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like by his relations and friends; then giving himself up to God, he took his bed about the end of February, and died March 4, 1583, in the 66th year of his age. a heavenly man, endued with a large and generous soul, of a tall stature of body, with a Roman nose; his clothes were neat and plain; for he was frugal in his own dress, though very bountiful to others. His doors were always open for the entertainment of strangers. He boarded in his own house twenty-four scholars, most of whom were upon charity. He kept a table for the poor every Lord's day, from Michaelmas to Easter, and expended 500 pounds for a free school for their children. Upon the whole, he was a pious, devout, and open-hearted divine ; a conscientious non-conformist, but against separation. He was accounted a saint by his very enemies, if he had any such, being full of faith and good works; and was at last put into his grave as a shock of corn fully ripe. I

The same year died EDMUND GRINDAL, archbishop of Canterbury, born at Copland in the county of Cumberland, in the year 1519, and educated in Cambridge. He was a famous preacher in King Edward's days, and was nominated by bim to a bishopric, when he was only thirty-three years of age ; but that King dying soon after, he went into exile, and imbibed the principles of a further reformation than had as yet obtained in England. Upon Queen Elizabeth's accession he returned to England, and was advanced first to the see of London, and then to York and Canterbury, though he could hardly persuade himself for some time to wear the habits, and comply with the ceremonies of the church; nor did he ever heartily approve them, yet thought it better to support the reformation on that foot, than hazard it back into the hands of the papists. He was of a mild and moderate temper, easy of access, and affable even in his highest exaltation. He is blamed by some, for his gentle usage of the puritans, though he used them worse than he would have done, if he had been left

“ The worth and labors of this excellent man," it was observed (in the New Annual Register for 1789) have been amply displayed in the present century, by the elegant pen of one of his own name and family."

(ED. + Grindal's Life, p. 295,

to himself. About a year or two after his promotion to the see of Canterbury, he lost the Queen's favor on account of the prophesyings, and was suspended for some years, during which time many puritan ministers took shelter in the counties of Kent and Surry, &c. which made more work for his successor. The good old archbishop being blind and broken-hearted, the Queen took off his sequestration about a year before his death, and sent to acquaint him, that if he would resign, he should have her favor, and an honorable pension ; which he promised to accept within six months ; but Whitgift who was designed for his successor, refusing to enter upon the see while Grindal lived, he made a shift to hold it till his death, which happened July 6th, 1583, in the 63d year of his age. Camden calls him a religious and grave divine. Hollingshead says, he was so studious that his book was his bride, and his study his bride-chamber, in which he spent his eye-sight, his strength, and his health. He was certainly a learned and venerable prelate, and had a high esteem for the name and doctrines of Calvin, with whom, and with the German divines, he held a constant correspondence. His high stations did not make him proud; but if we may believe his successor in the see of York, archbishop Sandys, he must be tainted with avarice (as most of the Queen's bishops were) because, within two months after he was translated to Canterbury, he gave to his kinsmen and servants, and sold for round sums of money to himself, sixscore leases and patents, even then when they were thought not to be good in law.* But upon the whole, he was one of the best of Queen Elizabeth's bishops. He lies buried in the chancel of the church at Croydon, where his effigies is to be seen at length in his doctor's robes, and in a praying posture.t

* Strype's Ann. yol. ult. suppl. p. 24. + This prelate is the Algrind of Spencer, which is the anagram of his wame. The French protestants were very much indebted to his influence and activity in obtaining for them a settlement in England, in their own method of worship. This was the beginning of the Walloon church, situated in Threadneedle-street, London ; which has ever since been appropriated to the use of the French nation.

British Biography, vol. iii. p. 161. Granger's Biographical History,

vol. ii. p. 204, note 8vo. ED.


From the death of Archbishop Grindal, to the Spanish

Invasion in 1588.

UPON the death of Grindal, Dr. John Whitgift, bishop of Worcester, was translated to the see of Canterbury, and confirmed September 23d, 1583. He had distinguished himself in the controversy against the puritans, and was therefore thought the most proper person to reduce their numbers. Upon his advancement the Queen charged him • to restore the discipline of the church, and the uniformity 6 established by law, which, (says her majesty) through the 6 connivance of some prelates, the obstinacy of the puri. tans, and the power of some noblemen, is run out of

square." Accordingly the very first week, his grace published the following articles, and sent them to the bishops of his province, for their direction in the government of their several dioceses :

6 That all preaching, catechising, and praying in any 'private family, where any are present besides the family, be utterly extinguished. * That none do preach or catechise except also he will read the whole service, and administer the sacraments four times a year. That all preachers, 6 and others in ecclesiastical orders, do at all times wear • the habits prescribed. That none be admitted to preach unless he be ordained according to the manner of the church of England. That none be admitted to preach or execute any part of the ecclesiastical function, unless he subscribe the three following articles : 1st, To the Queen's SUPREMACY over all persons, and in all causes ecclesiastical and civil within her majesty's dominions. 2dly, To "the book of common-prayer, and of the ordination of priests and deacons, as containing nothing contrary to the word of ? God; and that they will use it in all their public ministra

* Life of Whitgift, p. 118.



$ tions, and no other. Bdly, To the thirty-nine articles of "the church of England, agreed upon in the synod of 1562, 6 and afterwards confirmed by parliament." And with what severity his grace enforced these articles, will be seen presently.

It is easy to observe, that they were all levelled at the puritans; but the most disinterested civil lawyers of these times were of opinion, that his grace had no legal author- , ity to impose those, or any other articles, upon the clergy, without the broad seal ; and that all his proceedings upon them were an abuse of the royal prerogative, contrary to the laws of the land, and consequently so many acts of oppression upon the subject. Their reasons were ;

1. Because the statute of the 25th Henry VIlIth. chap. 20, expressly probibits " the whole body of the clergy, or

any one of them, to put in use any constitutions, or canons • already made, or hereafter to be made, except they be • made in convocation assembled by the King's writ, his . royal assent being also had thereunto, on pain of fine and . imprisonment.

2. Because, by the statute of 1st Eliz. chap. 3, “ All such jurisdictions, privileges, superiorities, pre-eminencies spiritual or ecclesiastical power and authority, which - hath heretofore been, or may lawfully be executed or us

ed for the visitation of the ecclesiastical state and persons, 6 and for reformation of the same, and of all manner of er6 rors, heresies, schisms, abuses, contempts, and enormities, are for ever united to the imperial crown of these 6 realms— Whence it follows, that all power is taken from the bishops, except that of governing their dioceses according to the laws of the land, or according to any further injunctions they may receive from the crown under the broad seal.

3. Because some of the archbishop's articles were directly contrary to the statute laws of the realm, which the Queen herself has not power to alter or dispense with. By the 13th Eliz. chap. 12, the subscription of the clergy is limited to those articles of the church, which relate to the doctrines of faith, and administration of the sacraments only;

MS. p. 429.

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whereas the bishop enjoined them to subscribe the whole thirty-nine. And by the preamble of the same statute, all ordinations in the times of popery, or after the manner of foreign reformed churches, are admitted to be valid, so that such may enjoy any ecclesiastical preferment in the church: but the archbishop says, [Art 4th] That none shall be admitted to preach, unless he be ordained according to the manner of the church of England. Upon these accounts if the Queen had fallen out with him, he might have incurred the guilt of a præmunire.

To these arguments it was replied by his grace's lawyers,

1. That by the canon law, the archbishop has power to make laws for the well-government of the church, so far as they do not encounter the peace of the church, and quietness of the realm. To which it was answered, this might be true in times of popery, but the case was very much altered since the reformation, because now the archbishops and bishop's authority is derived from the person of the Queen only; for the late Queen Mary, having surrendered back all ecclesiastical jurisdiction into the hands of the pope, the present Queen upon her accession had no jurisdiction resident in her person, till the statute of recognition, Eliz. 1st, by which the archbishops and bishops of this realm, being exempted from the jurisdiction of the pope, are made subject to the Queen, to govern her people in ecclesiastical causes, as her other subjects govern the same (according to their places) in civil causes ;* so that the clergy are no more to be called the archbishops or bishop's children, but the Queen's liege people, and are to be governed by them, according to the laws, which laws are such canons, constitu. tions, and synodals provincial, as were in force before 25 Henry VIII. and are not contrary, nor repugnant to the laws and customs of the realm, nor derogatory to her maj. esty's prerogative

royal ; and therefore all canons made be. fore 25 Henry VIII. giving to the archbishops or bishops an unlimited power over the clergy, as derived from the see of Rome, are utterly void, such canons being directly agajost the laws and customs of the realm, which do not admit of any subject execating a law. but by authority from the prince ;

* MS. p. 661.

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