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ence to the enormity of the evils troduction into Africa of peaceful to be suppressed, our painful im- commerce, which Mr. Buxton pressions were too deep and vivid mainly relies upon; and above all, to be easily capable of being ren- we should say, studding the whole dered more so; but in reference coast, and accessible interior, with to the practical results likely to Christian Missionary stations, issue from any measures now in from which should emanate the progress, or hitherto projected, arts of peace and civilization, in Mr. Buxton has mournfully dimi- connexion with the knowledge of nished our expectations. We did the one true God, and of Jesus hope, years ago, that stringent Christ, whom he has sent. treaties, a powerful and vigilant The larger portion of Mr. Buxmaritime police, the accordance of ton's work is devoted to shewing a mutual right of search of sus- the extent, enormity, and tenacity pected vessels, and a general de of the slave-trade ; his conclusion nouncement of the traffic as pi- from all which is, that an entirely racy, would speedily repress it; new system of repression must be but we are bound now to admit, devised and attempted. We will that though all these things are quote, at some length, what he very important to be urged to says on this important subject. their fullest extent, the slave trade “ It is but too manifest that the is too wily to be easily caught, or efforts already made for the suppression too powerful to be held, in the

of the Slave trade, have not accompuny meshes of any national or

plished their benevolent object.

“ The people of England take a more international system which we can lively and intense interest in this, than confidently hope for. Even if all perhaps in any other foreign subject. the nations which have professed The government, whether in the hands to unite to suppress the slave

of the one party or the other, cannot

be accused of having, for a long series trade were thoroughly honest and of years, been wanting either in zeal, or in earnest—which is the reverse exertion, for its suppression. Millions of fact this would not prevent of money and multitudes of lives have other nations embarking in the been sacrificed;, and in return for all, abandoned traffic, to which they that the Slave trade is as far as ever

we have only the afflicting conviction, would be allured by the accumu- from being suppressed. Nay, I am lated gains of monopoly: nor

afraid the fact is not to be disputed, could their flag be violated by the that while we have thus been endeaallied cruisers, though every thread actually doubled in amount.

vouring to extinguish the traffic, it has of it were reeking in blood ; to say “ In the debate of 2nd April, 1792, nothing of the enterprises of smug. Mr. Fox rated the Slave trade at glers of all nations, which it would 80,000 annually: he says, “I think the be very difficult to suppress on the the supply of slaves, is to represent

least disreputable way of accounting for wide seas, or the extended coast them as having been convicted of crimes of Africa. We do not, however, by legal authority. What does the allow our hopes to sink so low as

House think is the whole number of Mr. Buxton has done; though Africa? 80,000. In the same debate

these convicts exported annually from whatever may be the result, whe- Mr. Pitt observed, “I know of no evil ther successful or not, the path of that ever has existed, nor can imagine duty is clear, not to relax any ef. any evil to exist, worse than the tearfort now in operation, and to urge their native land, by a combination of

ing of 80,000 persons annually from still more strenuously the exter- the most civilized nations in the most mination of the piracy by national enlightened quarter of the globe." The treaty and exertion ; at the same

late Zachary Macaulay, than whom the

African has had no better friend, told time adopting every other remedy,

me a few days before his death, that more especially the extensive in. upon the most accurate investigation

he was able to make as to the extent of open. To that one outlet the whole the Slave trade, he had come to the Slave Trade of Africa will rush. conclusion that it was 70,000 annually, “ Does any one suppose that even in fifty years ago. Twenty years ago the the space of half a century, we shall African Institution reported to the have arrived at one universal combinaduke of Wellington that it was 70,000. tion of all countries, for the suppression We will assume then that the number of the Slave trade ? And a delay of at the commencement of the discussion fifty years, at the present rate of the was 70,000 negroes annually transport traffic, implies, at the very least, the ed from Africa. There is evidence be- slaughter of eleven millions of manfore the Parliamentary committees, to kind.' show that about one-third was for the “ But we will suppose all these diffiBritish islands, and one-third for St. culties removed; a victory in imaginaDomingo; so that strictly speaking, if tion has been obtained over the pride of the Slave trade of other countries had North America, the cupidity of Portubeen stationary, they ought only at the gal, the lawlessness of Texas, and the utmost to import 25,000; but I have constitution of France. Let it be already proved that the number annual granted that the Spanish treaty, with ly landed in Cuba and Brazil, &c., is an article for piracy, bas become uni150,000, being more than double the versal. I maintain that the Slave whole draught upon Africa, including trade, even then, will not be put down. the countries where it had ceased when Three nations have already tried the the Slave trade controversy began. experiment of declaring the Slave trade Twice as many human beings are now to be piracy-Brazil, North America, its victims as when Wilberforce and and England. Brazilian subjects, from Clarkson entered upon their noble task; the time of passing the law, have been and each individual of this increased continually engaged in the Slave trade; number, in addition to the horrors indeed we are informed that the whole which were endured in former times, population of certain districts are conbas to suffer from being cribbed up in a cerned in it, and not one bas suffered narrower space, and on board a vessel, under the law of piracy. In 1820, a where accommodation is sacrificed to law was passed by the legislature of speed. Painful as this is, it becomes North America, declaring that if any still more distressing if it shall appear citizen of that country shall be engaged that our present system has not failed in the Slave trade, such citizen or by mischance, from want of energy, or person shall be adjudged a pirate, and from want of expenditure, but that the on conviction thereof, before the circuit system itself is erroneous, and must ne- court of the United States, shall suffer cessarily be attended with disappoint- death. It will not be denied, that ment.

American citizens have been largely “ Hitherto we have affected no other engaged in the traffic; but I have yet change than a change in the flag under to learn that even one capital convicwhich the trade is carried on. It was tion has taken place during the eighstated by our ambassador at Paris, to teen years that have elapsed since the the French minister, in 1824 (I speak law was passed. from memory), that the French flag “ Great Britain furnishes a still more covered the villains of all nations. For striking illustration of the inefficacy of some years afterwards the Spanish flag such a law. For ten years, the Slave was generally used. Now, Portugal trade prevailed at the Mauritius, to use sells her flag, and the greater part of the words of Captain Moresby, before the trade is carried on under it. Her the committee of the House of Comgovernors openly sell, at a fixed price, mons, 'as plain as the sun at noonday.' the use of Portuguese papers and fag.” Many were taken in the very act, and

“ To touch upon one only of the yet no conviction, I believe, took place. many difficulties which lie in the way With these examples before me, I am of a universal confederacy for putting not so sanguine as some other gentledown the Slave Trade, I ask, how shall men appear to be, as to the efficacy of a we get the consent of North America law declaring the Slave trade piracy, to the article yielding the right of even if it were universally adopted, I search. She has told us, in the most fear that such a law would be a dead peremptory terms, that she will never letter, unless, at all events, we had the assent to it; and it should be remem- bona fide and cordial co-operation of the bered, that this confederacy must either colonists. We were not able to obtain be universally binding, or it is of no this in our own dominions." avail. It will avail us little that ninety- “But now I will make a supposition, nine doors are closed, if one remains still more Utopian than any of the preceding. All nations shall have acceded vessel under Portuguese colours ento the Spanith treaty, and that treaty gaged in the slave-traffic, to bring the shall be rendered more effective. They crew to trial as pirates, and inflict upon shall have linked to it the article of them the severest secondary punishment piracy; the whole shall have been which our law allows. Decisive meaclenched by the cordial concurrence of sures of this kind would, there is no the authorities at home, and the popu- doubt, facilitate our success, by remov. lace in the colonies. With all this, we ing some of the great impediments which shall be once more defeated and baffled stand in the way of other remedial mea. by contraband trade.

sures ; nevertheless, I am compelled, by * The power which will overcome our the various evidence which it has been efforts, is the extraordinary profit of the my province to examine, to place my slave trader. It is, I believe, an axiom main reliance, not on the employment of at the Custom-house, that no illicit force, but on the encouragement which trade can be suppressed, where the pro- we may be able to give to the legitimate fits exceed 30 per cent. I will prove commerce and the agricultural cultivathat the profits of the slave-trader are tion of Africa. nearly five times that amount. • Of “We attempt to put down the Slave the enormous profits of the Slave trade by the stong hand' alone; and trade,' says commissioner Macleay, “the this is, I apprehend, the cause of our most correct idea will be formed by failure. Our system, in many respects taking an example.

The last vessel too feeble, is in one sense too bold. condemned by the mixed commission The African has acquired a taste for the was the Firm.' He gives the cost productions of the civilised world. They of

Her cargo

have become essential to him. The paDollars. rent-debased and brutalised as he is

28,000 barters his child; the chief his subject; Provisions, ammunition,

each individual looks with an evil eye wear and tear, &c. 10,600 on his neighbour, and lays snares to Wages ·

13,400 catch him—because the sale of children,

subjects, and neighbours, is the only Total expense

52,000 means as yet afforded, by European Total product

145,000 commerce, for the supply of those wants “ There was a clear profit, on the human which that commerce bas created. To cargo of this vessel, of 18,6401. or just say that the African, under present cir180 per cent. ; and will any one who cumstances, shall not deal in man, is to knows the state of Cuba and Brazil, say that he shall long in vain for his acpretend that this is not enough to shut customed gratifications. The tide, thus ihe mouth of the informer, to arrest the pent up, will break its way over every arm of the police, to blind the eyes of barrier. In order effectually to divert the magistrates, and to open the doors the stream from the direction which it of the prison."

has hitherto taken, we must open an“ Once more, then, I must declare other, a safer, and a more convenient my conviction that the trade will never channel. When we shall have experibé suppressed by the system hitherto mentally convinced the African that it pursued. You will be defeated by its is in his power to obtain his supplies in enormous gains. You may throw impe- more than their usual abundance, by hodiments in the way of these miscreants ; nest means, then, and not till then, we you may augment their peril; you may may expect that he will be reconciled to reduce their profits; but enough, and the abolition of the Slave trade." more than enough, will remain to baffle “ The principles of my suggestions all your humane efforts.

are comprised in the following propo"I do not underrate the value of our sitions : maritime exertions. I think it may be “ 1. That the present staple export good policy, and, in the long run, true of Africa renders to her inhabitants, at economy, to multiply the number of our infinite cost, a miserable return of profit. vessels, to do at once and by a blow all “ 2. That the cultivation of her soil, that can be done in this way; to increase and the barter of its productions, would our expenses for a few years, in order to yield an abundant harvest, and a copious eseape the necessity of incurring cost, supply of those articles which Africa not materially less, for an indefinite pe- requires. riod. Neither do I wish that our go- **3. That it is practicable to convernment should address Portugal in vince the African, experimentally, of any terms short of a declaration, that the truth of these propositions, and thus our cruisers will have orders to seize, to make him our confederate in the after a fixed and an early day, every suppression of the Slave trade.

“I despair of being able to put down atrocity for lucre-sake, can be a traffic in which a vast continent is engaged, by the few ships we can afford to

practically made to feel that they employ: as auxiliaries they are of great

can turn their mischievous indusvalue, but alone they are insufficient. I do try to more profitable account; not dream of attempting to persuade the he will, indeed, have achieved a African, by appealing merely to his rea

new service in the cause of huson or his conscience, to renounce gainful guilt, and to forego those inhuman

manity, not second to his former pursuits which gratify his cupidity, and victory. We call to mind the supply his wants. But when the appeal

large expectations with which the we make is to his interest, and when

Sierra Leone Company was formhis passions are enlisted on our side, there is nothing chimerical in the hope

ed, fifty years ago ; and we have that he may be brought to exchange in our hands its early reports, with slender profits, with danger, for abun- ample estimates of African agridant gain, with security and peace. cultural and commercial capabili

We have begun with the end of ties, such as Mr. Buxton now Mr. Buxton's book, because it sets specifies; nor have we forgotten forth his object in writing it. The the sanguine hopes so often exdetails and proofs respecting the pressed in the records of the ferocity, the extension, and the te- African Institution, which sucnacity of life of the slave-piracy, ceeded it; and the legitimate creed are preparatory to the conclusion of all abolitionists from first to that new measures must be devised last has been, that as it was the for its extinction. What the mea- slave trade that blighted these sures are which Mr. Buxton pro- fond hopes ; so that, till that was poses, he has not specified, except exterminated, peaceful commerce in the general terms above quoted; could not be extensively proas he reserves his exposition for a moted. Mr. Buxton reverses the second volume, or till her Majes. doctrine; there is no likelihood, ty's government shall have given he says, of putting down the its decision

upon his propositions. trade but by the substitution of We cannot, of course, comment more lucrative employments of a upon what is not developed ; but laudable character; and he underwe do not, ourselves, clearly see takes to shew how these may be our way to any feasible plan which promoted upon a large and effishall very rapidly force the im- cient scale. We await, with eager mense extent of uncivilised Africa anticipation, the development of into habits of peaceful industry, his plan. If it appear practicable agricultural and commercial; nor and hopeful, we think that Great would the juxta-position of honest Britain would be bound in duty to traffic of necessity banish the deal- prosecute it, even, if necessary, at ing in slaves, if it was found a considerable pecuniary

risk or profitable venture ; for the mer- loss; and that in the end it would chants of Liverpool and Bristol, be the cheapest policy to do so. men who sipped claret, and talked Should any of your readers be softly, and portioned their daugh. sceptical as to the enormous exters, and perhaps sometimes went tent, or the flagitious barbarity, to church, contended as vehe. of the traffic, they ought to read mently for this murderous traffic, Mr. Buxton's publication to recas though they knew no more of tify their mistake; and those who civilization or Christianity than entertain no doubt, should do so an Eboe, or Ashantee, or barba- to quicken their diligence in urgrian of Dahomy. But if Mr. Bux- ing every effort to remove those ton can shew us, as he promises, fearful evils. how those who perpetrate the We will quote a few specimens

of Mr. Buxton's statements : and American republics; but what first, as to the present unexam- shall we say to the following inpled extent of this nefarious com- telligence respecting the United merce, both legalized and contra- States of America ? We confess band. He calculates, from a varie- that we are not surprised at the ty of official returns, and otherdata, announcement; for if there be that 150,000 human beings are any country in the world, where conveyed from Africa across the men may do the most wicked Atlantic, and sold as slaves. things with impunity, if only they

Take first the opprobrious case be not unpopular, and cannot do of Brazil:

the most virtuous, if they offend : It stands confessed, upon authority mob-law, it is that boasted land of which cannot be disputed, that from the liberty, which, with base, selfish 1st of July, 1827, to the 30th of June, hypocrisy, asserts, in its declara1830, (three years), there were brought tion of independence, that all men into the single port of Rio de Janeiro, 148,940 negroes, or,

on an average,

are entitled to liberty and equal. 49,643 annually. It appears also, that ity, while it retains millions of huin the last year, the number was swelled man beings, for whom Christ shed to 56,777 per annum. “If the question were put to me,

his blood, in bitter slavery. what is the number which I believe to be annually landed in Brazil ? I con

“ In the Report of the Commissioners ceive that the truth lies between the

at Havana, for 1836, dated 25th Oct. maximum as taken from Caldcleugh, months of August and September (1836)

1836, I find these words :-. During the and the minimum (78,331) as stated in the Official Returns; and í should con

there arrived here for sale, from the jecture that the real amount would be

United States, several new schooners, moderately rated at 100,000, brought fitted for the Slave trade."

some of which were already expressly annually into five Brazilian ports.”

“ Two vessels arrived in the Havana, “ In September, 1836, the British Commissioners say, ' At no period, per- trade; and took on board a cargo which

fitted in every particular for the Slave haps, has the trade been ever carried on with more activity or daring.'

would at once have condemned, as a sla

And again, in November, 1836, “The traffic

ver, any vessel belonging to the nations in Slaves is every day becoming more

that are parties to the equipment article." active and notorious on this coast.

The Commissioners farther observe,

that the declaration of the American The Marquis of Barbacena stated in the Senate of Brazil on the 30th June,

President ‘not to make the United 1837, “That it may be safely asserted,

States a party to any convention on the without fear of exaggeration, that dur: subject of the Șlave trade, has been the ing the last three years, the importation build and fit, in their own ports, ves

means of inducing American citizens to has been much more considerable, than it had ever before been when the com

sels, only calculated for piracy or the merce was unfettered and legal.”'

Slave trade, to enter this harbour, and,

in concert with the Havana slave-traders, We proceed to Cuba :

to take on board a prohibited cargo, ma“We are continually told by the nacles, &c.; and proceed openly to that Commissioners, that difficulties are

notorious depôt for this iniquitous traffic, thrown in the way of obtaining correct

the Cape de Verde Islands, under the information in regard to the Slave trade

shelter of their national flag.' in that island. Everything that artifice,

“A few months afterwards they re. violence, intimidation, popular counte

port that-We canuot conceal our deep nance, and official connivance can do, is regret at the new and dreadful impetus done, to conceal the extent of the imparted to the Slave trade of this island traffic."

(Cuba), by the manner in which some Confining ourselves to the Havana,

American citizens impunibly violate it would seem probable, if it be not de- every law, by embarking openly for the nionstrated, that the number for that coast of Africa under their national flag, one port, à fortiori for the whole island,

with the avowed purpose of bringing may fairly be estimated at 60,000.”

slaves to this market. We are likewise We pass by Porto Rico, Texas, this flag, to supply slaves for the vast

assured that it is intended, by means of Buenos Ayres, and other South province of Texas; agents from thence

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