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Apocrypha, and the church never appoints the Apocrypha to be read on Sunday, the Saints’-day service could not be intended to be used on Sundays. To omit just the Apocryphal lesson, and to use all the rest of the special service, is arbitrary and inconsistent. We ought, I think, to take the whole Saints’-day service, or none of it. Yet, on the other hand, the church often gives us no New Testament lesson, except the proper Saints'-day lesson ; as if it intended that reference should be made from the daily course to the festival, whether it come on the Sunday, or otherwise. Many clergymen consider the human and lower day absorbed in the higher and divinely-appointed day; and yet I should much lament to lose the special edification of the Saints'days. Wheatly said long ago, with great justice, that this being a matter touching a diversity of opinion in the construction of the ordinances in the Book of Common Prayer, it were well if the bishops, according to the direction to that effect, would declare what ought to be the practice.

But Michaelmas-day is unusually anomalous, in that two second lessons are appointed, both for morning and evening service. The usual plan is as follows. In all the festivals a special first lesson is appointed; but in some only is there a special second. In the former case four blanks are left in the calendar, which are supplied by the table of proper lessons. In the latter, only two blanks are left in the calendar, namely, for the first lessons, which are supplied in the table of proper lessons. There are four blanks left to the Circumcision, Epiphany, St. Paul, St. Barnabas, St. John Baptist, St. Peter, All Saints, Christmas-day, St. Stephen, and St. John the Apostle. In these cases the church has chosen special second lessons. There are only two blanks to the Purification, St. Matthias, the Annunciation, St. Mark, St. James, St. Bartholomew, St. Matthew, St. Luke, St. Simon and Jude, St. Andrew, St. Thomas, and Innocents; the church considering the ordinary lesson as appropriate as any. In St. Philip and James there is but one blank, namely, for the second evening lesson, and this is supplied in the table of proper lessons.

In no one of these instances, therefore, is there a duplicate second lesson. The choice may lie between the Sunday and the Saints'-day; but in either case the second lesson is fixed and unchangeable. But on Michaelmas-day we have two sets of second lessons--an ordinary and extraordinary; nor can I so much as guess what is the cause of it. It must surely have been an oversight; and yet as blanks are left in the calendar for the first lessons, which are duly supplied in the table, the question was distinctly before the compilers. I think there can be no question that the special lessons ought to be used; for there is no other instance in which a special lesson is given in which we are not tied to it, there being no other. But a clerical friend suggests that for this very reason the choice in this instance is equal; for that if the compilers had preferred the special lesson, they would have confined us to it.

The matter is of no great consequence in itself; but regularity and uniformity are desirable where they can be obtained; and our congregations are apt to make remarks upon the slight varieties which occur in administering the services of the church. Some are offended if we make the Saints’-day prominent, and others if we do not ; so that it were well if the question were settled by an appeal to the bishops.


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A Charge delivered to the Clergy of the Diocese of Calcutta, July 6th,

1838, by the Right Reverend DANIEL Wilson, D.D., Bishop of Calcutta and Metropolitan.

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This Charge is excellent, and full from the fruits and evidences of of valuable matter. We find in faith; or, while insisting upon the Daniel Wilson of Calcutta, the fruits and evidences, detached the self-same man who nearly them from their source; extolling forty years ago was commencing a faith which does not lead to bis devoted and zealous career sanctification; or making sanetiof ministerial usefulness as the fication the parent of faith. We curate of his honoured friend should be at a loss to say whether Richard Cecil; and who after the grace of the Gospel, or its wards at Oxford, at St. John's, power ; Christ dying for us, or Bedford Row, and at Islington, Christ living in us, is most conwas enabled, by the grace of God, spicuous in his writings; except to war a good warfare as a faith that the former is always scripful soldier of Jesus Christ ;- turally made the precursor and find, we say, with the weight and cause of the latter; so that while experience of mature years, the inculcating the duties of the Chrisself-same man, in unwearied dili- tian life, no place is given to that gence, in straight-forward honesty monstrous Popish and Oxford of purpose, in unremitting perse. Tract perversion of the whole verance, in undaunted boldness genius of Christianity, that Christ and resolution, all devoted to the crucified means self-mortified ; glory of God and the salvation of that justification is virtually sancsouls; and connected with, and tification; and that the Gospel is springing out of the essential not-at least after baptism-hope verities of Christ's holy Gospel, to the guilty, and shelter to the applied to the soul by the trans- perishing, when they truly turn forming power of the Holy Ghost. to God in Christ, but a covenant The preaching and writings of of works based upon the condiBishop Wilson have always been tion of not forfeiting the alleged characterized, amidst the fluctuat privileges of baptismal innocence. ing opinions of the times, by a With respect to the questions peculiarly close adherence to the between the Church of England spirit and character of the Gospel and her opponents, Bishop Wilson dispensation as a combined record has exhibited similar comprehenof grace and holiness. The cross siveness of grasp. While gladly of Christ-including, in that ex- exercising expansive affection topressive scriptural phrase, the wards all who love the Lord Jesus sacrifice for sin and the ensample Christ in sincerity, he has never of godly life-has ever been his shrunk from maintaining thescripprominent topic; he has not, in tural warrant and practical excelurging it in the one aspect, for- lence of that communion in which gotten its importance in the other; he is a minister and an overseer. he has not, in preaching salvation He did this at a time when the by grace through faith, derogated spirit of the evangelical dissenters CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 22.

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seemed less harsh than it has been any reader imagines that dependof late ; and when they appeared ence may be placed upon the to rejoice in proportion as Christ Fathers as safe guides, he will do was preached through the agency well to correct his mistaken esti. of the Church of England; and · mate, by turning to the facts he has not receded from his posi- adduced by Dr. Shuttleworth. tion, because under altered cir- Fuller and more striking disclocumstances the love of the church sures will be found in a work now is unjustly branded with the names in the course of publication, enof party-spirit and political secula- titled “Ancient Christianity, and rity.

the Doctrines of the Oxford Tracts, But our chief reason for review. by the Author of Spiritual Desing his Lordship's Charge, is to potism.' We reserve any relay before our readers the sub- marks which we may have occastance of his sound and seasonable sion to offer upon this remarkable remarks upon the Oxford Tract and original publication, till its doctrines; or rather upon that completion, as we are far from which forms their basis-namely, being sure how the learned and the setting forth Tradition as a able writer intends to wind up his rule of faith. We have abstained conclusion ; and he has already of late from renewing the discus- disclosed some intimations which sions upon these topics, as we we think bear not fairly upon our feared we had overstepped the reformed Anglican communion. patience of our readers ; but they His chief drift however is to shew have lost none of their import- how early and widely the superstiance, and there is still much to tious, demoralising, and, we need say upon them; and we rejoice not add, unscriptural notion of in adding a warning voice from the religious virtue of celibacy India to the salutary monitions spread in the ancient church, and which have abounded at home. to trace to it most of the errors Of these we have already men- which corrupted, and the evils tioned many in our former papers. which afflicted, it; and to prove Among the more recent ones, their inseparable connexion, not which we have not noticed, the only with popery, but with the reader will do well to weigh the system adopted by the divines of faithful, lucid, and powerful argu- the Oxford Tract school; some ments of the Rev. Prebendary of whom have written of the virBenson, Master of the Temple; tues of asceticism in a spirit akin and also “Not tradition but Re- to that of the most fanatical of velation,” by Dr. Shuttleworth, the ancients or their modern folWarden of New College, Oxford. lowers. The question for examination, says To us however it is not pleasing Dr. Shuttleworth, is “ Whether to speak of the mistakes and we have any reason for supposing faults, the superstitions and abthat in the Apostolical church, surdities, of weak good men of and that which immediately fol- former days; and throughout the lowed, any articles were taught as whole of our papers upon the of Divine authority, independently practical bearings of the question of those expressly comprehended of Tradition, we have sedulously in the page of Scripture." He avoided this exposure ; though it proves the negative of this suppo- is an argument both popularly insition ; and shews that it was not telligible, and justly effective. The till long after, that the notion of Oxford Tractators, in publishing the authority of tradition in mat. the writings of the Fathers, if they ters of faith became current. If select them fairly, will furnish the best antidote to their own argu- models of sound doctrine, powerments. It is wonderful, how- ful argument, and apt illustraever, to observe how blind they tion ! But, while we can, we are as to the effects of their state- eschew this invidious topic ; restments. They seem utterly un-' ing our argument, not upon what aware of the extent of Scriptural the Fathers actually are, but

upon intelligence, and we add of com- what, as men like ourselves, they mon sense, which, with all the must be, frail and fallible; and faults of the age, are to be found upon the wisdom and duty of in this Christian land; and hence, leaving the filthy “puddles," as after making some astounding the Homily calls them, of human declaration, they take for granted tradition, for the pure fountain of that they have proved its truth, or unerring and eternal truth. We opened the way to its acceptance, if concur with Bishop Jeremy Taythey tell us that some person wrote lor, where in his Liberty of Proor believed so twelve or fifteen phesying (Sect. viii.)-speaking of hundred years ago. Thus, for in- some who “press the authority of stance, with most marvellous sim. the Fathers ;” and “think they plicity they say, in the advertise. can determine all questions in the ment to their second volume: world by two or three sayings of Would not most men maintain, the Fathers, or by the consent on the first view of the subject, of so many as they will please to that to administer the Lord's Sup. call a concurrent testimony"—he per to infants, or to the dying and says : insensible, however consistently “ If I should reckon all the particular pious and believing in their past reasons against the certainty of this lives, was a superstition and yet topic, it would be more than needs as to both practices have the sanction this question, and therefore I will abstain

from all disparagement of those worthy of primitive usage.” The infer

personages, who were excellent lights to ence of every sound-minded


their several dioceses and cures. And son upon reading this

therefore I will not instance that Clemens

passage would be, not that the unscrip- hunger or thirst, but eat only to make

Alexandrinus taught that Christ felt no tural superstitions alluded to were

demonstration of the verity of his human justifiable because they had the nature ; nor that St. Hilary taught that sanction of primitive usage; but Christ in his sufferings had no sorrow; that primitive usage

very little

nor that Origen taught the pains of

hell not to have eternal duration; nor to be depended upon, if it sanc

that St. Cyprian taught Re..baptization ; tioned such unscripturaland sense- nor that Athenagoras condemned second less superstitions.

marriages ; nor that St. John Damascen Should we be forced, as a sup

said Christ only prayed in appearance,

not really and in truth; I will let them plementary argument, (for the all rest in peace, and their memories in word of God is the only authori- honour. For if I should inquire into tative standard of appeal,) to the particular probations of this article, shew how little too many of the I must do to them as I should be forced Fathers deserve the character of the writings of the school-men were ex

to do now. If any man should say that being even ordinarily perspica- cellent argument and authority to detercious guides – to say nothing of mine men's persuasions, I must consider infallible interpreters—we should their writings, and observe their defail

ances, their contradictions, the weakness not have far to seek for such a

of their arguments, the mis-allegations mass of absurd and often perni- of Scripture, their inconsequent deduccious fancies, as must shock the tions, their false opinions, and all the mind of ignorant persons, who weaknesses of humanity, and the failings

of their persons; which no good man is conclude, because they have been willing to do, unless he be compelled to told so, that the Fathers are it by a pretence that they are infallible,


or that they are followed by men even Modern writers more knowing. into errors or impiety. And therefore They might be better witnesses, but since there is enough in the former in these are better judges. Antiquity did stances to cure any such mispersuasion teach the Millenary opinion, and that and prejudice, I will not instance in the infants were to be communicated ; that innumerable particularities that might without Baptism they were damned to persuade us to keep our ļiberty entire, or the flames of hell; that angels are corto use it discreetly. For it is not to be poreal ; that the souls of saints did not denied but that great advantages are to see God before dooms-day; that sins be made by their writings, et probabile once pardoned did return again upon est quod omnibus, quod pluribus, quod case of relapse; that persons baptized sapientibus videtur. If one wise man by heretics were to be rebaptized ; and says a thing, is it an argument to me they expounded Scripture in places innuto believe it in its degree of probation, merable, otherwise than they are at this that is, proportionable to such an assent day by men of all persuasions; and as the authority of a wise man can pro. therefore no company of men will conduce, and when there is nothing against sent, that in all cases the Fathers are it that is greater; and so in propor- rather to be followed than their succestion higher and higher, as more wise sors. They lived in the infancy of men (such as the old Doctors were) do Christianity, and we in the elder ages; affirm it. But that which I complain of they practised more and knew less; is, that we look upon wise men that lived we know more, and practise less; long ago with so much veneration and passion is for younger years, and for mistake, that we reverence them, not for beginning of things; wisdom is by exhaving been wise men, but that they perience, and age, and progression. They lived long since. But when the question were highly to be valued, because in is concerning authority, there must be more imperfect motives they had the something to build it on; a Divine com- more perfect piety: we are highly to be mandment, human sanction, excellency reproved, that in better discourses we of spirit, and greatness of understanding, have a most imperfect life, and an inon which things all human authority is active religion.” regularly built. But now, if we had lived in their times, (for so we must look

If the reader will turn to the upon them now, as they did who with heads of “ Catholic church” and out prejudice beheld them) I suppose we should then have beheld them as we in Ductor, he will find references

“ Tradition," in the Index to the England look on those prelates who are of great reputation for learning and to many powerful remarks and sanctity: here only is the difference; arguments upon the whole queswhen persons are living, their authority tion. It is impossible for us to is depressed by their personal defail. lances, and the contrary interests of their quote them at length, but we will contemporaries, which disband when they adduce a brief specimen. Under are dead, and leave their credit entire the Rule entitled “The Catholic upon the reputation of those excellent church is a witness of faith, and a books and monuments of learning and piety which are lett behind. But beyond but not the mistress and ruler of

record of all necessary truths ; this, why the Bishop of Hippo shall have greater authority than the Bishop of the our creed-that is, capņot make Canaries, cæteris paribus, I understand any laws of faith," he says : not.

“ The Catholic church, taking in the Bishop Taylor goes more fully Apostolical, that is, the Church of all into the subject in his Ductor ages, is a witness beyond exception. Dubitantium. There are some ad

For if she have the Spirit of God; if

she love truth, and if she do not consent mirable remarks upon the Fathers

to deceive herself, she cannot be deceived as good witnesses, but bad expo- in giving testimony concerning matter of sitors, and no authorities. He fact and actual tradition : or if she could, opens Rule X. of Book I. Chap. 4, yet we are excused in following that with the following striking pas

testimony, because we have no better,

we have no other. Better than our best, sage, from which the modern

and better than all we have, we cannot church may learn a humbling but be obliged to use : but therefore we have salutary lesson.

the justice and the goodness, our own

necessity and the veracity of God for our "Ancient writers are more venerable; security, that this is a sure way for us to

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