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individually break off from them at a certain point; and Lord Mandeville very honestly uses and urges both these words,“ literal" and “material;” and has no notion of half measures, which embody thereprobated allegorisings of the spiritualists, without getting over those difficulties which an entirely spiritual view surmounts. We spoke of Messiah's wearing a material “ crown ;” (which was Mr. Irving's word ;) Lord Mandeville
“ throne;" but whether crown or throne, the epithet “ material” was not ours but theirs. Lord Mandeville will not allow his pre-millennarian friends to say that Christ, having returned personally to earth, will afterwards leave it to go back to heaven. He asks them to bring any passage of Scripture to prove such a notion. He insists that this material earth will be his final abode, and that of his saints; that when it was promised that Christ should sit upon the throne of David, it was “ for ever;" and that those who agree with him that this session is an actual personal visible advent, have no right, after making the personal reign terrestrial and millennary, to assume that the “ for ever" relates to a reign purely celestial and spiritual. He says that it was intended the Jews should understand by Christ sitting upon the throne of David precisely what the spiritualizers consider “carnal notions of Messiah's kingdom;" that they received the promise, and rightly, in“the literal import;" that our Lord's own disciples “ whom Jesus had been so long teaching, came to the matter-of-fact idea of a kingdom restored to Israel ;” that they did not “understand the throne of David” (mark Mr. Goode) “ to be a kind of etherial negation," and that assuredly the multitude would not have “ less MATERIAL notions than the apostles;" that therefore the most literal sense of Christ's kingdom is the true one; that “this earth will be the place of Messiah's reign;" and that as this reign is to be for ever, we are not to spiritualize it away, from the fear of being too “ carnal” “ material” in our notions. He shews also, as before remarked, that the pre-millennarian notion contradicts the creeds. The Nicene creed, he remarks, affirms that “ Christ's kingdom shall have no end; whereas the millennarians say that it shall have an end when the thousand years shall have expired.” Again, remarks his lordship, the doctrine " is in opposition to the Athanasian creed respecting the day of judgment,” which he shews as follows:
“ The end mentioned in 1 Cor. xv. 24., say the millennarians, is the end of the thousand years; thus they make a first resurrection and a partial judgment to take place at the beginning of the thousand years; and a second resurrection, with the general judgment, at the end of the thousand years; but the creed says, that at his coming All men shall rise again with their bodies, and shall give account. We are therefore called upon, in our inquiry respecting Messiah's kingdom, to consider whether it be a personal reign upon earth, in opposition to the spiritual millennarians; and also whether, according to the literal millennarians, that personal (terrestrial) reign shall be limited to a thousand years, or whether it shall be for ever and ever."
We see not any considerable difficulty, if we regard Messiah's reign upon earth as spiritual; but once admit the idea of a personal premillennial advent, and a literal material throne, and Lord Mandeville's objections apply with full force.
We have said thus much in reply to Dr. Wolff's statement, that there is no such thing as a spiritual church ; and to Mr. Goode's sensitiveness at our using—or rather copying—the word “material," as descriptive of the personal, Judaising, or “carnal” notion of the millennial kingdom. We do not of course doubt that there are at present, and will be during the latter day glory, external visible marks
of a church. We do not resolve every thing into ether; there are rites and sacraments; there is the written word : and there are preachers : and will be, we suppose, till the day of judgment : but that which consitutes the essence of the church of Christ is that it is a company of “faithful men :" and when the whole world, Jew and Gentile, shall consist of “ faithful men," there will be a true millennium, though Christ may still be as to his bodily presence in heaven, and not sitting literally upon an earthly throne in Palestine. Most delightful is it to the Christian to look forward to that blessed era. In the darkest hour of the church, he beholds the dawning of a brighter day: and is animated to run with faith and patience the race set before him, looking to Jesus the author and finisher of his faith. We would not mix up these glorious prospects with man's fallible hypotheses respecting dates, or the minuter arrangements of accomplishment. Such conjectures have from age to age disappointed the high-raised hopes of those who have entertained them. There is not an era of the church in which they have not proved airy phantoms : while the inspired record still remains untouched by such rash overlayings. We remember being seriously told, about the year 1820, that we could never have read, or at least understood, Euclid, if we did not admit the “ demonstration” by which it was proved that Turkey was, in the course of a few months from that time, to be utterly destroyed. The battle of Navarino was afterwards another great epoch, and reams were written to shew how it fulfilled some of the Apocalyptic predictions. Dr. Wolff, we understand, has retracted the proclamation which he stuck up upon the gates of Jerusalem, an. nouncing that the year 1947 would witness the Messiah in his personal presence in that city, surrounded by the Jewish nation.
The era is now postponed: and while we are writing, a volume has come into our hands, wet from the printer, by the Rev. F. Fysh, dedicated to our much honoured brother, the Rev. E. Bickersteth, in which the writer tells us that he has had “ further opportunity of witnessing the fulfilment of prophecy, in the death of the Sultan, who has left the Ottoman empire in the hands of a youth :" with much more to the same effect, with a full account of what is to come to pass in “ the fatal year 1844,” and “the still more fatal year 1872.” He differs however, he says, in this date, four years from Mr. Bickersteth, who fixes the accomplishment of the expected events in the year 1868. We quote a passage.
“ The author is unwilling to submit these observations to the public, without noticing an opinion entertained by some eminent servants of Christ, particularly by one whom he cannot name without sentiments of the deepest respect, the Rev. Edward Bickersteth, “ that within the next thirty years Popery shall fall, the Jews shall be restored, the Turkish empire shall perish, the time of great tribulation will take place, our Lord Jesus Christ will return to our earth, the saints shall be raised, and the time of their full blessedness, and the kingdoms of this world becoming Christ's kingdom, shall have arrived.""
Is this wise? Is it sober? Was prophecy ever intended to make us prophets ? for such we are, if we can thus minutely tell the date and order of these events. Is it consistent with the word of God, that we should know thus precisely that day and hour which we are told were enveloped in secrecy? And does any serious student doubt, when he has recovered a little from the giddiness of a new hypothesis, that in the year 1868 or 1872 men will probably take up these prog. nostications, as we now take up those of the early ages, or the days of Cromwell, and many others before and after, as melancholy lessons
of the infirmity of judgment of learned and holy, but fallible, men. As to the case of the Jews, we do not pretend to affirm that there will not be a literal return to Palestine : though we discern no scriptural proof of it : but what we wish to urge is, that the very essence of their restoration, that which gives it value and character, is, that it will be spiritual. For the rest we incline very much to the opinion of the learned and sober-minded, though quaint, Fuller, in his “ Pisgah sight of Palestine," published in the year 1662: where he says:
“ More probable is it, that the Jews shall not come back to their land, but their land shall come back to them : I mean those several places in Europe, Asia, and Africa, wherein they reside, shall, on their conversion, become as comfortable unto them as ever the land of Canaan was to their ancestors. Forti quævis terra patria ; and a contented mind in them shall make any mountain their Olivet-river their Jordan—field their Carmel—forest their Libanus-fort their Zion—and city their Jerusalem. But, as for their temporal regaining of their old country, in all outward pomp and magnificence, even such as are no foes to the Jews' welfare, (but so far friends to their own judgments, as not to believe even what they desire, till convinced with Scripture or reason,) account this fancy of the Jews one of the dreams proceeding from the spirit of slumber, wherewith the Apostle affirmeth them to be possessed.”
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
REVIEW OF MEMOIR OF Z. MACAULAY, ESQ.
(Concluded from page 768.) We now proceed with the Extract Peel, the Marquis of Lansdowne, Earl containing the narrative of Mr. of Harrowby, Mr. Spring Rice, &c.
The Archbishop of Canterbury, several Macaulay's valuable life ; to which
Bishops, many of the leading Members we shall add, as before, some of both Houses, and officers of bigh notes and illustrations.
rank, both in the Army and Navy,
several eminent members of the Society “ It is well known, that immediately of Friends,—and added to all these, in after Parliament had decreed the Abo- the list of Directors, were to be found lition of the Slave Trade, a new and the names of Wilberforce, Granville very important society was formed Sharp, Clarkson, Stepben, Z. Macauunder the designation of the African lay, William Smith, Henry Thornton, Institution,' having for its chief object Mackintosh, Fowell Buxton, C. Grant, the civilization of Africa, and the uni. William Evans, William Allen, Dr. versal Abolition of the Slave Trade. Lushington, Sir Robert Inglis, &c., His Royal Highness the Duke of Glou. &c., &c. In the planning and formacester was President of this Society, tion of this Society, Mr. Macaulay, and personally attended almost every together with Mr. Wilberforce, Mr. meeting of the Board of Directors, and Stephen, and some other leading aboli. many of its sub-committees; it com- tionists, took a principal share; but the prised amongst its directors, not only chief labour, as in most other cases, fell the élite of the Whig aristocracy, but upon Mr. Macaulay. For five years great men of all parties; and amongst he performed gratuitously the laborithem were to be found at one time or ous duties of secretary to the Institu. other, no less than five premiers, viz. : tion :- those who are unacquainted -Lord Grenville, Mr. Perceval, the with the extended relations of the soDuke of Wellington, Mr. Canning, and ciety in question, and the important Earl Grey: two Lords Chancellors, Lord and multifarious duties which devolved Erskine and Lord Brougham; two or upon it, can but little estimate the three Chancellors of the Exchequer, amount of labour this office entailed and several Secretaries of State, viz., upon him, during the time he held it. Lord Bexley, Mr. Huskisson, Mr. He at his own expense visited Paris,
expressly on the Abolition question. “ Although Mr. Macaulay bad reOn his resigning the office, which he signed the Secretaryship of the Instiwould not do, until he had found a tution, he still continued to attend all gentleman of ardent zeal and high the Meetings of the Board, and of the talents (the late T. Harrison, Esq.) to numerous Sub-Committees, which met succeed him on the same terms of un. very frequently either at Gloucesterrequited labour, a public Meeting of House, Lansdowne-House, Camelfordthe members of the Institution, held House, and at Mr. Wilberforce's, or at at the Freemasons' Hall, on the 25th the office. The labours of the Society March, 1812, passed the following Re- were striking and important. At the solution unanimously, viz. :
period of its formation, England was “ • That this meeting is bound once the only nation in Europe wbich had more to express the deep sense it en- declared the traffic in slaves to be illetertains of the eminent services of their gal; but further acts to render it effecpro tempore secretary, Zachary Ma- tual were required, and consequently caulay, Esq., who, combining great the Slave Trade Felony Act, and the local knowledge and experience, with Act making the Slave Trade Piracy; the most ardent zeal, and the most emanated from the Society; and since assiduous and unwearied industry, bas that period, chiefly by its exertions and strenuously and gratuitously devoted, influence acting incessantly at bome and to the concerns of the African Institu- abroad, more perhaps on the governtion, the time and talents which, ap- ments, than on the people at large, plied to the prosecution of his private that trade, which only a few years business, might have been employed to before had been upheld by majorities the pecuniary advantage of a large and in the House of Peers, and of the House increasing family, and has thereby esta- of Commons, as a beneficial honest blished his claim to the lasting grati. trade, and one which could not be put tude of all who are interested for the down without injury to the State, was civilization and happiness of Africa.' declared cruel, unjust, and illegal, by
“It was then moved, and unani- every nation in Europe ;-declared to mously resolved, “That this Meeting be piracy by some; and holy alliances' can no longer excuse themselves from presenting to Mr. Macaulay a permanent, though most inadequate, testi
strumental in procuring Parliament to mony of their gratitude for those ser- offer large rewards to promote the capvices of which, in the preceding Reso
ture of slave-vessels, in order that he lution, they have endeavoured to ex
might share the gains. We forget the press their sense :-and that Viscount particular facts; but one thing we well Valentia (now Earl Mountnorris,) the remember; that though, owing to Right Hon. N. Vansittart (now Lord information which he gave, an extenBexley,) E. W. Bootle, Esq. (now sive capture was made, and a large Lord Skelmersdale,), William Smith, portion of the prize was legally due to Esq., M.P., and William Wilberforce, him, he relinquished every farthing of Esq., M.P., be requested to take on his share to the king's revenue officers, themselves the office of providing a &c., in order to quicken their vigilance piece of plate, of the value of one hun.
in making seizures. We may add dred guineas, with a suitable inscrip- another instance of his disinterestedtion, to be offered to Mr. Macaulay, in ness,—a cold word to express the large the full confidence that he will confer sacrifices which be made on behalf of on the Institution the additional favour the captives of Africa. A proposal of accepting it."*
was made to him, in his business as a merchant, to accept a lucrative and
permanent agency connected with a * A calumnious story was fabricated West India property ;—for though the by the pro-slavery party about these parties concerned might abhor his antisilver candlesticks; as if Mr. Macau- slavery proceedings, they duly apprelay had actually embezzled mines of ciated his commercial ability and inwealth from the Society's coffers; or tegrity. There was nothing in the at least was munificently paid for his commission in itself exceptionable ; it anti-slavery labours; whereas, though was no crime to be the consignee of a he was prevailed upon to accept this cargo of sugar, or to direct his broker honorary testimonial, be deposited the to sell it, or to transmit European value in the Society's treasury; so goods in return; but he thought that that the Institution lost nothing by its he should seem to be indirectly sancgift to its disinterested and large- tioning slavery, and sacrificing consishearted friend. He was accused, on tency to lucre, and he therefore declined another occasion, of having been in thc engagement.
were entered into with others, mutually was founded, seems to require the imto assist in its suppression. The mediate consideration of the question, United States of North America, and as to how far the Anti-Slavery mem. the new states of South America, have bers, while rallying about it the former joined in proscribing this accursed members of the old African Society, traffic; and whilst the Society kept a and infusing fresh vitality into its exervigilant eye on the proceedings of our tions, by the addition of new memown West India islands, and on those bers, may become an appropriate instru. belonging to other nations, it exercised ment for the carrying out of the ori. a jealous watch over the infractions of ginal plan, and the support of Mr. the slave abolition laws of all coun- Buxton's new exertions in the same tries; and even the furthest limits of cause. Asia have received benefit from the “ For the sake of keeping unbroken pervading care of this great Institution. the history of Mr. Macaulay's conThus Europe, Asia, Africa, and Ame- nexion with these Societies, we have rica, both land and sea, have been the gone beyond the date of some events fields over which it spread its benevo- which can scarcely be passed over, lent and superintending care: but, like even in the briefest biographical noall human institutions, this Society at tice of this eminent man and conlength decayed, and in 1834 it became sistent Christian. About the year extinct. The great men we bave 1800, the Christian Observer was estamentioned were not merely the orna- blished by some pious individuals who ments of the Society; for scarcely a then formed the circle at Clapham, Board was held of which the majority long designated as · The Saints, –an was not composed of Peers and Mem appellation given in levity and con. bers of Parliament; and in foreign tempt, yet truly descriptive of the countries they rendered it the most worthy men that received it. There essential service.
were few indeed in that circle, who “ The restrictions imposed on the have not vindicated their title to be issue of publications, and the distate to considered as holy men; and most of the usual modes of getting up pub- them are now gone to the mansions of lic meetings, and producing excitement, the just made perfect. Mr. Macaulay which was felt by the Board of Direc- was literally servant of all work,' tors, certainly did not tend to increase where a good end was to be obtained. its popularity. Mr. Macaulay, Mr. The Christian Observer was designed Fowell Buxton, and the late Mr. for a channel through which sound docGeorge Harrison, we believe, were the trine and practical religion might be first to perceive the necessity for more periodically inculcated among the midpopular and vigorous measures; and as dle and higher classes, and Mr. Macauthe Board of Directors of the African lay was judiciously selected as its editor. Institution, though it devoted a consi- This work he rendered a most powerderable portion of its time to the inves- ful auxiliary to the cause of abolition ; tigation and correction of West Indian and the statements and arguments conabuses, was not inclined to embark in tained in its valuable pages, we bave the question of the Abolition of Slavery, reason to believe, induced many of the Mr. Macaulay projected “ The London classes mentioned to give in their adheAnti-Slavery Society." We can wellsion to the Abolition and Anti-Slavery remember that he was looked upon for cause, who would otherwise have taken this, as a visionary and wild enthusiast, but little interest in their support. even by some of his nearest friends; but they little knew the resources of the man, or the energy with which he • We could gladly say much of Mr. could avail himself of them.
Macaulay's labours as "Editor of the “ The Anti-Slavery Society, though Christian Observer, from its establishinstituted mainly for a specific purpose, ment in 1802 to the end of the year bas felt the objects of the African In- 1816; but it might not be seemly in the stitution, in common with all other pages of that work. The memoirs of measures affecting the African race, a Mr. Wilberforce and Mrs. H. More sort of legacy wbich it is bound to take have furnished many testimonials to the up, when occasion may offer, and even religious usefulness of bis pen; as well when the specific object of the Anti- as vindicated his character as a philanSlavery Society shall have been fully thropist from the misrepresentations of accomplished, these duties will still re- pro-slavery calumniators, whose unbalmain to occupy its attention. The lowed gains were interfered with by his publication of Mr. Buxton's plan indeed, benevolent exertions ;-though-as be which accords so fully with the prin- justly predicted—the commercial inciples on which the African institution terests of Great Britain were not in