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to discover that healing cause by which the interest of the whole is securely established, the heauty of things, and the universal order happily sustained.

This, Palemon, is the labour of your soul; and this its melancholy: when unsuccessfully pursuing the supreme beauty, it meets with darkening clouds which intercept its sight. Monsters arise, uot those from Libyan diserts, but from the heart of man more fertile, and with their horrid aspect cast an unseemly reflection upon niture. She, heipless as she is thought, and working thus absurdly, is contemned, the government of the world arraigued, and Deity made void. Much is alleged in answer, to shew why nature errs; and when she seems most ignorant or perverse in her productions, I assert her even then as wise and provident as in her goodliest works. For 'tis not then that men complain of the world's order, or abhor the face of things, when they see various interests mixed and interfering; natures fubordivate, of different kinds, opposed one to another, and in their different operations submitted, the higher to the lower. 'Tis, on the contrary, from this order of inferior and superior things that we admire the world's beauty, founded thus on contrarieties ; whilst from such various and disagreeing principles a universal concord is established.

Thus in the several orders of terrestrial forms, a resignation is reqnirex-a sacrifice and mutual yielding of natures one to another. The vegetables by their death sustain the animals, and animal bodies dissolved enrich the earth, and raise again the vegetable world. The numerous insects are reduced by the superior kinds of birds and beasts; and these again are checked by man, who in his tarn submits to other natures, and resigns bis forin, a sacrifice in common to the rest of thiugs. And if in natures so little exalted or pre-eminent above each other, the sacrifice of interest can appear so just, how much more reasonably may all inferior natures be subjected to the superior nature of the world !-that world, Palemon, which even now transported you, when the sun's fainting light gave way to these bright constellations, and left you this wide system to contemplate.

Here are those laws which ought not, nor can submit to anything below. The central powers which hold the lasting orbs in their just poise avd movement, must not be controlled to save a fleeting form, and rescue from the precipice a puny animal, whose brittle frame, however protected. must of itself so roon dissolve. The ambient air, the inward vapours, the impending meteors, or whatever else putrimental or preservative of this earth, must operate in a natnral course; and other good constitutions must submit to the good habit and constitutions of the all-sustaining globe. Let us not wonder. therefore, if by earthqnake, storms, pestilential blasts, nether or upper fires or floods, the animal kinds are oft afflicted, and whole species perhaps involved at once in common ruin. Nor need we wonder if the interior form, the sonl and temper, partakes of this occasional deformity, and sympathises often with its close partner. Who is there that can wonder either at the sickuesses of sense or the depravity of minds enclosed in such frail bodies, and dependent on such pervertible organs?

Here, then, is that solution you require, and hence those seeming blemishes cast upon nature, Nor is there ought in this beside what is natural and good. 'Tis good wh ch is predominant; and every corruptible avd mortal nature, by its mortality and corruption, yields only to some better, and all in common to that best and highest nature which is incorruptible and immortal.*

God in the Universe. It is in vain for us to search the bulky mass of matter; seeking to know its nature; how great the whole itself, or even how small its parts. If, knowing only some of the rules of inotion, we seek to trace it further, it is in vain we follow it into the bodies it has reached. Our tardy apprehensions fail us, and can reach nothing beyond the body itself, through which it is diffused. Wonderful being (if we may call it 80) which bodies never receive, except from others which lose it; nor ever lose, unless by imparting it to others. Even without change of place it has its force: and bodies big with motion labour to move, yet stir not; whilst they express an energy beyond our comprehension.

* This passage receives from Sir James Mackintosh the high praiso, 'that there is scarcely any composition in our language more lofty in its moral and religious sentiments, or more exquisitely elegant and musical in its diccion.'

In vain too we pursue that phantom Time, too small, and yet too mighty for our grasp; when shrinking to a narrow point, it escapes our hold, or mocks our scanty thought by swelling to eternity an object upproportioned to our capacity, as is thy being, O thou ancient Cause! older than Time, yet young with fresh Eternity.

lu vain we try to fathom the abyss of space, the seat of thy extensive being; of which po place is empty, vo void which is not full.

In vain we labour to understand that principle of sense and thought, which seeming in us to depend so much on motion, yet dilfers so much from it, and from matter itself, as not to suffer us to conceive how thought can more resưlt from this, than this arise from thought. But thought we own pre-eminent, and confess the reallest of be.ngs; the only existence of which we are made sure of, by being consciors. All else may be only dream and shadow. All which even sense suggests may be deceitful. The sense itself remains still; reason subsists; anu thought maintains its eldership of being. Tous are we in a manner conscious of that original and externally existent thought, whence we derive our own. And thus the assurance we have of the existence of beings above our sense, and of Thee (the great exemplar of thy works) comes from Thee, the all-true and perfect, who hast thus communicated thyself more immediately to us, so as in some manner to inhabit within our souls; Thou who art original soul, diffusive, v.tal in all, inspiriting the whole !

BISHOP BERKELEY.

DR. GEORGE BERKELEY, to whom Pope assigned every virtue under heaven,' was born at Dysert Castle or Tower, on the banks of the Nore, near Thomastown, county of Kilkenny, March 12, 1684-5. He received, like Swift, his early education at Kilkenny School, and afterwards was entered of Trinity College, Dublin, where he was distinguished for proficiency in mathematical knowledge. He was ad. mitted a fellow in 1707. Two years afterwards, Berkeley published his ‘Essay towards a new Theory of Vision.' "The question of the Essay,' says Berkeley's latest biographer, ‘comes to this—What is really meant by our seeing things in ambient space ? Berkeley's answer when developeil may be put thus-What, before we reflected, we had supposed to be a seeing of real things, is not seeing really extended things at all, but only seeing something that is constantly connected wiệh their extension; what is vulgarly called seeing them is, in fact, reading about them: when we are every day using our eyes we are virtually interpreting a book : when by sight we are determining for ourselves the actual distances, sizes, shapes, and situ. ations of things, we are simply translating the words of the universal and divine language of the senses. This Essay was followed, in 1710, by a • Treatise concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, which is a systematic assault upon scholastic abstractions, especials ly upon abstract or unperceived matter, space, and time. It assumes that these are the main cause of confusion and difficulty in the sciences, and of materialis:ic atheism.'

Berkeley's theory of physical causation anticipates Hume while it consummates Bacon, and opens the way to the true conception of physical induction. In 1711, Berkeley, having in 1709 entered into holy orders, published a 'Discourse of Passive Obedience,' a defence

'Life and Letters of Berkeleu, by Professor A. C. Fraser, Edinburgh, who edited also a complete and excellent edition oi Borkeley's Works, A vols. Oxford, 187,

of the Christian duty of rot resisting the supreme civil power. This discourse gave rise to the opinion that Berkeley was a Jacobite, but be was in reality no party politician. In 1713, the retired philosoplier visited London and wrote some papers for Steele's 'Guardian.' The same year he published his Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous,' the design of which, he said, was plainly to demonstrate the reality and perfection of human knowledge, the incorporeal nature of the soul, and the immediate providence of a Deity, in opposition to sceptics and deists. In this work his ideal system was developed in language singularly animated and imaginative. He now became acquainted with Swift, Pope, Steele, and the other members of that brilliant circle, by whom he seems to have been sincerely beloved. He accompanied the Earl of Peterborough, as chaplain and secretary, in bis embassy to Sicily, and afterwards travelled on the continent as tutor to Mr. Ashe, son of the Bishop of Clogher. This second excursion engaged him upwards of four years. While abroad, we find him writing thus justly and finely to Pope: As merchants, antiquaries, men of pleasure; &c. have all different views in travel ling, I know not whether it might not be worth a poet's while to travel, in order to store his mind with strong images of nature. Green fields and groves, flowery meadows, and purling streams, are nowhere in such perfection as in England; but if you would know lightsome days, warın suns, and blue skies, you must come to Italy; and to enable a man to describe rocks and precipices, it is absolutely necessary that he pass the Alps.'

While at Paris, Berkeley visited the French philosopher Malebranche, then in ill lealth, from a disease of the lungs. A dispute ensued as to the ideal system, and Malebranche was so impetuous in argument, that he brought on a violent increase of his disorder, which carried him off in a few days. This must have been a more than ideal disputation to the amiable Berkeley, who could not but be deeply afilicted by such a tragic result. On bis return he published à Latin tract, “ De Motu,' and an essay on the fatal South-sea Scheme, in 1720. Pope introduced him to the Earl of Burlington, and by that nobleman he was recommended to the Duke of Grafton, lord-lieutenant of Ireland. His grace made Berkeley his chaplain, and afterwards appointed him to the deanery of Derry. It was soon evident, however, that personal aggrandisement was never an object of interest with this benevolent philosopher. He had long been cherishing a project, which he announced as “al scheme for converting the savage Americans to Christianity, by a college to be crected in the Summer Islands, otherwise called the Isles of Berinuda. In this college le most exorbitantly proposed,' as Swifthumorously remarked,

a whole hundred pounds a year for himself, forty pounds for a fellow and ten for a student' No anticipated difficulties could daunt hiin, and be cominiuvicated his entlusiasm to others. Coadjutors were obtained, a royal charter was granted, and Sir Robert Walpole

EL. y. iii--11

promised a sum of £20,000 from the government to promote the undertaking. In January, 1729, Berkeley and his friends sailed for Rhode Island, where he had some idea of purchasing land, as an investment for Bermuda, and perhaps also of establishing a friendly correspondence with influential New Englanders. Newport was then a flourishing town, and Berkeley resided there till July or August, when he removed to the valley in the interior of the island, where he had bought a farm (ninety-six acres) and built a house. He lived the life of a recluse in Rhode Island, but applied himself to his literary and philosopbical studies.

The estate at Berniuda had been purchased and the public money was due, but Walpole declined to advance the sum promised, and the project was at an end. Berkeley returned Europe, and was in London in February 1732. Next month appeared the largest of his works, 'Alciphron, or the Minute Philosopher,' a series of oral and philosophical dialogues. Fortune again smiled on Berkeley: he became a favourite with Queen Caroline, and, in 1734, was appointed to the bishopric of Cloyne. Lord Chesterfield afterwards offered him the see of Clogber, which was double the value of that of Cloyne, but be declincd the preferment. Some useful tracts were afterwards published by the bishop, including one on tar-water, which be considered to ossess high medicinal virtues. Apotber of his works is entitled 'The Querist; containing several Queries proposed to the Consideration of the Public.' In 1752, be removed with bis fainily to Oxford, to superintend the education of one of his sons; and, conscious of the impropriety of residing apart from his diocese, he endeavoured to exchange his bishopric for some canonry or college at Oxford. Failing of success, he wrote to resign bis bishopric, worth £1400 per annum; but the king declared tbat he should die a bishop, though he gave him liberty to reside where he pleased. This incident is honourable to both parties. In 1753 the good prelate died suddenly at his residence at Oxford, while sitting on a couch in the midst of his family. His remains were interred in Christ Church, where a monument was erected to his memory.

The life of Berkeley presents a striking picture of patient labour and romantic enthusiasm, of learning and genius, benevolence and worth. His dislike to the pursuits and troubles of ambition are thus expressed by him to a friend in 1747 : 'In a letter from England, which I told you came a week ago, it was said that several of our Irish bishops were earnestly contending for the primacy. Pray, who ure they? I thought Bishop Stone was only talked of at present. I ask this question merely out of curiosiiy, and not from any interest, I assure you. I am no man's rival or competitor in this matter. I am not in love with feasts, anti crowds, and visiis, and late bours, and strange faces, and a hurry of affairs often insignificant. For my own privaie satisfaction, I had rarher be master of my uime than wear a diadem. I repeat these things to you, that I way out seem to have declined all steps to the primacy out of singularity, of pride, or stupidity, but from solid motives. As for the argument from the opportunity of doing good, I observe that duty obliges men in high station not to decline occasions of doing good; but duty doth not oblige men to solicit such high stations. He was a poet as well as a mathematician and philosopher, and had le cultivated the lighter walks of literature as diligently as he did his metaplıysical and abstract speculations, he might have shone with lustre in a field on which he but rarely entered. Wiren inspired with his transatlantic niission, he penned the following fine moral verses, that seem to shadow forth The fast accomplishing greatness of the New World: Perses on the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in America.

The Muse, disgusted at an age and clime

Barren of every glorious theme,
In distant lands now waits a better time,

Producing sobjects worthy {ame.
In happy clames, where from the genial sun

And wirgin earth, such scenes ensue,
The force of art by nature seerns outdones

And facied beauties by the true:
In happy chimes, the seat of innocence,

Where uature guides and virtue rules,
Where men shall not impose for truth and sense

The pedantry of courts and schools:
There shall be sung another golden age,

The rise of empire and of arts,
The good and great inspiring epic rage,

The wisest heads and noblest hearts.
Not such as Europe byreeds in her decay;

Such as she bred when fresh and young
When heavenly dame did animate her clay,

By future poets shall be sung.
Westward the course of empire takes its way:

The four first acts already past,
A fifth shall close the drama with the day;

Time's noblest offspriag is the last. The works of Berkeley form an important landmark in metaphysical science. At first, his valuable and original “ Thenry of Vision' was considered a philosophical romance, yet his doctrines are now incorporated with every system of optics. The chief aim of Berkeley was “10 distinguish the inneliate and natural objects of sight from the seemingly instantaneous conclusions which experience and habit teach us to draw from them in our earliest infancy; or, in the more concise metaphysieal language of a later period, to draw the line between the original and the acquired perceptions of the eye.'* The

* Dugald Stewart

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