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Apollo, Neptune, Jupiter, or Pan",
4 Thy scapes.
"Apollo, Neptune, Jupiter, or Pan. , Calisto, Semele, and Antiopa, were mistresses to Jupiter ; Clymene and Daphne, to Apollo ;
and Syrinx, to Pan. Both here and elsewhere, Milton considers the gods of the heathens as demons or devils. Thus, in the Septuagint version of the Psalms, Náutes oi Beol Twv dOvæv õatuóvia, Psalm xcvi. 5, and likewise in the Vulgate Latin, “ Quoniam ouinea Dii gentium dæmonia." And the notion of the demons having commerce with women in the shape of heathen gods is very ancient, and is expressly asserted by Justin Martyr, “ Apol." i. p. 10, and 33, edit. Thirlbii.-Newton.
· Remember that Pellean conquerour, &c. Alexander the Great was born at Pella in Macedonia : his continence and clemency to Darius's queen and daughters, and the other Persian ladies whom he took captive after the battle of Issus, are commended by the historians : “Tum quidem ita se gessit, ut omnes
ante cum reges et continentia et clementia vincerentur: virgines enim regias excellentis I forme tam sancte habuit, quam si eodem quo ipse parente genitæ forent : conjugem ejus
dem, quam nulla ætatis suæ pulchritudine corporis vicit, adeo ipse non violavit, ut summam adhibuerit curam, ne quis captivo corpori illuderet," &c., Quint. Curt. lib. iii. cap. 9. He was tben a young conqueror, of about twenty-three years of age ; " a youth,” as Milton expresses it.-NEWTON. Sce Juvenal, sat, x. 168:
Unus Pellæo juveni non sufficit orbis.-DUNSTER.
! Horo all the beauties of the East
He slightly view'd, and slightly overpass'd. Alexander, we know from history, did not “ slightly overpass all the beauties of the Fast."-DUNSTER.
u How he, surnamed of Africa, dismiss'd,
In his prime youth, the fair Iberian maid. The continence of Scipio Africanus at the age of twenty-four, and his generosity in restoring a beautiful Spanish lady to her husband and friends, are celebrated by Polybius, Livy, Valerius Maxious, and various other authors.-NEWTON.
Thence to the bait of women, &c. This remark, applied by Satan to Solomon, the example cited by Belial, induces me to notice the description of Belial by Wierus, “Pseudomonarchia Dæmonum," edit. Basil. 1582, p. 919. “Sunt quidam necromantici, qui asserunt ipsum Salomonem, quodam die astutia cujusdam mulieris seductum, orando se inclinasse versus simulacrum Belial nomine,”' &c. Wierus doubts this particular circumstance. But see | Kings, xi, 1–8. and “ Par. Lost," b. i. 401, and the present book, ver. 169.-Todd.
As it is ané jennieme,
Likhe na to da ste
With additioner interest
| Stadius ter. These words look as if the poe: had forgo: bizsef, asi spike in his own person rather than in the character of Satan.-Xestos.
* One look from his majestick brow,
Seated as on the top v Pirtu's , 158. Here is the construction that we so often meet with in Milton: "from his majestick brow," that is, from the majestic brow of him seated as on the top of Virtue's bill: and the expression of * Virtue's hill," was probably in allusion to the rocky eminence on which the Virtues are placed in the Table of Cebes; or the arduous ascent up the hill, to which Virtue is represented pointing in the best designs of the judgment of Hercules.NEWTON.
Milton's meaning here is best illustrated by a passaze in Shakspeare, which most probs. bly he had in his mind. Hamlet, in the scene with his mother, pointing to the picture of his father, says,
See what a grace was seated on this brow!
An eye like Mars to threaten or command, &c.
Her ivory forehead, full of bounty brave,
Led captive & ; cease to admire, and all her plumes
He ceased", and heard their grant in loud acclaim ;
# For beauty stands In the admiration only of weak minds
Led captive. Among Milton's early Latin Elegies, we find one, the seventh, of the amatory kind : but when he published his Latin poems, eighteen years afterwards, he thought it necessary to add to it ten lines, apologising for the puerile weakness, or rather vacancy, of his mind, that could admit such an impression.— DUNSTER.
b Cease to admire, and all her plumes
Al every sudden slighting quite abash'd.
. Hist. I. x. c. 20. Tasso compares Armida, in all the pride and vanity of her beauty and ornaments, to a peacock with its tail spread, c. xvi. st. 24. But Milton had here in his mind Ovid, “ De Arte Am." i. 627.
Laudatas ostentat avis Junonia pennas;
c He ceased,
I have not lost
Nor tastes, sit bad sppetize As to the time necessary for coarenica the internal case, there is :be space of twenty. four hours taken for the devil to no cp to be region of mid air," wbere his council was nitting, and where we are told be went with soti:" (ver. 117 of this book) and for him to debate the matter with his eonteil and retain rit his chosen band of spirits :" for it was the commencement of night then be left our Saviour at the end of the first book; and it is now “ the hour of night," (rer. 260) when he is returned. But it must also be considered that spiritual beiss are not supposed to require, for their actions, the time necessary to human ones; otherwise we might proceed to calculate the time requisite for the dercent of Michael, or Raphael, to P:radise, and criticise the - Paradise Lost "accordingly. Bit Raphael, in the eighth book of that poem, says to Adam, inquiring concerning celestial motions ;
The swiftness of those circles attribute,
By numbers that have name.
Wandering this woody maze, and human food
It was the hour of night, when thus the Son
f Me hungering more to do my Father's will. In allusion to our Saviour's words, John iv. 34 :~"My meat is to do the will of him
and to finish his work."-NEWTON. But with reference also to,“ Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness," Matt. v. 6.-DUNSTER.
& Communed in silent walk, then laid him down. Agreeable to what we find in the Psalms, iv. 4:—“Commune with your own heart upon your bed, and be still."'- Newton,
h The hospitable covert nigh
Of trees thick interwoven.
Qua pinus ingens albaque populus
Obviaque hospitiis teneat frondentibus arbos.
Such cooling fruit
i He by the brook of Cherilh stood, &c. Alluding to the account of Elijah, 1 Kings xvii. 5, 6; and xix. 4. And Daniel's living upon pulse and water, rather than the portion of the king's meat and drink, is celebrated, Dan. i. So that as our dreams are often composed of the matter of our waking thoughts, pur Saviour is with great propriety supposed to dream of sacred persons and subjects. Lucretius, iv. 960 :
Et quoi quisque fere studio devinctus adhæret,
that sent me,