to ver
, 169, were written by no Stoic. It is certain, ihat no poet has given more graceful and attracire images of beauty than Milton in his various portraits of Eve, cach in a new aspect and attitude.-T. WARTON.
8 Pirgin majesty with mild
And street allay'd, yet terrible to approach.
Miscetur decori virtus, pulcherque severo
Armatur terrore pudor.
"Thou art beautiful, O my love, as Tirzah, comely as Jerusalem, terrible as an army with bannere."--Todd.
h Skill'd to retire, and, in retiring, draw
Hearts after them. 1
Not obvious, not obtrusive, but retired,
The more desirable.-THYER.
i Smoothe the rugged'st brou.
1 Draw out with credulous desire.
Spes animi credula mutui :
Niin ohi mutia esse hoc visum solidum est gaudium,
At will the manliest, resolutest breast,
To whom quick answer Satan thus return'd :
Have we not seen, or by relation heard", “Credulous" might have been suggested by an ode of Horace, which Milton himself lns translated :
Qui nunc te fruitur credulus aurea;
k As the magnetick, &c. It should be the magnet, or magnetic stone. But Milton often converts the adjective, and uses it as the substantive. --NEWTON.
Lucian bath this simile in his “Imagines," vol. i. p. 2, ed. Græv.:-“But if the fair one once look upon you, what is it that can get you from her ? she will draw you after her at pleasure, bound hand and foot, just as the loadstone draws iron." We may observe, that Milton, by restraining the comparison to the power of beauty over the wisest men and the most stoical tempers, hath given it a propriety which is lost in a more general application. -Calton.
Claudian, having very poetically described the powers of the magnet, concludes his “Idylliurn," ina manner that possibly inight have suggested to Milton some of the preceding lines :
Quæ duras jungit concordia mentes?
I Before the flood thou with thy lusty crew,
False litled sons of God, &c. It is to be lamented that our author has so often adopted the vulgar notion of the angels having commerce with women, founded upon that mistaken text of Scripture, Gen. vi. 2 : -" The song of God saw the daughters of men, that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chosc."
Paradise Lost," b. iii. 463, &c. But though he seems to favour that opinion, as we may suppose, to embellish his poetry; yet he shows elsewbere that he understood the text rightly, of the sons of Seth, who were the worshippers of the true God, intermarrying with the daughters of wicked Cain, Paradise Lost," b. xi. 621. 625.-NEWTON.
m Have we not seen, or by relation heard. This passage is censured by Dr. Warburton, as suiting only the poet speaking in his own person; but surely there is no impropriety in the arch-fiend's being well acquainted with the fables of the Leathen mythology, and the amours and adventures of their gods, or,
In courts and regal chambers how thou lurk'st,
Too long ”; then lay'st thy scapes 9 on names adored, (according to Milton's system) his own infernal compeers. If we censure this passage, we must still more decisively condemn one in the fourth book ; where, in answer to Satan's speech, describing, while he shows it, the splendour of Imperial Rome, our Loni, taking up the subject, carries on the description to the luxurious way of living among the Romans of that time, with this verse in a parenthesis,
For I have also heard, perbaps have read.-DUXSTER.
In wood or grore, by mossy fountain side,
In valley or green meador.
And now they never meet in grove or green,
• Calisto, Clymene,
Or Amymone, Syrinx. All these mistresses of the gods might have been furnished from Ovid, our author's favourite Latin poet.-Dunster.
P Many more
Too long. A concise way of speaking for “many more too long to mention." The author liad used it before, " Paradise Lost," b. iii. 473. Indeed more would have been "too long," and it would have been better if he had not enumerated so many of the loves of the gods. These things are known to every school-boy, but add no dignity to a divine poem ; and in my opinion are not the most pleasing subjects in painting any more than in poetry. -NEWTON.
Poetry, as strictly discriminated from prose, may be defined, elevated and orna mented language. Among the most allowed modes of elevating and decorating language, independent of metrical arrangement, mythological references and allusions, and classical imitations hold a principal place. A poet precluded from these would be iniserably circumscribed ; and might with equal or better effect relate the fable which he imagines, the historic facts which he records, or the precepts which he lays down, in that species of language which asks no ornaments but purity and perspicuity. A divine poem ortainly requires to be written in the chastest style, and to be kept perfectly free from the glare of false ornament: but it must still be considered that the great reason of exhibiting aoy serious truths, and especially the more interesting facts of religious history, through the medium of poetry, is thereby more powerfully to attract the attention. Poetry, to please, must continue to be pleasing. In the beauty and propriety of his references and allusions, the poet shows the perfection of his taste and judgment, as much as in any other circut. stance whatever ; and Milton has eminently distinguished himself in this respect. Hox beautifully has he sprinkled his “ Paradise Lost" with the flowers of classic poetry, and their fictions of Greek and Roman mythology! And he has done this with so judicious a hand, with a spirit so reverent, that the most religiously delicate ear cannot but be captivated with it. I confess my surprise that Dr. Newton does not see the passage before us in this light. It appears to me not only in the highest degree justifiable, but absolutely as one of thoso loci laudandi which the best critics ever delight to exhibit from the works of the more eminent poets. Milton here admirably avails himself of the fabulous amours of the heathen deities : he transfers them to the fallen angels, and to Belial and“ his lusty crew:" and by the judicious application of these disgraceful tales, he gives them a propriety which they never before possessed; he furnishes even the school-boy with a moral to the fable winch he has been reading: and recalls to inaturer minds the classical beauty of these fabulous descriptions, which at once relieve and adorn his divine poem.-DUNSTER.