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ancient appear arms army authority barons became Burgundy called cause century CHAP character Charles charter citizens civil common consent considered constitution continued council count court crown custom death duke Edward election emperor empire enemies England English equal established Europe feudal fief Florence force formed former France Frederic French frequently gave Germany granted Guelf held Henry Hist Italian ITALY justice king kingdom lands Languedoc latter least less liberty Lombardy lord Louis means ment Milan military Naples natural nearly never nobility nobles obtained original party peace perhaps persons Philip political possession preserved princes principal privileges probably provinces reign rendered republic respect Rome royal says seems sometimes sovereign spirit success SYSTEM territory tion took towns treaty vassals Venice writer
Page 198 - We lose a good deal of our sympathy with the spirit of freedom in Greece and Rome, when the importunate recollection occurs to us, of the tasks which might be enjoined, and the punishments which might be inflicted, without control either of law or opinion, by the keenest patriots of the Comitia, or the Council of Five Thousand.
Page 160 - It was a breach of faith to divulge the lord's counsel, to conceal from him the machinations of others, to injure his person or fortune, or to violate the sanctity of his roof and the honour of his family. In battle he was bound to lend his horse to his lord when dismounted ; to adhere to his side while fighting, and to go into captivity as a hostage for him when taken. His attendance was due to the lord's courts, sometimes to witness and sometimes to bear a part in the administration of justice.
Page 172 - There is something in this custom very conformable to the feudal spirit, since none was so fit as the lord to train up his vassal to arms, and none could put in so good a claim to enjoy the fief, while the military service for which it had been granted was suspended.
Page 72 - So great was the disparity of numbers upon those famous days, that we cannot, with the French historians, attribute the discomfiture of their hosts merely to mistaken tactics and too impetuous valour. They yielded rather to that intrepid steadiness in danger which had already become the characteristic of our English soldiers, and which, during five centuries, has insured their superiority, whenever ignorance or infatuation has not led them into the field.
Page 123 - Liberty never wore a more unamiable countenance than among these burghers, who abused the strength she gave them by cruelty and insolence."— Hattam.
Page 171 - Charta three only are retained ; to make the lord's eldest son a knight, to marry his eldest daughter, and to redeem his person from prison. They were restricted to nearly the same description by a law of William I. of Sicily, and by ' the customs of France/ These feudal aids are deserving of our attention, as the beginnings of taxation, of which for a long time they in a great measure answered the purpose, till the craving necessities and covetous policy of kings substituted for them more durable...
Page 400 - ITALY, lesser; but the latter were gradually increased to fourteen. The seven greater arts were those of lawyers and notaries, of dealers in foreign cloth, called sometimes Calimala, of bankers or moneychangers, of woollen drapers, of physicians and druggists, of dealers in silk, and of furriers.
Page 421 - I. xi. c. 9fl. political exclusion, these artisans alleged, that they were oppressed by their employers of the art, and that when they complained to the consul, their judge in civil matters, no redress could be procured. A still lower order of the community was the mere populace, who did not practise any regular trade, or who only worked for daily hire. These were called Ciompi, a corruption, it is said, of the French compere. " Let no one," says Machiavel in this place, " who begins an innovation...
Page 214 - A series of alternate persecution and tolerance was borne by this extraordinary people .with an invincible perseverance, and a talent of accumulating riches which kept pace with the exactions of their plunderers. Philip Augustus released all Christians in his dominions from their debts to the Jews, reserving a fifth part to himself. He afterwards expelled the whole nation from France.