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writings of the Apocrypha, to a level with holy scripture by reading them in the church, with many others. They conclude with an earnest supplication to their superiors, to be continued in their callings, considering their being set apart to the ministry, and the obligations they were under to God and their people ; they protest they will do any thing they can without sin, and the rather, because they are apprehensive that the shepherds being stricken, their flocks will be scattered.

The puritans' last resort was to the archbishop, who had a prevailing interest in the Queen ; a paper was therefore published, entitled, Means how to settle a godly and charitable quietness in the church ; humbly addressed to the archbishop, and containing the following proposals :

That it would please his grace not to press such subscription as had been of late required, seeing in the parliament that established the articles, the subscription was misliked and put out:* That he would not oblige men to accuse themselves by the oath ex officio, it being contrary to law and the liberty of the subject : That those ministers who have been of late suspended, may be restored upon giving a bond and security not to preach against the dignities of archbishops, bishops, &c. nor to disturb the orders of the church, but to maintain it as far as they can ; and soberly to teach Jesus Christ crucified :t That ministers may not be exposed to the malicious prosecution of their enemies, upon their omission of any TITTLE in the service-book: That they may not be obliged to read the Apocrypha, seeing in the first book printed in her majesty's reign the same was left out, and was afterwards inserted without warrant of law, and contrary to the statute, which allows but three alterations : That the cross in baptism may not be enforced, seeing in King Edward's 2d book there was a note which left that, and some other rites indifferent; which note ought

* Life of Whitgift, p. 196. † To this proposal the archbishop answered, “ I do not mislike of the bond ; but he that shall enter into it, and yet refuse to subscribe, in “my opinion is a mere hypocrite, or a very wilful fellow; for this con“ dition containeth more than doth the subscription.” ED.

Maddox's Vindication, p. 348. VOL. I.

57

to have been in the Queen's book, it not being among the alterations appointed by statute : They further desire, that in baptism the godfathers may answer in their own names, and not in the child’s : That midwives and women may not baptize: That the words upon delivery of the ring in marriage may be left indifferent : That his grace would not urge the precise wearing of the gown, cap, tippet and surplice, but only that ministers be obliged to wear apparel meet and decent for their callings: That lecturers who have not cure of souls, but are licenced to preach, behaving themselves well, be not enforced to minister the sacraments, unless they be content so to do. But the archbishop would abate nothing, nor admit of the least latitude from the national establishment. He framed an answer to the proposals, in which he insists upon a full conformity, telling the petitioners, that it was none of his business to alter the ecclesiastical laws, or dispense with them; which was all they were to expect from him. What could wise and good men do more in a peaceable way for the liberty of their consciences, or a further reformation in the church? They petitioned the Queen, applied to both houses of parliament, and addressed the convocation and bishops; they moved no seditions nor riots, but fasted and prayed for the Queen and church, as long as they were allowed ; and when they could serve them no longer, they patiently subnuitted to suspensions and deprivations, fines and imprisonments, till it should please Gop, of his infinite mercy, to open a door for their further usefulness. The papists made their advantages of these divisions, a plot was discovered this very year [1585] against the Queen's life, for which lord Paget and others fled their country; and one Parry was executed, who was to have killed her majesty, as she was riding abroad; to which (i. is said”) the pope encouraged him, by granting him his blessing, and a plenary indulgence and remission of all his sins; assuring him that, besides the merit of the action in heaven. his holiness would make himself his debtor in the best manner he could, and therefore exhorted him to put his most holy and honorable purposes in execution; this was

* Strype's Ann. vol. ii. p. 249.

written from Rome, Jan. the 30th, 1584, and signed by the cardinal of Como. Mary Queen of Scots was big with expectation of the crown of England at this time, from the preparations of foreign popish princes, who were determined to make the strongest efforts to set her upon the throne, and to restore the catholic religion in England : but they could not get ready before her head was laid down upon the block.

The parliament which met again in November, being sensible of the importance of the Queen's life, entered into a voluntary association to revenge her death, if that should happen through any violence :* They also made a severe statute against jesuits and seminary priests, or others who engaged in plots, by virtue of the bull of excommunication of pope Pius V. and against any subject of England that should go abroad for education in any of the popish seminaries. Yet none of these things could move the Queen or bishops to take any steps towards uniting protestants among themselves.

But to put an effectual stop to the pens of the church's adversaries, his grace applied to the Queen for a further restraint of the press, which he obtained and published by authority of the star-chamber (says Mr. Strypet) June 23, 28 Eliz. It was framed by the archbishop's head, who prefixed a preface to it: The decree was to this purpose,

'Fhat there should be no printing presses in private places, nor any where but in London and the two universities. • No new presses were to be set up but by licence from the archbishop, and bishop of London for the time being; they to signify the same to the wardens of the stationers' 6

company, who should present such as they chose to be masters of printing presses before the ecclesiastical com6 missioners for their approbation. No person to print any book unless first allowed according to the Queen's injunctions, and to be seen and perused by the archbishop or bishop of London, or their chaplain. No book to be printed against any of the laws in being, nor any of the Queen's injunctions. Persons that should sell or bind up

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such books to suffer three months imprisonment. And it 6 shall be lawful for the wardens of the stationers' company 6 to make search after them, and seize them to her majesty's 6 use; and the printers shall be disabled from exercising

their trade for the future, and suffer six months imprison. • ment, and their presses be broken." Notwithstanding this edict, the archbishop was far from enjoying a peace. able triumph, the puritans finding ways and means from abroad, to propagate their writings, and expose the severity of their adversaries.

Some faint attempts were made this summer for reviving the exercises called prophesyings, in the diocese of Ches. ter, where the clergy were very ignorant: Bishop Chad. derton drew up proper regulations, in imitation of those al. ready mentioned; but the design proved abortive. The bishop of Litchfield and Coventry also published some articles for his visitation which savored of puritanism, as against non-residents, for making a more strict enquiry into the qualifications of ministers, and for restraining un. worthy communicants.* He also erected a kind of judicatory, consisting of four learned divines with himself, to examine such as should be presented for ordination. When the archbishop had read them over he called them the wellspring of a pernicious platform, and represented them to the Queen as contrary to law, and to the settled state of the church; the bishop wrote a defence of his articles to the archbishop, shewing their consistency with law, and the great advantage wbich might arise from them ; but Whit. gift would hear of nothing that looked like a puritanica! reformation. I

Strype's Ann. vol. iii. p. 328. Here Mr. Neal is censured by bishop Warburton, as partial, for reckoning the bishop of Litchfield's conduct to be agreeable to law, because in favor of the puritans : and for representing before, p. 318, the archbishop's publishing articles withoui the great seal as illegal, because against the puritans. Not to say that the articles in one case are very different from the object of the judicatory in the other, Mr. Neal, it will appear on examining, doth not decide on the legality of the measure in either case, but, as an historian, states what was offer. ed on this head by the parties : and this he does, with respect to the archbishop very fully pro and con. ED. | MS. p. 515.

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The Lord’s day was now very much profaned, by the encouraging of plays and sports in the evening, and sometimes in the afternoon. The Rev. Mr. Smith, M.A. in his sermon before the university of Cambridge, the first Sunday in Lent, maintained the unlawfulness of these plays; for which he was summoned before the vice-chancellor, and upon examination offered to prove, that the Christian Sabbath ought to be observed by an abstinence from all worldly business, and spent in works of piety and charity; though he did not apprehend we were bound to the strictness of the Jewish precepts.” The parliament had taken this matter into consideration,t and passed a bill for the better and more reverent observation of the Sabbath, which the speaker recommended to the Queen in an elegant speech, but her majesty refused to pass it, under pretence of not suffering the parliament to meddle with matters of religion, which was her prerogative. However, the thing appeared so reasonable, that without the sanction of a law, the religious observation of the sabbath grew into esteem with all sober persons, and after a few years became the distinguishing mark of a puritan.

This summer Mr. Cartwright returned from abroad, having spent five years in preaching to the English congregation at Antwerp ; he had been seized with an ague, which ended in an hectic, for which the physicians advised him to his native air. Upon this he wrote to the earl of Leicester and the lord treasurer for leave to come home ; these noblemen made an honorable mention of him in parliament, but he could not obtain their mediation with the Queen for his pardon, so that as soon as it was known he was landed, though in a weak and languishing condition, he was apprehended and thrown into prison; when he appeared before the archbishop, he behaved with that modesty and respect as softened the heart of his great adversary, who, upon promise of his peaceable and quiet behavior, suffered him to go at large ; for which the earl of Leicester and Mr. Cartwright returned his grace thanks ; but all their interest could not procure him a licence to preach.

* Strype's Ann. p. 341. # Ibid. vol. iii. p. 296.

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