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ing out of Wyat's conspiracy she was sent to the Tower, and led in by the Traitor's gate; her own servants being put from her, and no person allowed to have access to her : The gov. ernor used her hardly, not suffering her to walk in the gal.. lery, or upon the leads. Wyat and his confederates were examined about her, and some of them put to the rack ; but they all cleared her except Wyat, who once accused her, in hopes to save his life, but declared upon the scaffold to all the people, that he only did it with that view. After some time she was sent to Woodstock in custody of Sir Henry Benefield, who used her so ill, that she apprehended they designed to put her privately to death. Here she was under close confinement, being seldom allowed to walk in the gardens. The politic bishop Gardiner often moved the Queen to think of putting her out of the way, saying, It was to no purpose to lop off the branches while the tree was left standing. But King Philip was her friend ; who sent for her to court, wbere she fell upon her knees before the Queen, and protested her innocence, as to all conspiracies and treasons against her Majesty ; but the Queen still hated her: However, after that, her guards were discharged, and she was suffered to retire into the country, where she gave herself wholly to study, meddling in no sort of business, for she was always apprehensive of spies about her. The Prineess complied outwardly with her sister's religion, avoiding as much as she could all discourses with the bishops, who suspected her of an inclination to heresy from her education. The Queen herself was apprehensive of the danger of the popish religion if she died without issue ; and was often urged by her clergy, especially when her health was visibly declining, to secure the Roman Catholic religion, by delivering the kingdom from such a presumptive heir. Her majesty had no scruple of conscience about spilling human blood in the cause of religion ; the preservation of the princess was therefore little less than a miracle of divine provi. dence, and was owing, under God, to the protection of King Philip, who, despairing of issue from his queen, was not without expectations from the princess.
But the hand of God was against Queen Mary and her government, which was hardly attended with one prosper
ous event; for instead of having issue by her marriage, she had only a false conception, so that there was little or no hopes afterwards of a child. This increased the sourness of her temper ; and her husband being much younger than herself, grew weary of her, slighted her company; and then left her to look to his hereditary dominions, after he had lived with her about 15 months. There being a war between Spain and France, the Queen was obliged to take part with her husband; this exhausted the treasure of the nation, and was the occasion of the loss of all the English dominions upon the continent. In the beginning of this year the strong town of Calais was taken, after it had been in the possession of the English 210 years : Afterwards the French took Guines, and the rest of that territory ; nothing being left but the Isles of Jersey and Guernsey. The English (says a learned writer) had lost their hearts; the government at home being so unacceptable that they were not much concerned to support it, for they began to think Heaven itself was against it. Indeed there were strange and unusual accidents in the Heavens.” Great mischief was done in many places by thunder and lightning; by deluges; by excessive rains ; and by stormy winds. There was a contagious distemper like the plague, that swept away great numbers of people ; so that in many places there were not priests to bury the dead, nor men enough to reap the harvest. Many bishops died, which made way for protestant ones in the next reign. The parliament was dissatisfied with King Philip's demands of men and money for the recovery of Calais ; and the Queen herself grew melancholy upon the loss of that place, and the other misfortunes of the year. She had been declining in health ever since her pretended miscarriage, which was vastly increased by the absence of her husband, her despair of issue, and the cross accidents that attended her government. Her spirits were now decayed, and a dropsy coming violently upon her put an end to her unhappy life and reign, Nov. 17, 1558, in the 43d year of her
*Burnet's Hist. Ref, vol. ii. p. 366.
age, and 6th of her reign ; cardinal Pole, archbishop of Canterbury, dying the same day.t
Queen Mary was a princess of severe principles, constant at her prayers, and very little given to diversions. She did not mind any branch of government so much as the church, being entirely at the disposal of her clergy, and forward to give a sanction to all their cruelties. She had deep resentments of her own ill usage in her father's and brother's reigns, which easily induced her to take revenge, though she colored it over with a zeal against heresy. She was perfectly blind in matters of religion, her conscience being absolutely directed by the pope and her confessor, who encouraged her in all the cruelties that were exercised against the protestants, assuring her, that she was doing God and his church good service. There is but one instance of a pardon of any condemned for heresy during her whole reign. Her natural temper was melancholy; and her infirmities, together with the misfortunes of her government, made her so peevish, that her death was lamented by none but her popish clergy. Her reign was in every respect calamitous to the nation, and “ought to be transmitted down to posterity in characters of blood."
+ During his residence in Italy, on the demise of Paul III. cardinal Pole had been eleeted pope, at midnight, by the conclave; and sent for to come and be admitted. He desired that this, as it was not a work of darkness, might be postponed to the morning. Upon this message, the cardinals without any further ceremony, proceeded to another election, and chose the cardinal de Monte ; who, before he left the conclave, bestowed a hat upon a servant who looked after his monkey.
Granger's Biogh. History, 8vo. vol. i. p. 158, note. Ed.
FROM THE BEGINNING OF QUEEN ELIZABETH'S REIGN,
TO THE SEPARATION OF THE
QUEEN ELIZABETH's accession to the crown gave new life to the reformation: as soon as it was known beyond sea most of the exiles returned home; and those who had hid themselves in the houses of their friends began to appear; but the public religion continued for a time in the same posture the Queen found it; the popish priests kept their livings, and went on celebrating mass. None of the protestant clergy 'who had been ejected in the last reign were restored; and orders were given against all innovations without public authority. Though the Queen had complied with the changes in her sister's reign, it was well known she was a favorer of the reformation; but her majesty proceeded with great caution, for fear of raising disturbances in her infant government. No prince ever came to the crown under greater disadvantages. The pape had pronounced her illegitimate; upon which the Queen of Scots put in her claim to the crown. All the bishops and clergy of the present establishment were her declared enemies. The nation was at war with France, and the treasury exhausted; the Queen therefore, by the advice of her privy council, resolved to make peace with her neighbors as soon as possible, that she might be more at leisure to proceed in her intended alterations of religion, wbich, though very considerable, were not so entire as the best and most learned protestants of these times desired. The Queen inherited the spirit of her father, and affected a great deal of magnificence in her devotions, as well as in her court. She was fond of many of the old rites and ceremonies in which she had been educated. She thought her brother bad stript religion too much of its ornaments; and made the doctrines of the church too narrow in some points. It was therefore with difficulty that she was prevailed on to go the length of King Edward's reformation.
The only thing her majesty did before the meeting of the parliament, was to prevent pulpit disputes; for some of the reformed that had been preachers in King Edward's time, began to make use of his service-book without authority or licence from their superiors; this alarmed the popish clergy,
occasion to a proclamation, dated Dec. 27, 1558.5 By wbich all preaching of ministers, or others, was prohibited; and the people were charged to hear no other doctrine or preaching, but the epistle and gospel for the day, and the ten commandments in English, without any exposition or paraphrase whatsoever. The proclamation admits of the litany, the Lord's prayer and the creed in English ; but no public prayers were to be read in the church but such as were appointed by law, till the meeting of the parliament, which was to be upon the 23d of January.*
While the exiles were preparing to return home, concil. iatory letters passed between them : those of Geneva desired a matual forgiveness, and prayed their
brethren of Arrow, Basil, Frankfort, Strasburgh, and Worms, to unite with them in preaching God's word, and in endeavoring to obtain such a form of worship as they had seen practised in the best reformed churches. The others replied, that it would not be in their power to appoint what ceremonies should be observed; but they were determined to submit in things indifferent, and hoped those of Geneva would do so too; however, they would join with them in petitioning the Queen, that nothing burthensome might be imposed. Both parties congratulated her majesty's accession, in poems, addresses, and dedieations of books; but they were reduced to the utmost poverty and distress. They came thread-bare home, bringing nothing with them (says Mr. Strypet) but much experience, as well as learning. Those who could comply with the Queen's establishment were quickly preferred, but the rest were neglected, and though
$ This proelamation was directed against the papists as well as the reformed : " for both” says Strype, “ took their occasions to speak freely their minds in the pulpits," "Strype's Annals, vol. i. Appendix, p. 3. Carnbden's Eliz. p. 6. * Burnet's History of the Reform. vol. ii. p. 376, 77, 78.
† Annals, vol. i. p. 129.