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the comforts of life, and death amid its charities. When love, the efflux of God's own nature, has shed its bright and cheerful light upon some social or domestic scene, and breathed around its softer airs, and created a short-lived paradise, the king of terrors ruthlessly breaks in upon this peaceful and happy scene , severs, without remorse, the tenderest and most intimate ties which link heart to heart; bears away with him, a resistless spoiler, its most cherished objects; and desolates this ephemeral paradise. But what are privations or sufferings of body-what is disorder in the circumstances and scene without, compared with that anarchy which riots in man's own bosom; marring, with its own discords, the remaining harmony of external nature, and banishing the peace of God which should rule in the heart ? See the conflicting tempers and passions which harrow up his bosom; the craving sensuality struggling with griping covetousness; the indolence goaded by ambition : the pride mortified by its own meannesses: the inordinate and ungratified desires : the voracious and insatiable lusts.

But the crowning summit of man's wretchedness is this, that, amid these “ manifold afflictions and distresses of mind, body, and estate," he clings to life with tenacious grasp, however vapid, or even miserable : just as the drowning man would catch at the reed, or sword, which deceived, or even wounded him; and embrace the rugged and pointed rock, which lacerated his confiding bosom. And why is this? Why does consciously immortal man shrink from the avenue of escape, and often the only avenue of escape upon which he can reasonably calculate, from the weariness, or more positive miseries, of life? Why does not

“ The soul secured in her existence smile

At the drawn dagger, and defy its point ?" There can be but one reply. Because

“ Conscience does make cowards of us all :" because conscience tells that, gloomy as may be the scene on this side of the grave, a scene inconceivably gloomier lies beyond.

the dread of something after death

puzzles the will; And makes us rather bear those ills we have,

That fly to others that we know not of.” Thus intensest and most accumulated miseries which any individual has endured, who yet shrunk, while under them, from the approach of death, give us, upon the telling and testimony of his conscience, a minimum measure of the wretchedness which awaits the lost. Thus tou the sense of immortality, which ennobles and elevates man above the animal world, fetters him to his miseries ; and rivets the chains of the fear of death, by which all life long he is brought into bondage. The awful disparity between man and his condition and circumstances in the present state, is a prolific source of misery. Man alone, cf all God's creatures, as if flung by chance into an unnatural element, developes appetites for which there is no congenial food : instinctive tendencies without an adequate object : high aspirations which serve but to degrade him : and elements of happiness which are the most fruitful sources of his misery.

But was man thus created, and thus placed, by the Omnipotent God? Was this the being, and this the scene, which met the Omniscient Eye upon the morning of the first sabbath : when God, resting from his perfect work, looked down with complacency on all that he had made? Was this the being, and this the scene, of which he pronounced to the attendant hosts of heaven, as they beheld with admiration a new world suddenly emerging out of dark chaos, and illuminated with rays of glory, and quickened into life, at his word, that “ All was very good:” No. When God created man, in the image of God created he him, and blessed him-conferred upon him unalloyed happiness. He placed him, we are distinctly told, in a terrestrial paradise, where was every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food. Man's nature too was in perfect harmony with his condition. As the coin fresh from the mint, man, when he proceeded from the creative Hand, bore the miniature impress of that God who created him in his own image. His soul was then the calm abode of every holy and happy affection : a temple pure and undefiled, whence continually arose the incense of grateful adoration; the harmonious melody of joy and love to the Author of every good and perfect gift. One restrictive command was imposed, not to impair his happiness but to enhance it: to impart to enjoyment the zest of self-denial: to elevate him in the moral scale by the use of liberty: to exalt innocence into holiness : and give to the implanted graces of his natural character the development, vigour, and stability of virtues.

But man, seduced from gratitude, and confidence in his gracious Benefactor, by the delusions of a wily and treacherous enemy, abused all these means of perfection into occasions of sin : transgressed the sole prohibition : withdrew himself from the pale of God's good providence: and fled that Presence in which was the fulness of joy; and which shed its most cheerful and beatifying light upon the natural world without and the moral world within him.

The name of JESUS—the Divine Physician—tells the means which God has provided for re-opening Paradise, without compromising the dignity of the Divine administration which had securely barred it against banished man: and for restoring him to the Divine Presence from which he excluded himself. JESUS—" Emmanuel, God with us"-arrayed himself in mortality, and “ was made in the likeness of sinful flesh.” In his human nature, that nature which in all but him had sinned, he kept perfectly the law which man had broken; and thus qualified himself to stand forth as a substitute and ransom for our guilty race: while his Divine nature gave an infinite value and efficacy to his atoning sacrifice: so that he was enabled to make upou the cross a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction, for the sins of the whole world :” and to pay the full penalty of those offences against a holy law, a gracious Benefactor, and Omnipotent God, which an eternity of suffering on our part could not have expiated.

J. M. H.


To the Editor of the Christian Observer. As several of your correspondents have fallen into the vein of furnishing you with interesting passages from remarkable wills, pernit

me to add the last testament of that eminent servant of Christ, the vene. rable Swartz. The“ devising liberal things," which was his characteristic through life,strongly marks also this solemn document. Much as I love and value the Christian Knowledge Society, I love and value it the more when I think of its labours in India, under Swartz and men of like spirit ; and greatly do I rejoice that the venerable Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, to which it has transferred its Indian missions, is in the hour of its severe trial, rising to more than youthful measures of zeal, and attaining a degree of public confidence and support, which bids fair to more than compensate for the privations caused by the withdrawal of legislative aid, now that the religious welfare of the colonies more than ever requires it.

“ In the name of God. “ Into thine hands I commend my spirit; thou hast redeemed me, thou faithful God! Wherein I have sinned, (and I have often and greatly sinned against thee,) forgive it graciously for the sake of the reconciliation-sacritice of Christ Jesus my Lord, and let me find mercy. Grant me, for Christ's sake, a blessed departure out of this sorrowful, and a blessed entrance into that joyful, life. Amen.

As I know not how soon God may call me hence, I therefore make this my last will in the presence of God, and with full deliberation.

As the house in the greater fort, as well as that in the little fort, together with the church, and certain houses in the garden without the fort, were crected out of the money which was assigned me monthly by the company; so I look on them, as I ever have regarded them, namely, to be the houses of the mission.

“ All moveables and books shall be assignell over to my successors for the good of the mission, to be all used as long as they are serviceable, and not to be sold.

• As I have not spent my monthly salary from the company, but (except what I have devoted to the erection of several buildings) have suffered to accumulate, and assigned it over to my two trustees, namely, my beloved brother, Mr. Gerické, and my friend, Mr. Briethaupt, of Madras; so such sum shall also be employed for the benefit of the mission; but in such manner that my successor here at Tanjore, and the missionary who shall carry on the work of God for the conversion of the heatben at Palaicotta, shall receive for themselves the annual interest of one hundred pounds sterling, (that is to say, fifty pounds cach,) because the fifty pounds which they each receive yearly of the honourable company is barely sufficient. Should they, however, receive from the company a monthly augmentation, then they have no right to receive also the fifty pounds bequeathed by me. This, in that case, to fall into the mission, or the poor-chest.

“ It is my earnest desire that those missionaries who take upon themselves the work of God in Tanjore and Palamcotta, should employ the interest which remains to assist and help themselves, as they find necessary. Perhaps the Tanjore mission may employ one third of the interest, for the use of the schools and churches.

As my relations have no claim on what I devise and have set apart to the mission, therefore I bequeath to tbem one hundred star pagodas, as a testimony of my affection, which the children of my sister are to divide among themselves in equal portions.

The two gold watches that have been given me, shall be sold, and the money be distributed to the poor.

“ As a token of my affection, I bequeath to Joseph, my former servant, thirty star pagodas.

“With respect to the garden without the fort, belonging to the mission, I wish tbat, if possible, the gardener may be supported out of the income. What remains over, can, without further reckoning, fall to the missionaries, and the schcol cbildren.

“ The few utensils of silver which I possess, I leave to Mr. Kohlhoff, as a token of my hearty love.

As my former servant Joseph, on account of his ill conduct, ought not to receive the thirty star pagodas destined for him, I bequeath them to the servant who shall be in my service at the time of my death, provided he behave himself tolerably well.

CHRISTIAN FREDERIC SWARTZ, "Signed and sealed in the presence of Joseph Daniel Jænicke,

J. C. Kohlhoff.”

Perhaps some of your many correspondents can furnish occasionally other remarkable or interesting testamentary papers of those who have lived and died in the Lord.

C. J.



To the Editor of the Christian Observer. It is no hard matter to find out many inconsistencies and wrong statements of doctrine among the Fathers, but allow me to ask you, or any of your correspondents, the meaning of the following passage in the epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians, (Wake's transl. 5th edit. p. 223) “My soul be for yours-and I myself the expiatory offering for your church of Ephesus, so famous throughout the world." Again, how is the statement in the Cath. Epist. of St. Barnabas, sect. 15, to be received, where, in commenting on the fourth commandment, he says, “ Consider

my children what that signifies—he finished them in six days. The meaning of it is this--that in six thousand years the Lord God will bring all things to an end. For with him one day is a thousand years--therefore, children, in six days, that is, in six thousand years, shall all things be accomplished. If this is to be received as Gospel, the end of the world can very nearly be fixed by man, and it should have weight in the calculations of many on the prophetical figures. But I do not think that Mr. Faber has regarded it.

And now, Sir, allow me to ask, of what benefit is the apostolical succession to a man who, by his attendance on fashionable gaieties, is disgusting alike the word and the church? You have probably seen the painful accounts of clerical attendance in ball-rooms, And it is a fact, that many clergymen do yet frequent such scenes ; and this often during the season of Lent. I pray you, Sir, to notice these inconsistencies in the Christian life in your excellent Magazine ; a magazine, may you ever recollect, cherished and aided by Wilberforce, Thornton, Lord Teignmouth, Simeon, and many dear and eminent saints now at rest !


We are somewhat amused at the odd juxta-position of subjects in our correspondent's paper; for assuredly the mention of the Fathers had nothing to do with clerical attendance at ball-rooms, except by contrast. The Fathers, though we reject them as authorities or regulators of our faith, were eminently holy men, and wrote in the most strenuous terms of reprobation against the stage, “the ball-room” (if we may apply a modern term to ancient fashions), and all other “pomps and vanities of the world," which the Christian professes and promises to renounce; and that not only as a preliminary to baptism, but in full accordance with his renewed nature and the tastes of his regenerated soul. We fear that neither our remonstrance, nor even a century of quotations from the Fathers, would reach the culprits; for we suspect that “the dancing clergy" are more conversant with the Sporting Magazine, and the last popular novel, than with Chrysostom's Homilies, or the Christian Observer. We will not, however, erade

the recommendation of our worthy correspondent; often as we have written upon the subject in former years, when unseemly-and too frequently worse than unseemly-pastimes were more common among the clergy, than in the present day of reformed, though not perfect, clerical conduct." We shall perhaps best discharge this duty by inserting an admirable letter written by the late Bishop Jebb, about thirty years ago, to a clerical friend who had been attending a ball. We were about to quote only a few paragraphs; but the whole deserves transcription, though we do not concur in every observation. There is one intimation in the letter which we think speaks more than meets the ear. Mr. Jebb had entertained, it seems, a hope “ of the diffusion of a higher principle than commonly prevails even in the religious world ; a union of strict spiritual religion with a rational and somewhat philosophical temperament of mind;" but he found that the result was not what he had anticipated. The system from which he expected so much, was that of his friend and spiritual tutor Mr. Knox. Too many both of the Irish and the English clergy, were, to speak in the most lenient terms, men of worldly habits; many neglected even the external decencies of their profession, and too few soared beyond them. The germ of revival, wherever it appeared, was, under the blessing of God, the setting forth of those Scriptural doctrines which characterised the era of the Reformation, and which were then stigmatised by various opprobrious appellations. Knox and Jebb thought they could establish a better school—a school of “ rational and somewhat philosophical temperament"—in place of what they considered the cant and fanaticism of “the religious world” and “evangelical party.” The persons thus designated had urged, that the doctrines of grace are the doctrines of holiness; that to make the fruit good, the root must be made good; that whatever may be said of the privileges of baptism, men need to have solemnly urged upon them the necessity of true conversion of heart; that they must re

Surely we may say this with truth fication of the grief and concern with and without flattery, when we remem- which my breast was affected, at reber, that not seventy years since, in ceiving authentic information, that what some account the bright unso- routs had made their way into your phisticated days of the church, before palace. At the same time I must *. the austerities of Methodism, Cal- signify to you my sentiments on this vinism, and Evangelicism,” bad so subject, which hold these levities and mournfully perverted the minds of our vain dissipations as utterly inexpedient, clergy and laity, a young and pious if not unlawful, to pass, in a residence, monarch (George III.) felt it is duty to for many centuries devoted to divine address such a remonstrance as the fol- studies, religious retirement, and the lowing to the Primate of all England. extensive exercise of charity and beneThe Archbishop who thus dishonoured volence; I add, in a place where so himself, and his order, and the Divine many of your predecessors have led Master whom he had himself solemnly their lives in such sanctity, as has vowed to serve, was Dr. Cornwallis, thrown lustre on the pure religion they who had not even the plea of inex- professed and adorned. From the disperience in the duties of his function to satisfaction with which, you must per: offer; for he had been a bishop some ceive, I behold these improprieties, not three and twenty years, and nine years to speak in barsher terms, and in still after obtained bishopric for his more pious principles, I trust you will nephew. The royal letter was written suppress them immediately: so that I in 1772. It has appeared before in our may not have occasion to show any pages, but is well deserving of trans- further marks of my displeasure, or to cription for the sake of those who interpose in a different manner. have not seen it, or have not duly May God take your grace into his weighed it.

Almighty protection! I remain, my “ My gooD LORD PRIMATE,

Lord Primate, your gracious friend,

G. R," “ I could not delay you the noti. Christ. OBSERV. No, 23.

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