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being in constant communication with grave, would be deeply afflicting the Havana Slave mercbants.' ** This new and dreadful impetus? ought not to shrink from thinking
to humanity. But the Christian to the Slave trade, predicted by our commissioners, has already come to pass. of the bitterness of the cup which In a list of the departure of vessels for so many of his fellow-creatures are the coast of Africa, from the Havana,
at this very moment drinking to up to a recent date, I find that, “in the last four months,' no other fags than
its dregs ; in order that his prayers, those of Portugal and the United States and, if opportunity allows, his efhave been used to cover slavers." forts, may be prompt on their be
“No symptom in the case is so alarm- half. Mr. Buxton has noticed ing as this. . It remains to be seen, whether America will endure that her flag many of the well-known facts reshall be the refuge of these dealers in lated during the Slave-trade conhuman blood.
troversy. These we will not re“I confidently hope better things for peat: but we are bound to give the peace of Africa, and for the honour of the United States."
two or three extracts embodying Besides the 150,000 annual
recent facts, in order to prove that victims included in the “Christian"
the scenes described are not tales department of the African Slave
of by-gone generations. trade, there is estimated to be
The following is a specimen of about a third of that number sold
the modes of capture and the sufin the Mohammedan markets offerings of the inland march. Morocco, Tunis, Tripoli, Egypt, “ The pacha of Egypt professed not Turkey, Persia, Arabia, and the
to know that his army had been emborders of Asia. But the 200,000 of discharging arrears of pay: but he
ployed in slave-hunts for the purpose do not represent one half of the admitted he was aware that his officers case ; for they are but a remnant had carried on the Slave trade for their of a much larger number destroy- by no means approved. The enter
own account, 'a conduct of which he ed in the capture; the march to prise of a traveller, Count De Laborde, the coast, and detention there ; the who bas lately returned from Nubia and voyage to the slave-colonies; the Egypt, will enable me to introduce those sufferings after capture and land
of my readers who have not seen his ing; and the initiation into slavery, Laborde, Paris, 1838), to the scenes of
work, (Chasse aux Nègres, Leon De called “the seasoning.” Our pages cruelty and devastation perpetrated by during many years so teemed the pacha's troops, which he has graphí. with accounts of these horrors, that cally deseribed.
“ The narrative, of which I can only we know not that it is requisite to give a brief outline, was communicated to repeat them ; but it is to be borne him by a French officer, who went to Cairo in mind, that far from having de- in 1828, and resided ten years in Egypt. creased, they have multiplied, not ditions, called gaswahs, annually set out
there learnt that four expe. only by reason of the larger num
from Obeid, the capital of Kordofan, ber of victims, but in consequence towards the south, to the mountains of the restrictions on the traffic, inhabited by the Nubas negroes. The especially as regards the cruelty thus described : One day he heard a and mortality of the middle pas. great noise ; the whole village appearsage. We deal with round num- ed in confusion: the cavalry were bers and statistics, till we almost mounted, and the infantry discharging fail to appreciate the overwhelm
their guns in the air, and increasing the ing amount of individual suffering uproar with their still more noisy hur
on inquiring the cause of condensed in them. We compute the rejoicing, was exultingly told, by a vaguely by hundreds of thousands ; follower of the troop, It is the whereas any one case followed gaswah.' 'The gaswah! for whatthroughout its details, from the gazelles ?' “Yes, gazelles; here are the
nets, ropes, and chains; they are to be midnight capture to the untimely brought home alive.' On the return of CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 16.
the expedition, all the people went out, his appearance, the hunters conclude singing and dancing, to meet the hunters. that the mothers have killed their chil. M. went out also, wishing tojoin in dren, and the husbands their wives and the rejoicing. He told Count Laborde he themselves. When the negroes are taken, never could forget the scene presented to their strong attachment to their families his eyes. What did he see?' What gain and lands is apparent. They refuse to did these intrepid hunters, after twenty stir, some clinging to the trees with all days of toil, drag after them? Men in their strength, while others embrace chains; old men carried on litters, be- their wives and children so closely, that cause unable to walk; the wounded it is necessary to separate them with elragging their weakened limbs with the sword; or they are bound to a pain, and a multitude of children follow- horse, and are dragged over brambles ing their mothers, who carried the and rocks until they reach the foot of youmger ones in their arms. Fifteen the mountain, bruised, bloody, and dishundred negroes, corded, naked, and figured. If they still continue obstinate, wretched, escorted by 400 soldiers in they are put to death. full array. This was the gaswah. These • Each detachment having captured the poor gazelles taken in the Desert. its share of the spoil, returns to the fle himself afterwards accompanied one main body, and is succeeded by others, of these gaswahs. The expedition con- until the mountain, • de battue en batsisted of 400 Egyptian soldiers, 100 tue,' is depopulated. If from the strength Bedouin cavalry, and twelve village of the position, or the obstinacy of the chiefs, with peasants carrying provisions. resistance, the first assault is unsuccess. On arriving at their destination, which ful, the general adopts the inhuman they generallycontrive to do before dawn, expedient of reducing them by thirst. the cavalry wheel round the mountain, This is easily effected by encamping and by a skilful movement form them- above the springs at the foot of the selves into a semi-circle on one side, mountain, and thus cutting off their whilst the infantry enclose it on the only supply of water. The miserable other. The negroes, whose sleep is so negroes often endure this siege for a profound that they seldom have time to week; and may be seen gnawing the provide for their safety, are thus com- bark of trees to extract a little moisture, pletely entrapped. At sunrise the troops till at length they are compelled to excommence operations by opening a fire change their country, liberty, and famion the mountain with musketry and lies, for a drop of water. They every cannon ; immediately the heads of the day approach nearer, and retreat on seewretched mountaineers may be seen in ing the soldiers, until the temptation of all directions, among the rocks and trees, the water shewn them becomes too as they gradually retreat, dragging after strong to be resisted. At length they them the young and infirm. Four de. submit to have the manacles fastened tachments armed with bayonets, are on their hands, and a heavy fork susthen despatched up the mountain in pended to their necks, which they are pursuit of the fugitives, whilst a conti- obliged to lift at every step. nual fire is kept up from the musketry " The march from the Nuba mounand cannon below, which are loaded on- tains to Obeid is short. From thence they ly with powder, as their object is rather are sent to Cairo. There the pacha disto dismay than to murder the inhabi. tributes them as he thinks proper. The tants. The more courageous natives, aged, infirm, and wounded, are given to however, make a stand by the mouths the Bedouins, who are the most merci. of the caves, dug for security against less of 'masters, and exact their due of their enemies. They throw their long hard labour with a severity proportionpoisoned javelins, covering themselves ed to the probable short duration of the with their shields, while their wives lives of their unhappy victims. ‘and children stand by them and encou- “At Obeid alone 6000 human beings rage them with their voices; but when are annually dragged into slavery, and the head of the family is killed, they that at the cost of 2000 more, who are surrender without a murmur. When killed in the capture. The king of Darstruck by a ball, the negro, ignorant of fur also imports for sale yearly 8000 or the nature of the wound, may generally 9000 slaves, a fourth of whom usually be seen rubbing it with earth till he falls die during the fatigues of a forced march: through loss of blood. The less cou- they are compelled, by the scarcity of rageous fly with their families to the provisions, to hurry forward with all caves, whence the hunters expel them speed. In vain the exhausted wretches by firing pepper into the hole. The ne- supplicate for one day's rest; they have groes, blind and suffocated, run into the no alternative but to push on, or be left snares previously prepared, and are put behind a prey to the hungry jackals and in irons. If after the firing no one makes hyænas. On one occasion,' says the narrator, when, a few days after the Portuguese brig Felix, 590 slaves on march of a caravan, I rapidly crossed board. After capture,' he says, 'I the same desert, mounted on a feet dro- went on board, and such a scene of hormedary, I found my way by the newly- ror it is not easy to describe; the longmangled human carcases, and by them boat on the booms, and the deck aft, I was guided to the nightly halt. were crowded with little children, sickly,
“ Dr. Holroyd, whom I have already poor little unhappy things, some of them mentioned, in a letter to me, of date rather pretty, and some much marked 14th January, 1839, says, in reference to and tattooed; much pains must have these · gazouas,' of the Egyptian troops, been taken by their miserable parents • I should think, if my information be to ornament and beautify them. correct, that, in addition to 7000 or “The women lay between decks aft, 8000 taken captive, at least 1500 were much crowded, and perfectly naked; killed in defence or by suffocation at the they were not barred down; the hatchtime of being taken; for I learnt that, way, a small one, being off; but the when the blacks saw the troops advanc- place for the men was too horrible; the ing, they took refuge in caves; the sol. wretches, chained two and two, gasping diers then fired into the caverns, and, if and striving to get at the bars of the this did not induce them to quit their hatch way, and such a steam and stench places of concealment, they made fires as to make it intolerable even to look at the entrances, and either stifled the down. It requires much caution at first, negroes, or compelled them to surren- in allowing them to go on deck, as it is der. Where this latter method of taking a common practice for them to jump them was adopted, it was not an un- overboard to get quit of their misery: common circumstance to see a female “ « The slave deck was not more than with a child at ber breast, who had been three feet six in height, and the human wounded by a musket-ball, staggering beings stowed, or rather crushed as close from her hiding-place, and dying im- as possible ; many appeared very sickly. mediately after her exit.'
There was no way of getting into the The above relates to the supply
slave-room but by the hatchway. I was of the Mahommedan market; but counted, that it was impossible for any
told, when they were all on deck to be the “ Christian” market is not of our people to go into the slave-room stocked upon milder terms; while for a single minute, so intolerable was it adds to all the cruelties of the
the stench. The colour of these poor
creatures was of a dark squa yellow, capture and the march, the still
so different from the fine glossy black worse inflictions of the slave-ship, of our liberated Africans and Kroomen, which we have so often related that I was shown a man much bit and we will not recapitulate them. The bruised; it was done in a struggle at following are corroborations of
the gratings of their hatchways for a
mouthful of fresh air.'' very recent date :
“ Captain Wilson, R.N., in a letter “In a letter which I received from dated 9th January, 1839, says: 'I have Captain Wauchope, of date 13th August, overhauled many slave-ships, and freely 1838, he says, “In February, 1836, I confess that it is impossible to exaggewas informed by Commander Puget, that rate the horrors they exhibit ; they are the Spanish slaver Argus, three months all very much alike, the greater or less before this date, was chased by the Cha- misery depending, usually, upon the rybdis, Lieutenant Mercer; that during size of the vessel, and the time they the chase ninety-seven slaves had been might have been embarked, as every thrown overboard, and that a Spanish day brings with it a fearful increase of captain he had captured declared he disease, desperation, imbecility, and would never hesitate to throw the slaves death.' overboard, to prevent being taken.''
Such are the mournful facts, Captain Wauchope in the same letter informs me, that on the 18th Sep- after all the toil and sacrifice of tember, 1836, the Thalia captured the fifty years !“ O Lord, how long?
MEMOIRS OF MRS. HAWKES. Memoirs of Mrs. Hawkes, including Remarks, and Extracts from Sermons
and Letters of the late Rev. R. Cecil. By CATHERINE CECIL.
Third Edition. 1839. WE perused the first edition of stings of conscience and their this valuable enlargement of the guilt before God. Such precepts rich stores of Christian biography, and such examples as this book and intended to offer a portion of exhibits involve no ordinary reits instructions and consolations sponsibility on those who enjoy to our readers, but the pressure them, either directly or by the reof other subjects prevented. The flected light of the written narrawork has rapidly arrived at a third tive. After the example of her edition ; but it is not too late to excellent father, Miss C. Cecil has transfer a few interesting extracts kept practical spiritual utility to our pages.
Miss Catherine prominent throughout her narraCecil must forgive us if, wishing tive, interweaving with it many to select such portions as will be very important observations and most generally coveted, we pass reflections, and concluding the by the narrative of her excellent whole with a well-drawn summary godmother, and confine ourselves of the character of her beloved to the notices of her much es- Christian friend. She has also, teemed and honoured parent. In with large heart, given considerso doing we are very far indeed ably more matter than reasonably from slighting the memory of that belongs to a half guinea volume; excellent Christian lady; for most and has added in the third edition beautiful and edifying is her reli- well executed portraits of her gious history. The spirituality, father and Mrs. Hawkes. the unction, the solid practical The several series of extracts wisdom, the self-abasing humility, which we shall offer, relative to Mr. the growth in grace, and the love Cecil, will be embraced under the of her Saviour; the ardent faith, following heads : 1. His conversaand the deep experience, which tions : 2. His letters: 3. His marked the course of this suffering character. and oft-dejected yet exemplary In all these passages we shall be and divinely-supported servant of making our readers acquainted Christ, render the book a delight with Mrs. Hawkes; for the conful record to all who, under the versations and heads of sermons same heavenly guidance, are tread- were taken down by her ; the ing the same path, and wending letters were addressed to her ; towards the same blessed destina- and the remarks on his character tion,
are from her pen. We need only Of Miss C. Cecil's editorship mention, by way of introduction, and authorship, we only pause to that it was under Mr. Cecil's misay that they are worthy of the nistry Mrs. Hawkes in early life name she bears; a name upon received, by the blessing of which should any who inherit it God, those religious impressions bring dishonour, the pity and re- which resulted in her future conproach which would attach to them sistency and maturity of Christian wherever the writings and me- character; and that, in addition mory of that holy man are pre- to the general intercourse of cious, would be second only to their friendship, Mr. and Mrs. Cecil, during several years, received her “In conversing, I first named my as an inmate under their roof, and great and long predominating fear of entertained towards her the high- making a profession, lest I should dis
To which Mr. C. re. est respect and affection. The plied,- Every Christian must meet attestation afforded by this volume with difficulties, temptations, and trials; must be peculiarly grateful to all and so will you. But what then? Is
not God able to defend you ? who venerate the memory of Mr.
ministers of the Gospel, greatly rejoice Cecil; and it may be useful to to direct and assist our flock; but in a those who suspect that zealous thousand cases it is utterly out of our clergymen are acting a part or
power to do it, even with such of them plying a trade. The Rev. J. Pratt
as we are most intimate. You will
frequently find yourself alone in your and others have told us what Mr. journey, and feel that you can turn to Cecil was in the pulpit, and in no friend on earth for direction. In pastoral and professional inter- such cases, you must not be dismayed, but Mrs. Hawkes saw
but trust in God; and feel out your way course ;
like one groping in the dark; take a what he was in the unrestrained
step at a time. intercourse of domestic life; and ". On the other hand, take care, when her testimony is not “got up” you receive help from any friend, or to grace a memoir, but was re
your minister, that you do not lean too
much upon them, nor be too anxious for corded in her secret diary, which their support.
We are all poor earthen her modesty never suspected vessels. would find its way to publicity, as
“Watch and pray against failures; but it very justly deserved to do; as
take heed of desponding under them.
Be content to travel as you are able. none could be injured, and many The oak springs from the acorn ; but may be benefited, by the tran- does it become a tree at once ? Bescript.
cause the stage waggon cannot travel to 1. The following are recollec
York as fast as the stage coach, would
you therefore say it will never get to tions of conversations, which form York? The mushroom springs up in a an interesting sequel to those night; but what is the mushroom ! given by Mr. Pratt. They are * You must not look for perfection most instructive specimens of either in yourself or others. Not to
allow for the infirmities and defects of pastoral intercourse. We will
a fallen nature, is not to understand quote at length the account of any thing about the matter; nay, it is Mrs. Hawkes's first interview to speak directly contrary to the Bible, with Mr. Cecil; other conversa
the standard of all truth. There never tions in part.
was more than one perfect character
upon earth, and he was the most tender “ Feb. 17, 1789 A day to me very and compassionate towards the impermomentous : I look upon myself to day fections of men. He knew what was as having entered the list of public pro- in man, for he looked at the heart ; and fessors of Christianity; i. e. to have if he saw that right, he pitied, where declared myself as a follower of Christ." those who judged only by the outward
“ Though I have many very godly appearance, blamed ; and defended, acquaintance and friends, I could never where they condemned. speak my mind to them; and I durst " There is one distinction you should not speak to my minister, whom I never keep very clear in your mind—that refail to hear, because of my determination ligion itself, in its essence, is perfect; to keep my religion to myself. At as our rule and standard it is unerring; length, however, after much sorrow, nor can it be affected by the inconand many prayers, He that promises sistencies or imperfections of its prohelp in time of need, sent his faithful fessors: the standard remains the same : and kind messenger to me, the least of the balances are true: but when its all, with words of admonition, com- professors are weighed therein,-even fort, and instruction; which, while they the very best of them,--they are found are, I trust, engraven on my heart, I am wanting. Our aim must be to get every also desirous to retain in my memory as day nearer the standard ; for whoever to the particulars : and thus to secure does not labour, not merely desire, but to myself the advantage of often look- labour to be a better Christian every ing them over.
day, is not yet a Christian at all. Yet